A sliding bearing seems at first glance to be a fairly simple mechanism governed by the laws of physics. But in today's world, even small parts are governed by international standards. Since every detail of the global system is responsible for its functioning, the regulation is strictly and structured. If your business involves the use of plain bearings, we recommend that you pay attention to the following standards.
Gear hobs -- Accuracy requirements
The use of mechanisms and new technologies requires more and more regulatory acts. When it comes to regulation at the international level, you need to pay attention to the availability of international standards for the industry in which you operate. One of such standards is ISO 4468:2020.
This document specifies requirements for the accuracy of general-purpose hobs of 0,5 module to 40 module. These hobs are intended for producing gears which conform to ISO 53 and ISO 54. This document applies to hobs for spur and helical gears. It applies to solid (monobloc) and inserted blade hobs. The elemental features of hobs are graded according to accuracy, as follows:
— Grade 4A;
— Grade 3A;
— Grade 2A;
— Grade A;
— Grade B;
— Grade C;
— Grade D.
Grade 4A is the highest order of precision. In addition to the elemental tests for hobs, this document gives permitted tolerances for composite tests that are taken along the cutting edges on the line of action. The two groups of tests are not equivalent and one can choose between one or the other. If there was no previous agreement, the hob is regarded as belonging to the precision class specified if it satisfies one or the other of the two methods of inspection.
This document has a detailed description of all the technical parameters that it regulates, which is why we recommend that you think about purchasing it if you use these technologies.
Plain bearings -- Pedestal plain bearings
When it comes to the scale of global production, the regulation of the entire system occurs even at the level of primitive mechanisms. An example of such regulation is ISO 11687-3: 2020.
This document specifies design characteristics for centre flange bearings for the size range 9 to 28, as well as design characteristics for shafts. It is applicable to centre flange bearings used mainly in electrical and turbo engineering industries.
Since the description of the document is not quite enough to assess the possibility of its application, we recommend that you familiarize yourself with it in more detail by clicking on the link to our website.
Calculation of load capacity of spur and helical gears
The correct implementation of calculations and calculations is important not only in the field of finance, but also when establishing certain mechanisms. Since the exchange of technology takes place globally between countries, international standards such as ISO 6336-1: 2019 are being created.
This document presents the basic principles of, an introduction to, and the general influence factors for the calculation of the load capacity of spur and helical gears. Together with the other documents in the ISO 6336 series, it provides a method by which different gear designs can be compared. It is not intended to assure the performance of assembled drive gear systems. It is not intended for use by the general engineering public. Instead, it is intended for use by the experienced gear designer who is capable of selecting reasonable values for the factors in these formulae based on the knowledge of similar designs and the awareness of the effects of the items discussed.
The formulae in the ISO 6336 series are intended to establish a uniformly acceptable method for calculating the load capacity of cylindrical gears with straight or helical involute teeth. The ISO 6336 series includes procedures based on testing and theoretical studies as referenced by each method. The methods are validated for: — normal working pressure angle from 15° to 25°; — reference helix angle up to 30°; — transverse contact ratio from 1,0 to 2,5. If this scope is exceeded, the calculated results will need to be confirmed by experience. The formulae in the ISO 6336 series are not applicable when any of the following conditions exist: — gears with transverse contact ratios less than 1,0; — interference between tooth tips and root fillets; — teeth are pointed; — backlash is zero. The rating formulae in the ISO 6336 series are not applicable to other types of gear tooth deterioration such as plastic deformation, case crushing and wear, and are not applicable under vibratory conditions where there can be an unpredictable profile breakdown.
The ISO 6336 series does not apply to teeth finished by forging or sintering. It is not applicable to gears which have a poor contact pattern. The influence factors presented in these methods form a method to predict the risk of damage that aligns with industry and experimental experience. It is possible that they are not entirely scientifically exact. Therefore, the calculation methods from one part of the ISO 6336 series is not applicable in another part of the ISO 6336 series unless specifically referenced. The procedures in the ISO 6336 series provide rating formulae for the calculation of load capacity with regard to different failure modes such as pitting, tooth root breakage, tooth flank fracture, scuffing and micropitting. At pitch line velocities below 1 m/s the gear load capacity is often limited by abrasive wear (see other literature such as References  and  for further information on such calculation).
Technologies and their implementation are an incentive for the development of any organization, which is why we recommend staying abreast of all the latest updates of international standards in your area of activity.
Plain bearings -- Tolerances
Continuing the theme of primitive mechanisms and details, do not forget that it is from small parts that global development is formed. This is how important it is to pay attention to standards such as ISO 12129-2: 2019.
This document specifies tolerances on form and position as well as the surface roughness of shafts, flanges and thrust collars as used in plain bearing units. It is applicable to journal or thrust plain bearing units or to a combination of both, installed either horizontally or vertically. This document is not applicable to crankshaft bearing units in combustion engines.
If you are interested in purchasing a document, we will help you clarify all your questions and choose the most suitable document for you.
Plain bearings -- Wrapped bushes
Since plain bearings are used in various types of mechanisms and differ in their functionality, a wide variety of standards are created for them, one of which is ISO 3547-6: 2020.
The document specifies, following ISO 12301, the checking of the inside diameter of wrapped bushes (see ISO 3547‑2:2017, method C) and describes the necessary checking methods and measuring equipment. NOTE 1 All dimensions in this document are given in millimetres except where otherwise noted/designated. NOTE 2 The dimensions and tolerances of wrapped bushes are given in ISO 3547‑1. NOTE 3 Checking of the wall thickness is the subject of ISO 3547‑7. NOTE 4 Checking of the outside diameter of wrapped bushes is the subject of ISO 3547‑5.
This document has several parts, and if the above standard only partially suits you according to the specified characteristics, we advise you to familiarize yourself with the regulations from the related ICS categories.
Plain bearings -- Bearing fatigue
The use of mechanisms should be subject to control not only from within, but also take into account external aspects affecting the mechanism. It is to create a control system for such cases that there are standards such as ISO 7905-3: 2019.
This document specifies a method for the determination of the endurance limit in fatigue of plain strips of multilayer bearing materials. Additionally, it provides the opportunity of studying the influence on the strips of hydraulic pressure and variable temperature.
If you believe that this standard will have a significant positive impact on the productivity of your company, you can read the terms of its purchase on our website.
Plain bearings -- Sintered bushes -- Dimensions and tolerances
The technical characteristics of the mechanisms create immensity after the norms, instructions and application possibilities. But since the use of parts produced in one country can be problematic in the mechanisms of another, international standards such as ISO 2795: 2020 are created.
This document specifies the dimensions and tolerances applicable to sintered bearings for the following ranges of inside diameters: — cylindrical bearings: 1 mm to 60 mm; — flanged bearings: 1 mm to 60 mm; — spherical bearings: 1 mm to 20 mm.
This standard has a clear description of those characteristics that can be regulated, which is why it is worth carefully checking these parameters with the regulatory and technical base of your organization.
Sensory analysis -- Methodology -- Texture profile
The use of test methods, the introduction of innovative mechanisms and new methodologies are used in every area of human activity. Standards for their control exist at the international level and are a kind of map of progress and entry into new markets. One such standard is ISO 11036: 2020.
This document specifies a method for developing a texture profile of food products (solids, semi-solids, liquids) or non-food products (e.g. cosmetics). This method is one approach to sensory texture profile analysis and other methods exist. This method describes various steps in the process of establishing a complete description of the textural attributes of a product. This method is applicable to: — screening and training assessors; — orientating assessors through the development of definitions and evaluation techniques for textural characteristics; — characterizing the textural attributes of a product in order to establish its standard profile and to discern any later changes; — improving old products and developing new products; — studying various factors that can affect the textural attributes of a product, e.g. changes in process, time, temperature, ingredients, packaging or shelf-life, and storage conditions; — comparing a product with another similar product to determine the nature and intensity of textural differences; — correlating sensory and instrumental and/or physical measurements.
If you are interested in clarifying the details of this standard, we recommend that you familiarize yourself with the parameters in more detail and, if you have any questions, ask our team.
Attention to detail is the path to progress
Even a small detail and the peculiarities of its application can significantly affect the entire process of carrying out business activities. If we are talking about operating an organization on the international market, then the issue of applying standards becomes not just a recommendation but a rule. That is why it is so important to stay abreast of updates on the market of international standards and to be always confident in compliance with international quality standards.
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