This document specifies the definition and calculation of surface area and volume indicators.
In defining area measurement, this document uses three measurement concepts:
a) the intra-muros and extra-muros concept used in many parts of the world;
b) the wall centre method of measurement used in many parts of the world;
c) variations on these methods to comply with certain national laws or for particular types of
The surface area and volume indicators defined in this document are intended for practical use, as a
basis for measuring various aspects of the performance of buildings or as a planning aid. In other words,
they should enable judgement to be made on functional, technical and economic aspects of buildings.
This document is intended to be used when establishing
— specifications for the geometric performance of a building and its spaces (e.g. in design, purchasing
procedures, etc., or in building regulations where appropriate),
— technical documentation relating to the performance of whole buildings prepared by designers,
contractors and manufacturers,
— the amount of floor area that will not be effectively available for the placement of an individual’s
workplace, furniture, equipment, or for circulation, and
— evaluation, comparison or control of the properties of a building which are connected to its geometric
NOTE Although there are a variety of methods of area measurement around the world depending on the
country and/or types of buildings, all measuring methods are not necessarily of practical use because of inability
to identify real area (e.g. the wall centre method of measurement). Thus, this document specializes in the
measurement solely for practical use.
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CEN/TC 171 origin - New Figure 1 so as to correct inconsistency in three language versions.
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This European standard applies to heat cost allocators which are used to capture the proportionate thermal output of radiators in consumer units. If an account unit comprises consumer units of different types (e.g. technically different types of heating systems or differences due to the consumer behaviour, e.g. industrial plants as opposed to private apartments), it could be necessary to divide this account unit into groups of users. Heat cost allocators enable the determination of the heat consumption only of each radiator in a consumer unit as a share of the total heat consumption of the account unit or user group; it is therefore necessary to determine this total heat consumption either by measuring the consumed fuel quantity or the amount of heat delivered (the latter by means of a heat meter, for example). For the appropriate use of the heat cost allocators in accordance with this standard, the heating system needs to: correspond to the state of the art at the time of installation of the heat cost allocators; be operated in accordance with the state of the art. This standard specifies that heat cost allocators shall not be used for heating systems where the temperature of the heating system falls below or exceeds the temperature limits of the heat cost allocators, where the rating factor for the thermal output, KQ, cannot be clearly specified or where the heating surface is inaccessible. This applies usually to the following heating systems: floor heating; radiant ceiling heating; flap-controlled radiators; radiators with ventilators; fan-assisted air heaters; heating systems with steam-operated radiators.
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