Sensory analysis -- Methodology -- Texture profile

This document specifies a method for developing a texture profile of food products (solids, semi-solids, liquids) or non-food products (e.g. cosmetics). This method is one approach to sensory texture profile analysis and other methods exist. This method describes various steps in the process of establishing a complete description of the textural attributes of a product. This method is applicable to: — screening and training assessors; — orientating assessors through the development of definitions and evaluation techniques for textural characteristics; — characterizing the textural attributes of a product in order to establish its standard profile and to discern any later changes; — improving old products and developing new products; — studying various factors that can affect the textural attributes of a product, e.g. changes in process, time, temperature, ingredients, packaging or shelf-life, and storage conditions; — comparing a product with another similar product to determine the nature and intensity of textural differences; — correlating sensory and instrumental and/or physical measurements.

Analyse sensorielle -- Méthodologie -- Profil de la texture

Le présent document spécifie une méthode d'établissement du profil de la texture des produits alimentaires (solides, semi-solides, liquides) ou non alimentaires (par exemple, produits cosmétiques). La présente méthode propose une approche par analyse sensorielle pour établir un profil de la texture; d'autres méthodes existent. La présente méthode décrit les différentes étapes du processus conduisant ŕ une description complčte des propriétés de texture d'un produit. Cette méthode peut ętre utilisée pour: — sélectionner et entraîner des sujets; — orienter des sujets grâce au développement de définitions et de techniques d'évaluation des propriétés de texture; — caractériser les propriétés de texture d'un produit afin d'établir son profil-type, de maničre ŕ discerner des modifications ultérieures; — améliorer des produits déjŕ existants et en développer de nouveaux; — étudier les différents facteurs qui peuvent affecter les propriétés de texture d'un produit, tels que la modification du procédé, de la durée, de la température, des ingrédients, des conditions d'emballage ou de conservation et de stockage; — comparer un produit avec un autre produit similaire de maničre ŕ déterminer la nature et l'intensité des différences de texture; — corréler les mesures sensorielles et les mesures instrumentales et/ou physiques.

Senzorična analiza - Metodologija - Profil teksture

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
28-May-2020
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
29-May-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 11036:2020
01-december-2020
Senzorična analiza - Metodologija - Profil teksture
Sensory analysis -- Methodology -- Texture profile
Analyse sensorielle -- Méthodologie -- Profil de la texture
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 11036:2020
ICS:
67.240 Senzorična analiza Sensory analysis
SIST ISO 11036:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST ISO 11036:2020
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SIST ISO 11036:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 11036
Second edition
2020-05
Sensory analysis — Methodology —
Texture profile
Analyse sensorielle — Méthodologie — Profil de la texture
Reference number
ISO 11036:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 11036:2020
ISO 11036:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 11036:2020
ISO 11036:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 General test requirements ......................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.1 General conditions of test .............................................................................................................................................................. 2

5.2 Equipment and premises ............................................................................................................................................................... 2

6 Methodology ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

6.1 Components of a texture profile .............................................................................................................................................. 2

6.2 Classification of textural attributes ....................................................................................................................................... 3

6.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.2.2 Mechanical attributes .................................................................................................................................................. 3

6.2.3 Geometrical attributes ................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.2.4 Other attributes (moisture and fat content) ............................................................................................ 5

6.3 Development of terminology ...................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.4 Reference products ............................................................................................................................................................................. 6

6.4.1 Scales of reference products .................................................................................................................................. 6

6.4.2 Criteria for selection of reference products ............................................................................................. 7

6.5 Order of occurrence ............................................................................................................................................................................ 7

6.6 Evaluation technique ......................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.7 Use of intensity scales ....................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7 Panel screening and selection ................................................................................................................................................................ 8

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2 Panel screening ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2.2 Mouth or skin environment ................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2.3 Behaviour criteria ........................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3 Panel selection ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8 Panel training .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.1 First stage: Mechanical attributes .......................................................................................................................................... 9

8.2 Second stage: Geometric attributes and fat and moisture content ............................................................ 9

8.3 Third stage: Develop scales .......................................................................................................................................................... 9

9 Preparation and presentation of samples for training and for evaluation .............................................9

10 Evaluation by the panel ..............................................................................................................................................................................10

11 Data analysis ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

Annex A (informative) Examples of scales of reference products for evaluating the

mechanical texture attributes of food products ...............................................................................................................11

Annex B (informative) Classification of selected visual and tactile sensory texture terms for

non-food products ...........................................................................................................................................................................................14

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................16

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST ISO 11036:2020
ISO 11036:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 34, Food products, Subcommittee SC 12,

Sensory analysis.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 11036:1994), which has been technically

revised. The main changes compared with the previous edition are as follows:
— definitions have been added for consistency with ISO 5492;
— changes have been made to avoid repetition.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 11036:2020
ISO 11036:2020(E)
Introduction

Sensory profiling methods are formal procedures used for assessing in a reproducible manner the

separate attributes of a sample and then rating their intensities on a suitable scale. The methods can be

used for evaluating odour, flavour, appearance and texture, separately or in combination.

As a consequence of the unique nature of texture, methods have been developed specifically for texture

profiling.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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SIST ISO 11036:2020
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SIST ISO 11036:2020
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 11036:2020(E)
Sensory analysis — Methodology — Texture profile
1 Scope

This document specifies a method for developing a texture profile of food products (solids, semi-solids,

liquids) or non-food products (e.g. cosmetics).

This method is one approach to sensory texture profile analysis and other methods exist. This method

describes various steps in the process of establishing a complete description of the textural attributes

of a product.
This method is applicable to:
— screening and training assessors;

— orientating assessors through the development of definitions and evaluation techniques for textural

characteristics;

— characterizing the textural attributes of a product in order to establish its standard profile and to

discern any later changes;
— improving old products and developing new products;

— studying various factors that can affect the textural attributes of a product, e.g. changes in process,

time, temperature, ingredients, packaging or shelf-life, and storage conditions;

— comparing a product with another similar product to determine the nature and intensity of textural

differences;
— correlating sensory and instrumental and/or physical measurements.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 5492, Sensory analysis — Vocabulary

ISO 8586, Sensory analysis — General guidelines for the selection, training and monitoring of selected

assessors and expert sensory assessors
ISO 8589, Sensory analysis — General guidance for the design of test rooms
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the definitions given in ISO 5492 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST ISO 11036:2020
ISO 11036:2020(E)
3.1
texture, noun

all the mechanical, geometrical and surface attributes of a product perceptible by means of mechanical,

tactile and, where appropriate, visual and auditory receptors

Note 1 to entry: The “mechanical attributes” are those related to the reaction of the product to stress. They are

divided in five primary characteristics, i.e. hardness, cohesiveness, viscosity, springiness and adhesiveness. The

“geometrical attributes” are those related to the size, shape and arrangement of particles within a product. The

“surface attributes” are those related to the sensations produced by moisture and/or fat content. In the mouth,

they are also related to lubrication and the way in which these constituents are released.

4 Principle

The development of a texture profile by means of a systematic classification that describes all of the

textural attributes (mechanical, geometrical and surface).
5 General test requirements
5.1 General conditions of test

Evaluations shall be carried out in a test room that is in accordance with ISO 8589.

5.2 Equipment and premises

Utensils, containers and other needed materials shall be selected by the sensory analyst or panel leader,

according to the nature of the product, the number of samples, etc. These shall in no way affect the test

results.

If standardized apparatus corresponds to the needs of the test, it shall be used.

Sampling should be done following best practices. A standardized sample preparation that represents

the texture of the whole batch should be selected.
6 Methodology
6.1 Components of a texture profile

The concept of texture profiling is based on the same elements as in flavour profiling. Therefore, a

texture profile may include the following elements, depending on the type of product (food or non-food):

a) perceptible textural attributes, i.e. mechanical, geometrical and other;
b) intensity, i.e. the degree to which the attribute is perceptible;
c) the order of appearance of the attributes, which can be outlined as follows:
1) prior to touch (visual);
2) first touch (which may be with hands or another part of the body);

3) first application (for food, this may be to the lips or tongue; for other products, it may be to skin

surfaces on other parts of the body);
4) manipulation (e.g. chewing for food, rubbing for creams/lotions/textiles);

5) residual (changes occurring during mastication and/or absorption, such as the rate and type of

breakdown);
6) follow up, if any (e.g. swallowing, absorption, wipe off, rinsing).
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 11036:2020
ISO 11036:2020(E)
6.2 Classification of textural attributes
6.2.1 General

Texture is composed of different properties since the sensory evaluation of texture is a dynamic

process.

Textural attributes can be grouped into three main classes (see 6.2.1 to 6.2.3) according to the degree

to which each is present, and the order in which they appear.

Textural attributes are manifested by the reaction of a food or non-food product to a constraint or

product manipulation. They are measured either:

a) by kinaesthesis, which includes the sensations of position, movement and tension of parts of the

body, perceived through nerves and muscles, tendons and joints;

b) by somesthesis, which includes the sensations of pressure (touch) and pain perceived by receptors

located in the skin and lips, including the oral mucosa, tongue and periodontal membrane.

6.2.2 Mechanical attributes

To obtain the maximum benefit from the use of scales in a sensory programme, each attribute shall be

defined. A sensory technique should always accompany the definition of a textural attribute. Examples

of mechanical attributes, definitions, techniques and common alternatives for liquid, semi-solid and

solid food and non-food products are listed in Table 1.

Table 1 — Examples of definitions and methods of evaluation for mechanical textural attributes

Common Common
Characteristic Sensory definition Technique
synonyms antonyms

Hardness Mechanical textural attribute Place the sample between the Firm, hard Soft

relating to the force required to molar teeth or between the
achieve a given deformation or tongue and palate and chew
penetration of a product. evenly, evaluating the force
required to compress the food.
In the mouth, it is perceived
by compressing the product Evaluate sample hardness by
between the teeth (solids) or pressing down on the sample
between the tongue and palate on a plain surface or evaluate it
(semi-solids). between two fingers.
With hands, it is perceived
by compressing the product
between the hand (solids) and
a plain surface or between two
fingers (semi-solids).

Viscosity Mechanical textural attribute Place a spoon containing the Viscous Fluid, thin,

relating to resistance to flow. sample directly in front of the runny
It corresponds to the force mouth and draw the liquid from
required to draw a liquid from the spoon over the tongue by
a spoon over the tongue, or to slurping, evaluating the force
spread it over a substrate. required to draw the liquid over
the tongue at a steady rate.
The degree of resistance of a
liquid flow when administered
on a surface or substrate may be
evaluated visually or via kinaes-
thesis.
Applies to non-food products. See also Annex B.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST ISO 11036:2020
ISO 11036:2020(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Common Common
Characteristic Sensory definition Technique
synonyms antonyms
Springiness Mechanical textural attrib- Place the sample either between Plastic,
ute relating to the rapidity of the tongue and palate (semi- malleable,
recovery from a deforming solids) or molar teeth (solids) elastic,
force and the degree to which a and compress it partially. springy
deformed material returns to its Remove the force and evaluate the
undeformed condition after the degree and rapidity of recovery.
deforming force is removed.
Place the sample either between
a hand and a plain surface or
another part of the body, or be-
tween two fingers and compress
it partially. Remove the force and
evaluate the degree and rapidity
of recovery.
Adhesiveness Mechanical textural surface Place the sample on the tongue, Sticky,
attribute relating to the force press it against the palate, and tacky,
required to remove material evaluate the force required to gooey, gluey
that adheres to the mouth or remove it with the tongue.
to a substrate (such as the skin
Evaluate the degree to which
surface).
fingers stick to each other or
to the sample after coming in
contact with the sample.
Fracturable Mechanical textural attribute Place the sample between the Brittle
related to cohesiveness and to molar teeth and bite down evenly
the force necessary to break a until the sample crumbles, cracks
product into crumbs or pieces. or shatters, evaluating the force
with which the food moves away
from the teeth.
Place the sample between both
hands, scrub one hand to the
other pressing evenly until the
sample crumbles, cracks or
shatters, evaluating the force
with which the sample moves
away from the hands.
Cohesiveness Mechanical texture attribute Chew sample with molar teeth Springy
of mass related to the degree to which until phase change. and gummy
the mass holds together while
Knead or squeeze the sample
chewing or during manual
manually until there is a phase
manipulation.
change.
Drag The amount of pressure Place the sample on the substrate
required for the application of and evaluate while moving the
the product on a substrate, such sample on the substrate at a pre-
as the skin or nails. determined rate and form.
Spreadable The ease to which the product Place the sample on the substrate
can be manipulated on the and evaluate the force needed to
surface of a substrate, such as reposition the sample.
the forearm or nails.
Applies to non-food products. See also Annex B.
4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 11036:2020
ISO 11036:2020(E)
6.2.3 Geometrical attributes
6.2.3.1 General

Geometrical attributes are perceived by tactile receptors located in the skin. In the case of food

products, these are located mainly in the tongue, mouth and throat. In the case of non-food products,

these are mainly located in the skin (e.g. the hand or another location on the body). These attributes are

also discernible through the appearance of the products, whether or not they are food.

6.2.3.2 Granularity

Granularity is a geometrical textural attribute relating to the perception of the size and shape of

particles in a product.

Attributes relating to particle size and shape can be demonstrated by reference products in the same

manner as the mechanical attributes. For example, terms such as smooth, chalky, grainy, gritty, sandy

and coarse comprise a scale of increasing particle size.
6.2.3.3 Conformation

Conformation is a geometrical textural attribute relating to the perception of the shape and the

orientation of particles in a product. Attributes relating to the orientation of particles represent

highly organized structures. Geometrical attributes are not suitable for clear-cut scaling. Evaluation is

qualitative and quantitative as to the type and amount of particles present in the mass or on the surface

of the product.
Different terms correspond to a certain number of conformations. For example:

— “fibrous” refers to long particles oriented in the same direction (e.g. celery sticks, yarn);

— “cellular” refers to a highly organized structure composed of spherical ovoid particles, or composed

of cell walls filled with a gas (e.g. egg white foam, stone cells in pears);
— “crystalline” refers to angular particles (e.g. granulated sugar);

— “puffy” refers to hard or firm outer shells filled with large, often uneven, air pockets (e.g. cream

puffs, puffed rice);

— “aerated” refers to relatively small, even cells filled with air and surrounded (usually but not always)

by soft cell walls (e.g. marshmallows, meringues, polyurethane foam).

Examples of the different geometrical attributes are presented and the amount of each characteristic

present described. When a greater discrimination is required, a scale can be established for a specific

characteristic.
6.2.4 Other attributes (moisture and fat content)
6.2.4.1 General

These attributes refer to mouthfeel qualities related to the perception of moisture and/or fat content of

a product by the tactile receptors in the mouth cavity or on the skin, and may also be concerned with

the lubricating properties of the product.

The dynamic attribute of melting in the presence of heat should be noted (contact with the skin or in the

mouth) where the idea of time/intensity is related to the time necessary for a change in state and to the

perception in the mouth or on the skin surface of different textures (e.g. a piece of cold butter or an ice-

cube put into the mouth and simply allowed to melt without chewing, dissolution of pulp in non-Asian

pears, melting of body butter when it comes into contact with the skin).
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 5
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SIST ISO 11036:2020
ISO 11036:2020(E)
6.2.4.2 Moisture content

Moisture is a surface textural attribute that describes the perception of water absorbed by or released

from a product.

The popular terms used to describe the moisture content of a product reflect not only the total amount

of moisture perceived but also the type, rate and manner of release or absorption. Popular terms

include:
— dry (e.g. dry biscuit, baby powder);
— moist (e.g. apple, lotion);
— wet (e.g. water chestnut, mussels, tonic water);
— juicy (e.g. orange).
6.2.4.3 Fat content

Fatness is a surface textural attribute relating to the perception of the quantity or the quality of fat in

a product. With fat content, the total amount of fat and its melting point, as related to mouth-coating

attributes and geometrical attributes, are also important.

Secondary parameters, i.e. oily, greasy and fatty, have been established to distinguish between these

attributes:

— oily reflects the perception of soaking and runny fat (e.g. salad with French dressing, oily skin

lotion);
— greasy reflects the perception of exuding fat (e.g. bacon, chips);

— fatty reflects the perception of high fat proportion in a product, without exudation (e.g. lard, tallow,

body butter).
6.3 Development of terminology

Terms shall be established to describe the texture of any product. Traditionally, this is done by

having the panel evaluate several samples representing the full range of textural variations for the

particular product type of interest. It is helpful to give assessors a broad range of terms with clear

concise definitions at the beginning of the session to ensure that as many one-dimensional attributes as

possible are utilized.

The assessors then list all the terms that are applicable to one or all of the samples.

These are then discussed under the direction of a panel leader and a mutually acceptable list of terms

and definitions is compiled. The following points should be considered:
— whether the terms include all the characteristics relevant to the product;
— whether any of the terms have the same meaning and can be combined or deleted;
— whether each panel member agrees to the use of each term and its definition.
NOTE See also ISO 11035.
6.4 Reference products
6.4.1 Scales of reference products

Based on the classification of textural attributes, standard rating scales have been developed in order

to provide a defined quantitative method of evaluation of the mechanical attributes of texture (see

6 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 11036:2020
ISO 11036:2020(E)

Annex A). These scales are only illustrative of the basic concept of using familiar reference products to

quantify the intensity of each sensory texture attribute. These scales reflect the range of intensities of

the mechanical attributes normally encountered in foods and non-foods intended to be profiled. They

may be adopted without modification, or other reference products may be selected to allow for local

availability, habits, etc.

These scales, as given, are suitable for training. However, they cannot be used to evaluate profiles of

all products without some adaptation. For example, when evaluating products that are all soft (e.g.

varying formulatio
...

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 11036
Second edition
2020-05
Sensory analysis — Methodology —
Texture profile
Analyse sensorielle — Méthodologie — Profil de la texture
Reference number
ISO 11036:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 11036:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 11036:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 General test requirements ......................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.1 General conditions of test .............................................................................................................................................................. 2

5.2 Equipment and premises ............................................................................................................................................................... 2

6 Methodology ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

6.1 Components of a texture profile .............................................................................................................................................. 2

6.2 Classification of textural attributes ....................................................................................................................................... 3

6.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.2.2 Mechanical attributes .................................................................................................................................................. 3

6.2.3 Geometrical attributes ................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.2.4 Other attributes (moisture and fat content) ............................................................................................ 5

6.3 Development of terminology ...................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.4 Reference products ............................................................................................................................................................................. 6

6.4.1 Scales of reference products .................................................................................................................................. 6

6.4.2 Criteria for selection of reference products ............................................................................................. 7

6.5 Order of occurrence ............................................................................................................................................................................ 7

6.6 Evaluation technique ......................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.7 Use of intensity scales ....................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7 Panel screening and selection ................................................................................................................................................................ 8

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2 Panel screening ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2.2 Mouth or skin environment ................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2.3 Behaviour criteria ........................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3 Panel selection ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8 Panel training .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.1 First stage: Mechanical attributes .......................................................................................................................................... 9

8.2 Second stage: Geometric attributes and fat and moisture content ............................................................ 9

8.3 Third stage: Develop scales .......................................................................................................................................................... 9

9 Preparation and presentation of samples for training and for evaluation .............................................9

10 Evaluation by the panel ..............................................................................................................................................................................10

11 Data analysis ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

Annex A (informative) Examples of scales of reference products for evaluating the

mechanical texture attributes of food products ...............................................................................................................11

Annex B (informative) Classification of selected visual and tactile sensory texture terms for

non-food products ...........................................................................................................................................................................................14

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................16

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 11036:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 34, Food products, Subcommittee SC 12,

Sensory analysis.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 11036:1994), which has been technically

revised. The main changes compared with the previous edition are as follows:
— definitions have been added for consistency with ISO 5492;
— changes have been made to avoid repetition.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 11036:2020(E)
Introduction

Sensory profiling methods are formal procedures used for assessing in a reproducible manner the

separate attributes of a sample and then rating their intensities on a suitable scale. The methods can be

used for evaluating odour, flavour, appearance and texture, separately or in combination.

As a consequence of the unique nature of texture, methods have been developed specifically for texture

profiling.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 11036:2020(E)
Sensory analysis — Methodology — Texture profile
1 Scope

This document specifies a method for developing a texture profile of food products (solids, semi-solids,

liquids) or non-food products (e.g. cosmetics).

This method is one approach to sensory texture profile analysis and other methods exist. This method

describes various steps in the process of establishing a complete description of the textural attributes

of a product.
This method is applicable to:
— screening and training assessors;

— orientating assessors through the development of definitions and evaluation techniques for textural

characteristics;

— characterizing the textural attributes of a product in order to establish its standard profile and to

discern any later changes;
— improving old products and developing new products;

— studying various factors that can affect the textural attributes of a product, e.g. changes in process,

time, temperature, ingredients, packaging or shelf-life, and storage conditions;

— comparing a product with another similar product to determine the nature and intensity of textural

differences;
— correlating sensory and instrumental and/or physical measurements.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 5492, Sensory analysis — Vocabulary

ISO 8586, Sensory analysis — General guidelines for the selection, training and monitoring of selected

assessors and expert sensory assessors
ISO 8589, Sensory analysis — General guidance for the design of test rooms
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the definitions given in ISO 5492 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 11036:2020(E)
3.1
texture, noun

all the mechanical, geometrical and surface attributes of a product perceptible by means of mechanical,

tactile and, where appropriate, visual and auditory receptors

Note 1 to entry: The “mechanical attributes” are those related to the reaction of the product to stress. They are

divided in five primary characteristics, i.e. hardness, cohesiveness, viscosity, springiness and adhesiveness. The

“geometrical attributes” are those related to the size, shape and arrangement of particles within a product. The

“surface attributes” are those related to the sensations produced by moisture and/or fat content. In the mouth,

they are also related to lubrication and the way in which these constituents are released.

4 Principle

The development of a texture profile by means of a systematic classification that describes all of the

textural attributes (mechanical, geometrical and surface).
5 General test requirements
5.1 General conditions of test

Evaluations shall be carried out in a test room that is in accordance with ISO 8589.

5.2 Equipment and premises

Utensils, containers and other needed materials shall be selected by the sensory analyst or panel leader,

according to the nature of the product, the number of samples, etc. These shall in no way affect the test

results.

If standardized apparatus corresponds to the needs of the test, it shall be used.

Sampling should be done following best practices. A standardized sample preparation that represents

the texture of the whole batch should be selected.
6 Methodology
6.1 Components of a texture profile

The concept of texture profiling is based on the same elements as in flavour profiling. Therefore, a

texture profile may include the following elements, depending on the type of product (food or non-food):

a) perceptible textural attributes, i.e. mechanical, geometrical and other;
b) intensity, i.e. the degree to which the attribute is perceptible;
c) the order of appearance of the attributes, which can be outlined as follows:
1) prior to touch (visual);
2) first touch (which may be with hands or another part of the body);

3) first application (for food, this may be to the lips or tongue; for other products, it may be to skin

surfaces on other parts of the body);
4) manipulation (e.g. chewing for food, rubbing for creams/lotions/textiles);

5) residual (changes occurring during mastication and/or absorption, such as the rate and type of

breakdown);
6) follow up, if any (e.g. swallowing, absorption, wipe off, rinsing).
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 11036:2020(E)
6.2 Classification of textural attributes
6.2.1 General

Texture is composed of different properties since the sensory evaluation of texture is a dynamic

process.

Textural attributes can be grouped into three main classes (see 6.2.1 to 6.2.3) according to the degree

to which each is present, and the order in which they appear.

Textural attributes are manifested by the reaction of a food or non-food product to a constraint or

product manipulation. They are measured either:

a) by kinaesthesis, which includes the sensations of position, movement and tension of parts of the

body, perceived through nerves and muscles, tendons and joints;

b) by somesthesis, which includes the sensations of pressure (touch) and pain perceived by receptors

located in the skin and lips, including the oral mucosa, tongue and periodontal membrane.

6.2.2 Mechanical attributes

To obtain the maximum benefit from the use of scales in a sensory programme, each attribute shall be

defined. A sensory technique should always accompany the definition of a textural attribute. Examples

of mechanical attributes, definitions, techniques and common alternatives for liquid, semi-solid and

solid food and non-food products are listed in Table 1.

Table 1 — Examples of definitions and methods of evaluation for mechanical textural attributes

Common Common
Characteristic Sensory definition Technique
synonyms antonyms

Hardness Mechanical textural attribute Place the sample between the Firm, hard Soft

relating to the force required to molar teeth or between the
achieve a given deformation or tongue and palate and chew
penetration of a product. evenly, evaluating the force
required to compress the food.
In the mouth, it is perceived
by compressing the product Evaluate sample hardness by
between the teeth (solids) or pressing down on the sample
between the tongue and palate on a plain surface or evaluate it
(semi-solids). between two fingers.
With hands, it is perceived
by compressing the product
between the hand (solids) and
a plain surface or between two
fingers (semi-solids).

Viscosity Mechanical textural attribute Place a spoon containing the Viscous Fluid, thin,

relating to resistance to flow. sample directly in front of the runny
It corresponds to the force mouth and draw the liquid from
required to draw a liquid from the spoon over the tongue by
a spoon over the tongue, or to slurping, evaluating the force
spread it over a substrate. required to draw the liquid over
the tongue at a steady rate.
The degree of resistance of a
liquid flow when administered
on a surface or substrate may be
evaluated visually or via kinaes-
thesis.
Applies to non-food products. See also Annex B.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 11036:2020(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Common Common
Characteristic Sensory definition Technique
synonyms antonyms
Springiness Mechanical textural attrib- Place the sample either between Plastic,
ute relating to the rapidity of the tongue and palate (semi- malleable,
recovery from a deforming solids) or molar teeth (solids) elastic,
force and the degree to which a and compress it partially. springy
deformed material returns to its Remove the force and evaluate the
undeformed condition after the degree and rapidity of recovery.
deforming force is removed.
Place the sample either between
a hand and a plain surface or
another part of the body, or be-
tween two fingers and compress
it partially. Remove the force and
evaluate the degree and rapidity
of recovery.
Adhesiveness Mechanical textural surface Place the sample on the tongue, Sticky,
attribute relating to the force press it against the palate, and tacky,
required to remove material evaluate the force required to gooey, gluey
that adheres to the mouth or remove it with the tongue.
to a substrate (such as the skin
Evaluate the degree to which
surface).
fingers stick to each other or
to the sample after coming in
contact with the sample.
Fracturable Mechanical textural attribute Place the sample between the Brittle
related to cohesiveness and to molar teeth and bite down evenly
the force necessary to break a until the sample crumbles, cracks
product into crumbs or pieces. or shatters, evaluating the force
with which the food moves away
from the teeth.
Place the sample between both
hands, scrub one hand to the
other pressing evenly until the
sample crumbles, cracks or
shatters, evaluating the force
with which the sample moves
away from the hands.
Cohesiveness Mechanical texture attribute Chew sample with molar teeth Springy
of mass related to the degree to which until phase change. and gummy
the mass holds together while
Knead or squeeze the sample
chewing or during manual
manually until there is a phase
manipulation.
change.
Drag The amount of pressure Place the sample on the substrate
required for the application of and evaluate while moving the
the product on a substrate, such sample on the substrate at a pre-
as the skin or nails. determined rate and form.
Spreadable The ease to which the product Place the sample on the substrate
can be manipulated on the and evaluate the force needed to
surface of a substrate, such as reposition the sample.
the forearm or nails.
Applies to non-food products. See also Annex B.
4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 11036:2020(E)
6.2.3 Geometrical attributes
6.2.3.1 General

Geometrical attributes are perceived by tactile receptors located in the skin. In the case of food

products, these are located mainly in the tongue, mouth and throat. In the case of non-food products,

these are mainly located in the skin (e.g. the hand or another location on the body). These attributes are

also discernible through the appearance of the products, whether or not they are food.

6.2.3.2 Granularity

Granularity is a geometrical textural attribute relating to the perception of the size and shape of

particles in a product.

Attributes relating to particle size and shape can be demonstrated by reference products in the same

manner as the mechanical attributes. For example, terms such as smooth, chalky, grainy, gritty, sandy

and coarse comprise a scale of increasing particle size.
6.2.3.3 Conformation

Conformation is a geometrical textural attribute relating to the perception of the shape and the

orientation of particles in a product. Attributes relating to the orientation of particles represent

highly organized structures. Geometrical attributes are not suitable for clear-cut scaling. Evaluation is

qualitative and quantitative as to the type and amount of particles present in the mass or on the surface

of the product.
Different terms correspond to a certain number of conformations. For example:

— “fibrous” refers to long particles oriented in the same direction (e.g. celery sticks, yarn);

— “cellular” refers to a highly organized structure composed of spherical ovoid particles, or composed

of cell walls filled with a gas (e.g. egg white foam, stone cells in pears);
— “crystalline” refers to angular particles (e.g. granulated sugar);

— “puffy” refers to hard or firm outer shells filled with large, often uneven, air pockets (e.g. cream

puffs, puffed rice);

— “aerated” refers to relatively small, even cells filled with air and surrounded (usually but not always)

by soft cell walls (e.g. marshmallows, meringues, polyurethane foam).

Examples of the different geometrical attributes are presented and the amount of each characteristic

present described. When a greater discrimination is required, a scale can be established for a specific

characteristic.
6.2.4 Other attributes (moisture and fat content)
6.2.4.1 General

These attributes refer to mouthfeel qualities related to the perception of moisture and/or fat content of

a product by the tactile receptors in the mouth cavity or on the skin, and may also be concerned with

the lubricating properties of the product.

The dynamic attribute of melting in the presence of heat should be noted (contact with the skin or in the

mouth) where the idea of time/intensity is related to the time necessary for a change in state and to the

perception in the mouth or on the skin surface of different textures (e.g. a piece of cold butter or an ice-

cube put into the mouth and simply allowed to melt without chewing, dissolution of pulp in non-Asian

pears, melting of body butter when it comes into contact with the skin).
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 11036:2020(E)
6.2.4.2 Moisture content

Moisture is a surface textural attribute that describes the perception of water absorbed by or released

from a product.

The popular terms used to describe the moisture content of a product reflect not only the total amount

of moisture perceived but also the type, rate and manner of release or absorption. Popular terms

include:
— dry (e.g. dry biscuit, baby powder);
— moist (e.g. apple, lotion);
— wet (e.g. water chestnut, mussels, tonic water);
— juicy (e.g. orange).
6.2.4.3 Fat content

Fatness is a surface textural attribute relating to the perception of the quantity or the quality of fat in

a product. With fat content, the total amount of fat and its melting point, as related to mouth-coating

attributes and geometrical attributes, are also important.

Secondary parameters, i.e. oily, greasy and fatty, have been established to distinguish between these

attributes:

— oily reflects the perception of soaking and runny fat (e.g. salad with French dressing, oily skin

lotion);
— greasy reflects the perception of exuding fat (e.g. bacon, chips);

— fatty reflects the perception of high fat proportion in a product, without exudation (e.g. lard, tallow,

body butter).
6.3 Development of terminology

Terms shall be established to describe the texture of any product. Traditionally, this is done by

having the panel evaluate several samples representing the full range of textural variations for the

particular product type of interest. It is helpful to give assessors a broad range of terms with clear

concise definitions at the beginning of the session to ensure that as many one-dimensional attributes as

possible are utilized.

The assessors then list all the terms that are applicable to one or all of the samples.

These are then discussed under the direction of a panel leader and a mutually acceptable list of terms

and definitions is compiled. The following points should be considered:
— whether the terms include all the characteristics relevant to the product;
— whether any of the terms have the same meaning and can be combined or deleted;
— whether each panel member agrees to the use of each term and its definition.
NOTE See also ISO 11035.
6.4 Reference products
6.4.1 Scales of reference products

Based on the classification of textural attributes, standard rating scales have been developed in order

to provide a defined quantitative method of evaluation of the mechanical attributes of texture (see

6 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 11036:2020(E)

Annex A). These scales are only illustrative of the basic concept of using familiar reference products to

quantify the intensity of each sensory texture attribute. These scales reflect the range of intensities of

the mechanical attributes normally encountered in foods and non-foods intended to be profiled. They

may be adopted without modification, or other reference products may be selected to allow for local

availability, habits, etc.

These scales, as given, are suitable for training. However, they cannot be used to evaluate profiles of

all products without some adaptation. For example, when evaluating products that are all soft (e.g.

varying formulations of cream cheese or body lotions), the lower end of the hardness scale will have to

be expanded and other portions disregarded. Therefore, any portion of the scales could be expanded to

allow for more precise ratings of similar products.

The described scales offer a basis for quantitative texture evaluation and the resulting values give a

texture profile. Examples of scales are given in Annex A.
6.4.2 Criteria for selection of reference products

The reason to establish reference products scales is to show that it is feasible to construct intensity

scales for sensory textural attributes and that it is possible to select well-known foods and non-food

products as examples of specific intensities of these attributes. It is a method used to train assessors to

use the same scale and evaluate the same sensory concept, and also to speak the same language.

Reference products shall be standardized as to
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST ISO 11036:2020
01-november-2020
Senzorična analiza - Metodologija - Profil teksture
Sensory analysis -- Methodology -- Texture profile
Analyse sensorielle -- Méthodologie -- Profil de la texture
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 11036:2020
ICS:
67.240 Senzorična analiza Sensory analysis
oSIST ISO 11036:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST ISO 11036:2020
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oSIST ISO 11036:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 11036
Second edition
2020-05
Sensory analysis — Methodology —
Texture profile
Analyse sensorielle — Méthodologie — Profil de la texture
Reference number
ISO 11036:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
oSIST ISO 11036:2020
ISO 11036:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
oSIST ISO 11036:2020
ISO 11036:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 General test requirements ......................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.1 General conditions of test .............................................................................................................................................................. 2

5.2 Equipment and premises ............................................................................................................................................................... 2

6 Methodology ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

6.1 Components of a texture profile .............................................................................................................................................. 2

6.2 Classification of textural attributes ....................................................................................................................................... 3

6.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.2.2 Mechanical attributes .................................................................................................................................................. 3

6.2.3 Geometrical attributes ................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.2.4 Other attributes (moisture and fat content) ............................................................................................ 5

6.3 Development of terminology ...................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.4 Reference products ............................................................................................................................................................................. 6

6.4.1 Scales of reference products .................................................................................................................................. 6

6.4.2 Criteria for selection of reference products ............................................................................................. 7

6.5 Order of occurrence ............................................................................................................................................................................ 7

6.6 Evaluation technique ......................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.7 Use of intensity scales ....................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7 Panel screening and selection ................................................................................................................................................................ 8

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2 Panel screening ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2.2 Mouth or skin environment ................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2.3 Behaviour criteria ........................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3 Panel selection ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8 Panel training .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.1 First stage: Mechanical attributes .......................................................................................................................................... 9

8.2 Second stage: Geometric attributes and fat and moisture content ............................................................ 9

8.3 Third stage: Develop scales .......................................................................................................................................................... 9

9 Preparation and presentation of samples for training and for evaluation .............................................9

10 Evaluation by the panel ..............................................................................................................................................................................10

11 Data analysis ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

Annex A (informative) Examples of scales of reference products for evaluating the

mechanical texture attributes of food products ...............................................................................................................11

Annex B (informative) Classification of selected visual and tactile sensory texture terms for

non-food products ...........................................................................................................................................................................................14

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................16

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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oSIST ISO 11036:2020
ISO 11036:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 34, Food products, Subcommittee SC 12,

Sensory analysis.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 11036:1994), which has been technically

revised. The main changes compared with the previous edition are as follows:
— definitions have been added for consistency with ISO 5492;
— changes have been made to avoid repetition.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
oSIST ISO 11036:2020
ISO 11036:2020(E)
Introduction

Sensory profiling methods are formal procedures used for assessing in a reproducible manner the

separate attributes of a sample and then rating their intensities on a suitable scale. The methods can be

used for evaluating odour, flavour, appearance and texture, separately or in combination.

As a consequence of the unique nature of texture, methods have been developed specifically for texture

profiling.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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oSIST ISO 11036:2020
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oSIST ISO 11036:2020
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 11036:2020(E)
Sensory analysis — Methodology — Texture profile
1 Scope

This document specifies a method for developing a texture profile of food products (solids, semi-solids,

liquids) or non-food products (e.g. cosmetics).

This method is one approach to sensory texture profile analysis and other methods exist. This method

describes various steps in the process of establishing a complete description of the textural attributes

of a product.
This method is applicable to:
— screening and training assessors;

— orientating assessors through the development of definitions and evaluation techniques for textural

characteristics;

— characterizing the textural attributes of a product in order to establish its standard profile and to

discern any later changes;
— improving old products and developing new products;

— studying various factors that can affect the textural attributes of a product, e.g. changes in process,

time, temperature, ingredients, packaging or shelf-life, and storage conditions;

— comparing a product with another similar product to determine the nature and intensity of textural

differences;
— correlating sensory and instrumental and/or physical measurements.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 5492, Sensory analysis — Vocabulary

ISO 8586, Sensory analysis — General guidelines for the selection, training and monitoring of selected

assessors and expert sensory assessors
ISO 8589, Sensory analysis — General guidance for the design of test rooms
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the definitions given in ISO 5492 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
oSIST ISO 11036:2020
ISO 11036:2020(E)
3.1
texture, noun

all the mechanical, geometrical and surface attributes of a product perceptible by means of mechanical,

tactile and, where appropriate, visual and auditory receptors

Note 1 to entry: The “mechanical attributes” are those related to the reaction of the product to stress. They are

divided in five primary characteristics, i.e. hardness, cohesiveness, viscosity, springiness and adhesiveness. The

“geometrical attributes” are those related to the size, shape and arrangement of particles within a product. The

“surface attributes” are those related to the sensations produced by moisture and/or fat content. In the mouth,

they are also related to lubrication and the way in which these constituents are released.

4 Principle

The development of a texture profile by means of a systematic classification that describes all of the

textural attributes (mechanical, geometrical and surface).
5 General test requirements
5.1 General conditions of test

Evaluations shall be carried out in a test room that is in accordance with ISO 8589.

5.2 Equipment and premises

Utensils, containers and other needed materials shall be selected by the sensory analyst or panel leader,

according to the nature of the product, the number of samples, etc. These shall in no way affect the test

results.

If standardized apparatus corresponds to the needs of the test, it shall be used.

Sampling should be done following best practices. A standardized sample preparation that represents

the texture of the whole batch should be selected.
6 Methodology
6.1 Components of a texture profile

The concept of texture profiling is based on the same elements as in flavour profiling. Therefore, a

texture profile may include the following elements, depending on the type of product (food or non-food):

a) perceptible textural attributes, i.e. mechanical, geometrical and other;
b) intensity, i.e. the degree to which the attribute is perceptible;
c) the order of appearance of the attributes, which can be outlined as follows:
1) prior to touch (visual);
2) first touch (which may be with hands or another part of the body);

3) first application (for food, this may be to the lips or tongue; for other products, it may be to skin

surfaces on other parts of the body);
4) manipulation (e.g. chewing for food, rubbing for creams/lotions/textiles);

5) residual (changes occurring during mastication and/or absorption, such as the rate and type of

breakdown);
6) follow up, if any (e.g. swallowing, absorption, wipe off, rinsing).
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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oSIST ISO 11036:2020
ISO 11036:2020(E)
6.2 Classification of textural attributes
6.2.1 General

Texture is composed of different properties since the sensory evaluation of texture is a dynamic

process.

Textural attributes can be grouped into three main classes (see 6.2.1 to 6.2.3) according to the degree

to which each is present, and the order in which they appear.

Textural attributes are manifested by the reaction of a food or non-food product to a constraint or

product manipulation. They are measured either:

a) by kinaesthesis, which includes the sensations of position, movement and tension of parts of the

body, perceived through nerves and muscles, tendons and joints;

b) by somesthesis, which includes the sensations of pressure (touch) and pain perceived by receptors

located in the skin and lips, including the oral mucosa, tongue and periodontal membrane.

6.2.2 Mechanical attributes

To obtain the maximum benefit from the use of scales in a sensory programme, each attribute shall be

defined. A sensory technique should always accompany the definition of a textural attribute. Examples

of mechanical attributes, definitions, techniques and common alternatives for liquid, semi-solid and

solid food and non-food products are listed in Table 1.

Table 1 — Examples of definitions and methods of evaluation for mechanical textural attributes

Common Common
Characteristic Sensory definition Technique
synonyms antonyms

Hardness Mechanical textural attribute Place the sample between the Firm, hard Soft

relating to the force required to molar teeth or between the
achieve a given deformation or tongue and palate and chew
penetration of a product. evenly, evaluating the force
required to compress the food.
In the mouth, it is perceived
by compressing the product Evaluate sample hardness by
between the teeth (solids) or pressing down on the sample
between the tongue and palate on a plain surface or evaluate it
(semi-solids). between two fingers.
With hands, it is perceived
by compressing the product
between the hand (solids) and
a plain surface or between two
fingers (semi-solids).

Viscosity Mechanical textural attribute Place a spoon containing the Viscous Fluid, thin,

relating to resistance to flow. sample directly in front of the runny
It corresponds to the force mouth and draw the liquid from
required to draw a liquid from the spoon over the tongue by
a spoon over the tongue, or to slurping, evaluating the force
spread it over a substrate. required to draw the liquid over
the tongue at a steady rate.
The degree of resistance of a
liquid flow when administered
on a surface or substrate may be
evaluated visually or via kinaes-
thesis.
Applies to non-food products. See also Annex B.
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oSIST ISO 11036:2020
ISO 11036:2020(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Common Common
Characteristic Sensory definition Technique
synonyms antonyms
Springiness Mechanical textural attrib- Place the sample either between Plastic,
ute relating to the rapidity of the tongue and palate (semi- malleable,
recovery from a deforming solids) or molar teeth (solids) elastic,
force and the degree to which a and compress it partially. springy
deformed material returns to its Remove the force and evaluate the
undeformed condition after the degree and rapidity of recovery.
deforming force is removed.
Place the sample either between
a hand and a plain surface or
another part of the body, or be-
tween two fingers and compress
it partially. Remove the force and
evaluate the degree and rapidity
of recovery.
Adhesiveness Mechanical textural surface Place the sample on the tongue, Sticky,
attribute relating to the force press it against the palate, and tacky,
required to remove material evaluate the force required to gooey, gluey
that adheres to the mouth or remove it with the tongue.
to a substrate (such as the skin
Evaluate the degree to which
surface).
fingers stick to each other or
to the sample after coming in
contact with the sample.
Fracturable Mechanical textural attribute Place the sample between the Brittle
related to cohesiveness and to molar teeth and bite down evenly
the force necessary to break a until the sample crumbles, cracks
product into crumbs or pieces. or shatters, evaluating the force
with which the food moves away
from the teeth.
Place the sample between both
hands, scrub one hand to the
other pressing evenly until the
sample crumbles, cracks or
shatters, evaluating the force
with which the sample moves
away from the hands.
Cohesiveness Mechanical texture attribute Chew sample with molar teeth Springy
of mass related to the degree to which until phase change. and gummy
the mass holds together while
Knead or squeeze the sample
chewing or during manual
manually until there is a phase
manipulation.
change.
Drag The amount of pressure Place the sample on the substrate
required for the application of and evaluate while moving the
the product on a substrate, such sample on the substrate at a pre-
as the skin or nails. determined rate and form.
Spreadable The ease to which the product Place the sample on the substrate
can be manipulated on the and evaluate the force needed to
surface of a substrate, such as reposition the sample.
the forearm or nails.
Applies to non-food products. See also Annex B.
4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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oSIST ISO 11036:2020
ISO 11036:2020(E)
6.2.3 Geometrical attributes
6.2.3.1 General

Geometrical attributes are perceived by tactile receptors located in the skin. In the case of food

products, these are located mainly in the tongue, mouth and throat. In the case of non-food products,

these are mainly located in the skin (e.g. the hand or another location on the body). These attributes are

also discernible through the appearance of the products, whether or not they are food.

6.2.3.2 Granularity

Granularity is a geometrical textural attribute relating to the perception of the size and shape of

particles in a product.

Attributes relating to particle size and shape can be demonstrated by reference products in the same

manner as the mechanical attributes. For example, terms such as smooth, chalky, grainy, gritty, sandy

and coarse comprise a scale of increasing particle size.
6.2.3.3 Conformation

Conformation is a geometrical textural attribute relating to the perception of the shape and the

orientation of particles in a product. Attributes relating to the orientation of particles represent

highly organized structures. Geometrical attributes are not suitable for clear-cut scaling. Evaluation is

qualitative and quantitative as to the type and amount of particles present in the mass or on the surface

of the product.
Different terms correspond to a certain number of conformations. For example:

— “fibrous” refers to long particles oriented in the same direction (e.g. celery sticks, yarn);

— “cellular” refers to a highly organized structure composed of spherical ovoid particles, or composed

of cell walls filled with a gas (e.g. egg white foam, stone cells in pears);
— “crystalline” refers to angular particles (e.g. granulated sugar);

— “puffy” refers to hard or firm outer shells filled with large, often uneven, air pockets (e.g. cream

puffs, puffed rice);

— “aerated” refers to relatively small, even cells filled with air and surrounded (usually but not always)

by soft cell walls (e.g. marshmallows, meringues, polyurethane foam).

Examples of the different geometrical attributes are presented and the amount of each characteristic

present described. When a greater discrimination is required, a scale can be established for a specific

characteristic.
6.2.4 Other attributes (moisture and fat content)
6.2.4.1 General

These attributes refer to mouthfeel qualities related to the perception of moisture and/or fat content of

a product by the tactile receptors in the mouth cavity or on the skin, and may also be concerned with

the lubricating properties of the product.

The dynamic attribute of melting in the presence of heat should be noted (contact with the skin or in the

mouth) where the idea of time/intensity is related to the time necessary for a change in state and to the

perception in the mouth or on the skin surface of different textures (e.g. a piece of cold butter or an ice-

cube put into the mouth and simply allowed to melt without chewing, dissolution of pulp in non-Asian

pears, melting of body butter when it comes into contact with the skin).
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 5
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oSIST ISO 11036:2020
ISO 11036:2020(E)
6.2.4.2 Moisture content

Moisture is a surface textural attribute that describes the perception of water absorbed by or released

from a product.

The popular terms used to describe the moisture content of a product reflect not only the total amount

of moisture perceived but also the type, rate and manner of release or absorption. Popular terms

include:
— dry (e.g. dry biscuit, baby powder);
— moist (e.g. apple, lotion);
— wet (e.g. water chestnut, mussels, tonic water);
— juicy (e.g. orange).
6.2.4.3 Fat content

Fatness is a surface textural attribute relating to the perception of the quantity or the quality of fat in

a product. With fat content, the total amount of fat and its melting point, as related to mouth-coating

attributes and geometrical attributes, are also important.

Secondary parameters, i.e. oily, greasy and fatty, have been established to distinguish between these

attributes:

— oily reflects the perception of soaking and runny fat (e.g. salad with French dressing, oily skin

lotion);
— greasy reflects the perception of exuding fat (e.g. bacon, chips);

— fatty reflects the perception of high fat proportion in a product, without exudation (e.g. lard, tallow,

body butter).
6.3 Development of terminology

Terms shall be established to describe the texture of any product. Traditionally, this is done by

having the panel evaluate several samples representing the full range of textural variations for the

particular product type of interest. It is helpful to give assessors a broad range of terms with clear

concise definitions at the beginning of the session to ensure that as many one-dimensional attributes as

possible are utilized.

The assessors then list all the terms that are applicable to one or all of the samples.

These are then discussed under the direction of a panel leader and a mutually acceptable list of terms

and definitions is compiled. The following points should be considered:
— whether the terms include all the characteristics relevant to the product;
— whether any of the terms have the same meaning and can be combined or deleted;
— whether each panel member agrees to the use of each term and its definition.
NOTE See also ISO 11035.
6.4 Reference products
6.4.1 Scales of reference products

Based on the classification of textural attributes, standard rating scales have been developed in order

to provide a defined quantitative method of evaluation of the mechanical attributes of texture (see

6 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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oSIST ISO 11036:2020
ISO 11036:2020(E)

Annex A). These scales are only illustrative of the basic concept of using familiar reference products to

quantify the intensity of each sensory texture attribute. These scales reflect the range of intensities of

the mechanical attributes normally encountered in foods and non-foods intended to be profiled. They

may be adopted without modification, or other reference products may be selected to allow for local

availability, habits, etc.

These scales, as given, are suitable for training. However, they cannot be used to evaluate profiles of

all products without some adaptation. For example, when evaluating products that are all soft (e.g.

...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 11036
ISO/TC 34/SC 12
Sensory analysis — Methodology —
Secretariat: IRAM
Texture profile
Voting begins on:
2020­03­06
Analyse sensorielle — Méthodologie — Profil de la texture
Voting terminates on:
2020­05-01
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO­
ISO/FDIS 11036:2020(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN­
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 11036:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH­1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 11036:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 General test requirements ......................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.1 General conditions of test .............................................................................................................................................................. 2

5.2 Equipment and premises ............................................................................................................................................................... 2

6 Methodology ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

6.1 Components of a texture profile .............................................................................................................................................. 2

6.2 Classification of textural attributes ....................................................................................................................................... 3

6.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.2.2 Mechanical attributes .................................................................................................................................................. 3

6.2.3 Geometrical attributes ................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.2.4 Other attributes (moisture and fat content) ............................................................................................ 5

6.3 Development of terminology ...................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.4 Reference products ............................................................................................................................................................................. 6

6.4.1 Scales of reference products .................................................................................................................................. 6

6.4.2 Criteria for selection of reference products ............................................................................................. 7

6.5 Order of occurrence ............................................................................................................................................................................ 7

6.6 Evaluation technique ......................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.7 Use of intensity scales ....................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7 Panel screening and selection ................................................................................................................................................................ 8

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2 Panel screening ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2.2 Mouth or skin environment ................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2.3 Behaviour criteria ........................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3 Panel selection ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8 Panel training .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.1 First stage: Mechanical attributes .......................................................................................................................................... 9

8.2 Second stage: Geometric attributes and fat and moisture content ............................................................ 9

8.3 Third stage: Develop scales .......................................................................................................................................................... 9

9 Preparation and presentation of samples for training and for evaluation .............................................9

10 Evaluation by the panel ..............................................................................................................................................................................10

11 Data analysis ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

Annex A (informative) Examples of scales of reference products for evaluating the

mechanical texture attributes of food products ...............................................................................................................11

Annex B (informative) Classification of selected visual and tactile sensory texture terms for

non-food products ...........................................................................................................................................................................................14

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................16

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/FDIS 11036:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non­governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 34, Food products, Subcommittee SC 12,

Sensory analysis.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 11036:1994), which has been technically

revised. The main changes compared with the previous edition are as follows:
— definitions have been added for consistency with ISO 5492;
— changes have been made to avoid repetition.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 11036:2020(E)
Introduction

Sensory profiling methods are formal procedures used for assessing in a reproducible manner the

separate attributes of a sample and then rating their intensity on a suitable scale. The methods can be

used for evaluating odour, flavour, appearance and texture, separately or in combination.

As a consequence of the unique nature of texture, methods have been developed specifically for texture

profiling.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 11036:2020(E)
Sensory analysis — Methodology — Texture profile
1 Scope

This document specifies a method for developing a texture profile of food products (solids, semi-solids,

liquids) or non-food products (e.g. cosmetics).

This method is one approach to sensory texture profile analysis and other methods exist. This method

describes various steps in the process of establishing a complete description of the textural attributes

of a product.
This method is applicable to:
— screening and training assessors;

— orientating assessors through the development of definitions and evaluation techniques for textural

characteristics;

— characterizing the textural attributes of a product in order to establish its standard profile and to

discern any later changes;
— improving old products and developing new products;

— studying various factors that can affect the textural attributes of a product, e.g. changes in process,

time, temperature, ingredients, packaging or shelf-life, and storage conditions;

— comparing a product with another similar product to determine the nature and intensity of textural

differences;
— correlating sensory and instrumental and/or physical measurements.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 5492, Sensory analysis — Vocabulary

ISO 8586, Sensory analysis — General guidelines for the selection, training and monitoring of selected

assessors and expert sensory assessors
ISO 8589, Sensory analysis — General guidance for the design of test rooms
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the definitions given in ISO 5492 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 11036:2020(E)
3.1
texture, noun

all the mechanical, geometrical and surface attributes of a product perceptible by means of mechanical,

tactile and, where appropriate, visual and auditory receptors

Note 1 to entry: The “mechanical attributes” are those related to the reaction of the product to stress. They are

divided in five primary characteristics, i.e. hardness, cohesiveness, viscosity, springiness and adhesiveness. The

“geometrical attributes” are those related to the size, shape and arrangement of particles within a product. The

“surface attributes” are those related to the sensations produced by moisture and/or fat content. In the mouth,

they are also related to lubrication and the way in which these constituents are released.

4 Principle

The development of a texture profile by means of a systematic classification that describes all of the

textural attributes (mechanical, geometrical and surface).
5 General test requirements
5.1 General conditions of test

Evaluations shall be carried out in a test room that is in accordance with ISO 8589.

5.2 Equipment and premises

Utensils, containers and other needed materials shall be selected by the sensory analyst or panel leader,

according to the nature of the product, the number of samples, etc. These shall in no way affect the test

results.

If standardized apparatus corresponds to the needs of the test, it shall be used.

Sampling should be done following best practices. A standardized sample preparation that represents

the texture of the whole batch should be selected.
6 Methodology
6.1 Components of a texture profile

The concept of texture profiling is based on the same elements as in flavour profiling. Therefore, a

texture profile may include the following elements, depending on the type of product (food or non-food):

a) perceptible textural attributes, i.e. mechanical, geometrical and other;
b) intensity, i.e. the degree to which the attribute is perceptible;
c) the order of appearance of the attributes, which can be outlined as follows:
1) prior to touch (visual);
2) first touch (which may be with hands or another part of the body);

3) first application (for food, this may be to the lips or tongue; for other products, it may be to skin

surfaces on other parts of the body);
4) manipulation (e.g. chewing for food, rubbing for creams/lotions/textiles);

5) residual (changes occurring during mastication and/or absorption, such as the rate and type of

breakdown);
6) follow up, if any (e.g. swallowing, absorption, wipe off, rinsing).
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 11036:2020(E)
6.2 Classification of textural attributes
6.2.1 General

Texture is composed of different properties since the sensory evaluation of texture is a dynamic

process.

Textural attributes can be grouped into three main classes (see 6.2.1 to 6.2.3) according to the degree

to which each is present, and the order in which they appear.

Textural attributes are manifested by the reaction of a food or non-food product to a constraint or

product manipulation. They are measured either:

a) by kinaesthesis, which includes the sensations of position, movement and tension of parts of the

body, perceived through nerves and muscles, tendons and joints;

b) by somesthesis, which includes the sensations of pressure (touch) and pain perceived by receptors

located in the skin and lips, including the oral mucosa, tongue and periodontal membrane.

6.2.2 Mechanical attributes

To obtain the maximum benefit from the use of scales in a sensory programme, each attribute shall be

defined. A sensory technique should always accompany the definition of a textural attribute. Examples

of mechanical attributes, definitions, techniques and common alternatives for liquid, semi-solid and

solid food and non­food products are listed in Table 1.

Table 1 — Examples of definitions and methods of evaluation for mechanical textural attributes

Common Common
Characteristic Sensory definition Technique
synonyms antonyms

Hardness Mechanical textural attribute Place the sample between the Firm, hard Soft

relating to the force required to molar teeth or between the
achieve a given deformation or tongue and palate and chew
penetration of a product. evenly, evaluating the force
required to compress the food.
In the mouth, it is perceived
by compressing the product Evaluate sample hardness by
between the teeth (solids) or pressing down on the sample
between the tongue and palate on a plain surface or evaluate it
(semi­solids). between two fingers.
With hands, it is perceived
by compressing the product
between the hand (solids) and
a plain surface or between two
fingers (semi-solids).

Viscosity Mechanical textural attribute Place a spoon containing the Viscous Fluid, thin,

relating to resistance to flow. sample directly in front of the runny
It corresponds to the force mouth and draw the liquid from
required to draw a liquid from the spoon over the tongue by
a spoon over the tongue, or to slurping, evaluating the force
spread it over a substrate. required to draw the liquid over
the tongue at a steady rate.
The degree of resistance of a
liquid flow when administered
on a surface or substrate may be
evaluated visually or via kinaes­
thesis.
Applies to non­food products. See also Annex B.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO/FDIS 11036:2020(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Common Common
Characteristic Sensory definition Technique
synonyms antonyms
Springiness Mechanical textural attrib­ Place the sample either between Plastic,
ute relating to the rapidity of the tongue and palate (semi­ malleable,
recovery from a deforming solids) or molar teeth (solids) elastic,
force and the degree to which a and compress it partially. springy
deformed material returns to its Remove the force and evaluate the
undeformed condition after the degree and rapidity of recovery.
deforming force is removed.
Place the sample either between
a hand and a plain surface or
another part of the body, or be­
tween two fingers and compress
it partially. Remove the force and
evaluate the degree and rapidity
of recovery.
Adhesiveness Mechanical textural surface Place the sample on the tongue, Sticky,
attribute relating to the force press it against the palate, and tacky,
required to remove material evaluate the force required to gooey, gluey
that adheres to the mouth or remove it with the tongue.
to a substrate (such as the skin
Evaluate the degree to which
surface).
fingers stick to each other or
to the sample after coming in
contact with the sample.
Fracturable Mechanical textural attribute Place the sample between the Brittle
related to cohesiveness and to molar teeth and bite down evenly
the force necessary to break a until the sample crumbles, cracks
product into crumbs or pieces. or shatters, evaluating the force
with which the food moves away
from the teeth.
Place the sample between both
hands, scrub one hand to the
other pressing evenly until the
sample crumbles, cracks or
shatters, evaluating the force
with which the sample moves
away from the hands.
Cohesiveness Mechanical texture attribute Chew sample with molar teeth Springy
of mass related to the degree to which until phase change. and gummy
the mass holds together while
Knead or squeeze the sample
chewing or during manual
manually until there is a phase
manipulation.
change.
Drag The amount of pressure Place the sample on the substrate
required for the application of and evaluate while moving the
the product on a substrate, such sample on the substrate at a pre­
as the skin or nails. determined rate and form.
Spreadable The ease to which the product Place the sample on the substrate
can be manipulated on the and evaluate the force needed to
surface of a substrate, such as reposition the sample.
the forearm or nails.
Applies to non­food products. See also Annex B.
4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 11036:2020(E)
6.2.3 Geometrical attributes
6.2.3.1 General

Geometrical attributes are perceived by tactile receptors located in the skin. In the case of food

products, these are located mainly in the tongue, mouth and throat. In the case of non-food products,

these are mainly located in the skin (e.g. the hand or another location on the body). These attributes are

also discernible through the appearance of the products, whether or not they are food.

6.2.3.2 Granularity

Granularity is a geometrical textural attribute relating to the perception of the size and shape of

particles in a product.

Attributes relating to particle size and shape can be demonstrated by reference products in the same

manner as the mechanical attributes. For example, terms such as smooth, chalky, grainy, gritty, sandy

and coarse comprise a scale of increasing particle size.
6.2.3.3 Conformation

Conformation is a geometrical textural attribute relating to the perception of the shape and the

orientation of particles in a product. Attributes relating to the orientation of particles represent

highly organized structures. Geometrical attributes are not suitable for clear-cut scaling. Evaluation is

qualitative and quantitative as to the type and amount of particles present in the mass or on the surface

of the product.
Different terms correspond to a certain number of conformations. For example:

— “fibrous” refers to long particles oriented in the same direction (e.g. celery sticks, yarn);

— “cellular” refers to a highly organized structure composed of spherical ovoid particles, or composed

of cell walls filled with a gas (e.g. egg white foam, stone cells in pears);
— “crystalline” refers to angular particles (e.g. granulated sugar);

— “puffy” refers to hard or firm outer shells filled with large, often uneven, air pockets (e.g. cream

puffs, puffed rice);

— “aerated” refers to relatively small, even cells filled with air and surrounded (usually but not always)

by soft cell walls (e.g. marshmallows, meringues, polyurethane foam).

Examples of the different geometrical attributes are presented and the amount of each characteristic

present described. When a greater discrimination is required, a scale can be established for a specific

characteristic.
6.2.4 Other attributes (moisture and fat content)
6.2.4.1 General

These attributes refer to mouthfeel qualities related to the perception of moisture and/or fat content of

a product by the tactile receptors in the mouth cavity or on the skin, and may also be concerned with

the lubricating properties of the product.

The dynamic attribute of melting in the presence of heat should be noted (contact with the skin or in the

mouth) where the idea of time/intensity is related to the time necessary for a change in state and to the

perception in the mouth or on the skin surface of different textures (e.g. a piece of cold butter or an ice-

cube put into the mouth and simply allowed to melt without chewing, dissolution of pulp in non-Asian

pears, melting of body butter when it comes into contact with the skin).
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO/FDIS 11036:2020(E)
6.2.4.2 Moisture content

Moisture is a surface textural attribute that describes the perception of water absorbed by or released

from a product.

The popular terms used to describe the moisture content of a product reflect not only the total amount

of moisture perceived but also the type, rate and manner of release or absorption. Popular terms

include:
— dry (e.g. dry biscuit, baby powder);
— moist (e.g. apple, lotion);
— wet (e.g. water chestnut, mussels, tonic water);
— juicy (e.g. orange).
6.2.4.3 Fat content

Fatness is a surface textural attribute relating to the perception of the quantity or the quality of fat in

a product. With fat content, the total amount of fat and its melting point, as related to mouth­coating

attributes and geometrical attributes, are also important.

Secondary parameters, i.e. oily, greasy and fatty, have been established to distinguish between these

attributes:

— oily reflects the perception of soaking and runny fat (e.g. salad with French dressing, oily skin

lotion);
— greasy reflects the perception of exuding fat (e.g. bacon, chips);

— fatty reflects the perception of high fat proportion in a product, without exudation (e.g. lard, tallow,

body butter).
6.3 Development of terminology

Terms shall be established to describe the texture of any product. Traditionally, this is done by

having the panel evaluate several samples representing the full range of textural variations for the

particular product type of interest. It is helpful to give assessors a broad range of terms with clear

concise definitions at the beginning of the session to ensure that as many one-dimensional attributes as

possible are utilized.

The assessors then list all the terms that are applicable to one or all of the samples.

These are then discussed under the direction of a panel leader and a mutually acceptable list of terms

and definitions is compiled. The following points should be considered:
— whether the terms include all the characteristics relevant to the product;
— whether any of the terms have the same meaning and can be combined or deleted;
— whether each panel member agrees to the use of each term and its definition.
NOTE See also ISO 11035.
6.4 Reference products
6.4.1 Scales of reference products

Based on the classification of textural attributes, standard rating scales have been developed in order

to provide a defined quantitative method of evaluation of the mechanical attributes of texture (see

6 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 11036:2020(E)

Annex A). These scales are only illustrative of the basic concept of using familiar reference products to

quantify the intensity of each sensory texture attribute. These scales reflect the range of intensities of

the mechanical attributes normally encountered in foods and non-foods intended to be profiled. They

may be adopted without modification, or other reference products may be selected to allow for local

availability, habits, etc.

These scales, as given, are suitable for training. However, they cannot be used to evaluate profiles of

all products without some adaptation. For example, when evaluating products that are all soft (e.g.

varying formulations of cream cheese or body lotions), the lower end of the hardness scale will have to

be expanded and other portions disregarded. Therefore, any portion of the scales could be expanded to

allow for more precise ratings of similar products.
The described scales offer a ba
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 11036
Deuxième édition
2020-05
Analyse sensorielle — Méthodologie
— Profil de la texture
Sensory analysis — Methodology — Texture profile
Numéro de référence
ISO 11036:2020(F)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 11036:2020(F)
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ii © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 11036:2020(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Domaine d’application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Termes et définitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principe .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Exigences générales pour un essai .................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.1 Conditions d’essai générales ....................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.2 Matériel et locaux ................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

6 Méthodologie ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6.1 Éléments constituant un profil de texture ...................................................................................................................... 2

6.2 Classification des propriétés de texture ............................................................................................................................ 3

6.2.1 Généralités ............................................................................................................................................................................ 3

6.2.2 Propriétés mécaniques ............................................................................................................................................... 3

6.2.3 Propriétés géométriques .......................................................................................................................................... 5

6.2.4 Autres propriétés (humidité et lipidité) ...................................................................................................... 6

6.3 Développement de la terminologie ....................................................................................................................................... 7

6.4 Produits de référence ........................................................................................................................................................................ 7

6.4.1 Échelles de produits de référence ..................................................................................................................... 7

6.4.2 Critères de sélection des produits de référence ................................................................................... 8

6.5 Ordre d’apparition ............................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.6 Méthode d’évaluation ........................................................................................................................................................................ 8

6.7 Utilisation des échelles d’intensité ........................................................................................................................................ 9

7 Recrutement et sélection du jury ........................................................................................................................................................ 9

7.1 Généralités .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

7.2 Recrutement du jury .......................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.2.1 Généralités ............................................................................................................................................................................ 9

7.2.2 Environnement buccal ou cutané ...................................................................................................................... 9

7.2.3 Critères de comportement ...................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3 Sélection du jury .................................................................................................................................................................................10

8 Entraînement du jury ...................................................................................................................................................................................10

8.1 Première étape: propriétés mécaniques ........................................................................................................................10

8.2 Deuxième étape: propriétés géométriques, lipidité et humidité ..............................................................10

8.3 Troisième étape: établissement d’échelles ..................................................................................................................10

9 Préparation et présentation d’échantillons pour l’entraînement et l’évaluation .........................10

10 Évaluation par le jury ...................................................................................................................................................................................11

11 Analyse des données......................................................................................................................................................................................11

Annexe A (informative) Exemples d’échelles de produits de référence pour l’évaluation des

propriétés mécaniques de texture de produits alimentaires .............................................................................12

Annexe B (informative) Classification des termes sélectionnés pour l’analyse sensorielle

visuelle et tactile de la texture de produits non alimentaires ...........................................................................15

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................17

© ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés iii
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ISO 11036:2020(F)
Avant-propos

L’ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d’organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l’ISO). L’élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l’ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l’ISO participent également aux travaux.

L’ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui

concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier, de prendre note des différents

critères d’approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a été

rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2 (voir www

.iso .org/ directives).

L’attention est attirée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l’objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L’ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant

les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de

l’élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l’Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de

brevets reçues par l’ISO (voir www .iso .org/ brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un

engagement.

Pour une explication de la nature volontaire des normes, la signification des termes et expressions

spécifiques de l’ISO liés à l’évaluation de la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l’adhésion

de l’ISO aux principes de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) concernant les obstacles

techniques au commerce (OTC), voir www .iso .org/ avant -propos.

Le présent document a été élaboré par le comité technique ISO/TC 34, Produits alimentaires, sous-

comité SC 12, Analyse sensorielle.

Cette deuxième édition annule et remplace la première édition (ISO 11036:1994), qui a fait l’objet d’une

révision technique. Les principales modifications par rapport à l’édition précédente sont les suivantes:

— ajout de définitions pour être en cohérence avec l’ISO 5492;
— réalisation de modifications pour éviter toute répétition.

Il convient que l’utilisateur adresse tout retour d’information ou toute question concernant le présent

document à l’organisme national de normalisation de son pays. Une liste exhaustive desdits organismes

se trouve à l’adresse www .iso .org/ fr/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 11036:2020(F)
Introduction

Les méthodes d’établissement de profils sensoriels sont des modes opératoires formels utilisés pour

évaluer de façon reproductible chacune des propriétés d’un échantillon puis estimer leurs intensités sur

une échelle appropriée. Les méthodes peuvent être utilisées pour l’évaluation de l’odeur, de la flaveur,

de l’aspect ou de la texture, séparément ou ensemble.

En raison du caractère spécifique de la texture, des méthodes ont été mises au point tout spécialement

pour le profil de la texture.
© ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés v
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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 11036:2020(F)
Analyse sensorielle — Méthodologie — Profil de la texture
1 Domaine d’application

Le présent document spécifie une méthode d’établissement du profil de la texture des produits

alimentaires (solides, semi-solides, liquides) ou non alimentaires (par exemple, produits cosmétiques).

La présente méthode propose une approche par analyse sensorielle pour établir un profil de la texture;

d’autres méthodes existent. La présente méthode décrit les différentes étapes du processus conduisant

à une description complète des propriétés de texture d’un produit.
Cette méthode peut être utilisée pour:
— sélectionner et entraîner des sujets;

— orienter des sujets grâce au développement de définitions et de techniques d’évaluation des

propriétés de texture;

— caractériser les propriétés de texture d’un produit afin d’établir son profil-type, de manière à

discerner des modifications ultérieures;
— améliorer des produits déjà existants et en développer de nouveaux;

— étudier les différents facteurs qui peuvent affecter les propriétés de texture d’un produit, tels que la

modification du procédé, de la durée, de la température, des ingrédients, des conditions d’emballage

ou de conservation et de stockage;

— comparer un produit avec un autre produit similaire de manière à déterminer la nature et l’intensité

des différences de texture;

— corréler les mesures sensorielles et les mesures instrumentales et/ou physiques.

2 Références normatives

Les documents suivants sont cités dans le texte de sorte qu’ils constituent, pour tout ou partie de leur

contenu, des exigences du présent document. Pour les références datées, seule l’édition citée s’applique.

Pour les références non datées, la dernière édition du document de référence s’applique (y compris les

éventuels amendements).
ISO 5492, Analyse sensorielle — Vocabulaire

ISO 8586, Analyse sensorielle — Lignes directrices générales pour la sélection, l’entraînement et le contrôle

des sujets qualifiés et sujets sensoriels experts

ISO 8589, Analyse sensorielle — Directives générales pour la conception de locaux destinés à l’analyse

3 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et les définitions de l’ISO 5492 ainsi que les suivants

s’appliquent.

L’ISO et l’IEC tiennent à jour des bases de données terminologiques destinées à être utilisées en

normalisation, consultables aux adresses suivantes:

— ISO Online browsing platform: disponible à l’adresse https:// www .iso .org/ obp

© ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés 1
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ISO 11036:2020(F)
— IEC Electropedia: disponible à l’adresse http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
texture, subst

ensemble des propriétés mécaniques, géométriques et de surface d’un produit perceptibles par les

mécano-récepteurs, par les récepteurs tactiles et, éventuellement, par les récepteurs visuels et auditifs

Note 1 à l'article: Les propriétés « mécaniques » sont les propriétés liées à la réaction du produit à une contrainte.

Elles sont divisées en cinq caractéristiques primaires: dureté, cohésion, viscosité, élasticité et adhérence. Les

« propriétés géométriques » sont les propriétés liées aux dimensions, à la forme et à l’arrangement des particules

dans un produit. Les « propriétés de surface » sont les propriétés liées aux sensations telles que celles produites

par l’eau et/ou les matières grasses. Dans la cavité buccale, elles sont aussi liées à la lubrification et à la façon

dont ces constituants sont libérés.
4 Principe

Élaborer le profil de la texture par une approche de classification systématique qui décrit l’ensemble

des propriétés de texture (mécaniques, géométriques ou de surface).
5 Exigences générales pour un essai
5.1 Conditions d’essai générales

Les évaluations doivent être effectuées dans un local d’essai conforme à l’ISO 8589.

5.2 Matériel et locaux

Les ustensiles, récipients et autres matériels nécessaires doivent être choisis par l’analyste sensoriel

ou le responsable du jury, selon la nature du produit, le nombre d’échantillons, etc. Ils ne doivent pas

influencer les résultats d’essai.

Si un appareillage standardisé répond aux besoins de l’essai, il doit être utilisé.

Il convient d’effectuer l’échantillonnage conformément aux bonnes pratiques. Il convient de choisir une

préparation des échantillons standardisée et représentative de la texture de l’ensemble du lot.

6 Méthodologie
6.1 Éléments constituant un profil de texture

Le concept de profil de texture est basé sur les mêmes éléments que ceux constituant le profil de flaveur.

Par conséquent, un profil de texture peut comprendre les éléments suivants, selon le type de produit

(alimentaire ou non alimentaire):

a) les propriétés de texture perceptibles, c’est-à- dire les caractéristiques mécaniques, géométriques

et autres;
b) l’intensité, c’est-à-dire le degré auquel la propriété est perceptible;

c) l’ordre d’apparition des propriétés, qui peut être considéré comme étant le suivant:

1) avant le toucher (visuel);
2) premier toucher (avec les mains ou une autre partie du corps);

3) première application (pour les aliments, elle peut être appliquée sur les lèvres ou la langue;

pour les autres produits, elle peut être appliquée sur la peau d’autres parties du corps);

2 © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 11036:2020(F)

4) manipulation (par exemple, mastication d’aliment, étalement de crèmes/lotions, froissement

de textiles);

5) résiduel (modifications se produisant pendant la mastication et/ou l’absorption, comme le taux

et le type de dissociation);

6) final, le cas échéant (par exemple, déglutition, absorption, essuyage, rinçage).

6.2 Classification des propriétés de texture
6.2.1 Généralités

L’évaluation sensorielle de la texture étant un processus dynamique, la texture comporte différentes

propriétés.

Les propriétés de texture peuvent être regroupées en trois classes principales (voir 6.2.1 à 6.2.3) selon

le degré de chacune des propriétés présentes et l’ordre dans lequel elles apparaissent.

Elles se manifestent par la réaction d’un produit alimentaire ou non alimentaire à la contrainte ou à la

manipulation du produit. Elles sont mesurées:

a) soit par kinesthésie, c’est-à-dire par l’ensemble des sensations de position, de mouvement et de

tension de certaines parties du corps, perçues à travers les nerfs et les muscles, les tendons et les

articulations;

b) soit par somesthésie, c’est-à-dire par les sensations de pression (toucher) et de douleur perçues par

les récepteurs localisés dans la peau et les lèvres, y compris la muqueuse buccale, la langue et la

membrane parodontale.
6.2.2 Propriétés mécaniques

Pour tirer profit au maximum de l’utilisation des échelles au cours d’une étude sensorielle, chaque

propriété doit être définie. Il convient qu’une méthode d’analyse sensorielle accompagne toujours

la définition d’une propriété de texture. Des exemples de propriétés mécaniques, de définitions, de

méthodes et d’alternatives courantes sont données dans le Tableau 1 pour des produits alimentaires et

non alimentaires liquides, semi-solides et solides.
© ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés 3
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ISO 11036:2020(F)

Tableau 1 — Exemples de définitions et de méthodes d’évaluation pour des propriétés

mécaniques de texture
Syno- Anto-
Propriété Définition sensorielle Méthode nymes nymes
courants courants

Dureté Propriété mécanique de tex- Placer l’échantillon entre les molaires Ferme, dur Mou

ture liée à la force nécessaire ou entre la langue et le palais et
pour obtenir une déformation mâcher régulièrement en évaluant
ou une pénétration donnée la force nécessaire pour comprimer
d’un produit. l’aliment.
En bouche, elle s’évalue en Évaluer la dureté de l’échantillon en
comprimant le produit entre appuyant celui-ci sur une surface lisse
les dents (s’il s’agit d’un solide) ou en le serrant entre deux doigts.
ou entre la langue et le palais
(s’il s’agit d’un semi-solide).
Avec les mains, elle s’évalue en
comprimant le produit entre
les mains (s’il s’agit d’un solide)
et une surface lisse ou entre
deux doigts (s’il s’agit d’un
semi-solide).

Viscosité Propriété mécanique de Placer la cuillère contenant l’échantil- Visqueux Fluide,

texture liée à la résistance à lon juste devant la bouche et attirer mince,

l’écoulement. Elle correspond à le liquide de la cuillère sur la langue ruisselant

la force nécessaire pour aspirer par aspiration, en évaluant la force
un produit placé, par exemple, nécessaire pour amener le liquide sur
dans une cuillère, ou pour l’éta- la langue selon un débit constant.
ler sur un substrat.
Le degré de résistance de l’écoule-
ment d’un liquide en cas d’applica-
tion sur une surface ou un substrat
peut être évalué visuellement ou par
kinesthésie

Élasticité Propriété mécanique de Placer l’échantillon entre la langue et Plastique,

texture liée à la rapidité de le palais (s’il s’agit d’un semi-solide) malléable,

récupération après l’applica- ou entre les molaires (s’il s’agit d’un élastique,
tion d’une force déformante et solide) et le comprimer partiellement. souple
au degré auquel un matériau Supprimer la force exercée et évaluer
déformé revient à sa condition le degré et la rapidité du retour à
primitive après que la force de l’état initial.
déformation a cessé.
Placer l’échantillon, soit entre une
main et une surface lisse ou une autre
partie du corps, soit entre deux doigts
et le comprimer partiellement. Sup-
primer la force exercée et évaluer le
degré et la rapidité du retour à l’état
initial.

Adhérence Propriété mécanique de tex- Placer l’échantillon sur la langue, le Collant,

ture liée à la force nécessaire comprimer contre le palais et évaluer poisseux,
pour ôter (décoller) des pro- la force nécessaire pour l’enlever avec gluant,
duits qui adhèrent à l’intérieur la langue. visqueux
de la cavité buccale ou à un
Évaluer le degré d’adhérence des
substrat (comme la surface de
doigts entre eux ou avec l’échan-
la peau).
tillon après mise en contact avec
l’échantillon.
S’applique aux produits non alimentaires. Voir également l’Annexe B.
4 © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 11036:2020(F)
Tableau 1 (suite)
Syno- Anto-
Propriété Définition sensorielle Méthode nymes nymes
courants courants
Fragilité Propriété mécanique de Placer l’échantillon entre les molaires Cassant
texture liée à la cohésion et la et mâcher uniformément jusqu’à ce
force nécessaire pour qu’un que l’échantillon s’effrite, se brise ou
produit s’effrite ou se brise. se casse, en évaluant la facilité avec
laquelle l’aliment se détache des dents.
Placer l’échantillon entre les
deux mains, frotter une main contre
l’autre en appuyant uniformément
jusqu’à ce que l’échantillon s’effrite,
se brise ou se casse, en évaluant la
facilité avec laquelle l’échantillon se
détache des mains.

Cohésion Propriété mécanique de tex- Mâcher l’échantillon avec les molaires Élastique et

ture liée au degré de cohésion jusqu’à l’apparition d’un changement gélatineux
en cas de mastication ou de de phase.
manipulation manuelle.
Malaxer ou serrer l’échantillon dans
la main jusqu’à l’apparition d’un chan-
gement de phase.
Applicabilité Quantité de pression requise Placer l’échantillon sur un substrat
pour appliquer le produit sur et l’évaluer tout en l’appliquant à une
un substrat, comme la peau ou vitesse et une forme prédéterminées.
les ongles.
Facilité d’éta- Aptitude à la manipulation Placer l’échantillon sur un substrat
lement du produit sur la surface d’un et évaluer la force nécessaire pour
substrat, comme l’avant-bras repositionner l’échantillon.
ou les ongles.
S’applique aux produits non alimentaires. Voir également l’Annexe B.
6.2.3 Propriétés géométriques
6.2.3.1 Généralités

Les propriétés géométriques sont perçues par des récepteurs tactiles localisés dans la peau. Dans le cas

de produits alimentaires, ils sont principalement localisés dans la langue, la bouche et la gorge. Dans le

cas de produits non alimentaires, ils sont principalement localisés dans la peau (par exemple, la main

ou une autre partie du corps). Ces propriétés sont aussi perceptibles à travers l’aspect des produits,

qu’ils soient alimentaires ou non.
6.2.3.2 Granulosité

La granulosité est une propriété géométrique de texture liée à la perception de la dimension et de la

forme des particules d’un produit.

Les propriétés relatives à la forme et aux dimensions des particules peuvent être illustrées par des

produits de référence, de la même façon que les propriétés mécaniques. Par exemple, des termes tels

que lisse, crayeux, granuleux, grenu, sablonneux et grossier, impliquent une échelle de dimension

croissante des particules.
6.2.3.3 Conformation

La conformation est une propriété géométrique de texture liée à la perception de la forme et de

l’orientation des particules au sein d’un produit. Les propriétés liées à l’orientation des particules

représentent des structures hautement organisées. Les propriétés géométriques ne se prêtent pas à une

© ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés 5
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ISO 11036:2020(F)

graduation nette. L’évaluation est qualitative et quantitative en ce qui concerne le type et la quantité de

particules présentes dans la masse ou à la surface du produit.
Différents termes correspondent à des conformations particulières. Par exemple:

— « fibreux », pour désigner des particules de forme allongée orientées dans le même sens (par exemple,

céleri en branches, fil textile);

— « cellulaire », pour désigner une structure hautement organisée composée de particules de forme

sphérique ou ovoïde, ou composée de parois de cellules remplies de gaz (par exemple, blanc d’œuf

battu en neige, grains dans les poires);

— « cristallisé », pour désigner des particules de forme anguleuse (par exemple, sucre cristallisé);

— « soufflé », pour désigner des enveloppes externes dures ou fermes remplies de poches d’air

importantes, souvent inégales (par exemple, choux à la crème, riz soufflé);

— « aéré », pour désigner des cellules uniformes, relativement petites, remplies d’air et entourées

(généralement mais pas toujours) par des parois de cellules molles (par exemple, guimauves,

meringues, mousse de polyuréthane).

Des exemples des différentes propriétés géométriques sont présentés et l’importance de chaque

propriété présente décrite. Si une plus grande discrimination est exigée, une échelle peut être créée

pour l’évaluation d’une propriété spécifique.
6.2.4 Autres propriétés (humidité et lipidité)
6.2.4.1 Généralités

Ces propriétés se réfèrent aux sensations tactiles liées à la perception de l’humidité et/ou de la lipidité

d’un produit par les récepteurs tactiles de la cavité buccale ou de la peau, et peuvent également être

impliquées dans les propriétés lubrifiantes du produit.

Il convient de noter le processus dynamique de la fusion possible en présence de chaleur (contact de

la peau ou dans la bouche); dans ce cas, le concept de temps/intensité est en relation avec le temps

nécessaire au changement d’état et à la perception en bouche ou sur la surface de la peau de textures

différentes (par exemple, morceau de beurre froid ou glaçon mis en bouche en le laissant simplement

fondre sans mouvement masticatoire, dissolution de la pulpe dans les poires, fusion d’un morceau de

beurre quand il vient au contact de la peau).
6.2.4.2 Humidité

L’humidité est une propriété de surface de la texture liée à la perception de la quantité d’eau absorbée

ou dégagée par un produit.

Les termes utilisés dans le langage courant pour décrire l’humidité d’un produit reflètent non seulement

la quantité totale d’humidité perçue, mais également le type, la vitesse et le mode de libération ou

d’absorption de cette humidité. Les termes courants sont notamment:
— sec (par exemple, biscuit sec, talc);
— humide (par exemple, pomme, lotion);
— mouillé (par exemple, châtaigne d’eau, moules, tonique);
— juteux (par exemple, orange).
6.2.4.3 Lipidité

La lipidité est une propriété de surface de la texture liée à la perception de la quantité ou de la qualité

de la matière grasse contenue dans un produit. Avec la lipidité, la teneur totale en matières grasses et

6 © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 11036:2020(F)

son point de fusion, qui sont liés aux propriétés du film buccal et aux propriétés géométriques, sont

également deux points importants.

Les paramètres secondaires, c’est-à-dire les caractères huileux, graisseux et gras, ont été établis afin de

faire la distinction entre ces propriétés:

— le caractère huileux se réfère à la perception de gras imbibé et ruisselant (par exemple, salade en

vinaigrette, lotion huileuse pour la peau);

— le caractère graisseux reflète la perception de gras exsudant (par exemple, bacon, frites);

— le caractère gras reflète la perception de matières grasses en forte proportion sans exsudation

(par exemple, saindoux, suif, beurre en masse).
6.3 Développement de la terminologie

Les termes doivent être définis de manière à décrire la texture de n’importe quel produit.

Traditionnellement, ceci s’effectue en faisant évaluer au jury plus
...

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