Performance standards in building -- Definition and calculation of area and space indicators

This document specifies the definition and calculation of surface area and volume indicators.
In defining area measurement, this document uses three measurement concepts:
a) the intra-muros and extra-muros concept used in many parts of the world;
b) the wall centre method of measurement used in many parts of the world;
c) variations on these methods to comply with certain national laws or for particular types of
buildings.
The surface area and volume indicators defined in this document are intended for practical use, as a
basis for measuring various aspects of the performance of buildings or as a planning aid. In other words,
they should enable judgement to be made on functional, technical and economic aspects of buildings.
This document is intended to be used when establishing
— specifications for the geometric performance of a building and its spaces (e.g. in design, purchasing
procedures, etc., or in building regulations where appropriate),
— technical documentation relating to the performance of whole buildings prepared by designers,
contractors and manufacturers,
— the amount of floor area that will not be effectively available for the placement of an individual’s
workplace, furniture, equipment, or for circulation, and
— evaluation, comparison or control of the properties of a building which are connected to its geometric
performance.
NOTE Although there are a variety of methods of area measurement around the world depending on the
country and/or types of buildings, all measuring methods are not necessarily of practical use because of inability
to identify real area (e.g. the wall centre method of measurement). Thus, this document specializes in the
measurement solely for practical use.

Normes de performance dans le bâtiment -- Définition et calcul des indicateurs de surface et de volume

Standardi za lastnosti stavb - Definicija in računanje indikatorjev površine in prostornine

Ta dokument določa definicijo in način računanja indikatorjev površine in prostornine.
Pri določanju merjenja površine ta dokument uporablja tri koncepte merjenja:
a) koncept intra muros in extra muros, ki se uporablja v številnih delih sveta;
b) način merjenja sredine stene, ki se uporablja v številnih delih sveta;
c) različice teh načinov, da bi se zagotovila skladnost z določenimi državnimi zakoni ali za določene vrste stavb.
Indikatorji površine in prostornine, definirani v tem dokumentu, so namenjeni praktični uporabi kot podlaga za ocenjevanje različnih vidikov kakovosti stavb ali kot pomoč pri načrtovanju. Drugače povedano, ti indikatorji bi morali omogočiti presojo funkcionalnih, tehničnih in ekonomskih vidikov stavb.
Ta dokument naj bi se uporabljal pri določanju:
– specifikacij za geometrično učinkovitost stavbe in njenih prostorov (npr. pri projektiranju, postopkih
nakupovanja itd. ali pri predpisih v zvezi s stavbami, kjer je to primerno);
– tehnične dokumentacije, ki se nanaša na lastnosti stavb v celoti in ki jo pripravljajo projektanti, izvajalci in proizvajalci;
– obsega površine tal, ki ne bo učinkovito na voljo za postavitev posameznikovega delovnega mesta, pohištva, opreme ali za kroženje; in
– vrednotenja, primerjave ali kontrole lastnosti stavbe, ki so povezane z njenimi geometrijskimi lastnostmi.
OPOMBA: Čeprav po vsem svetu obstajajo različni načini merjenja površine, ki so odvisni od države in/ali vrste stavb, vsi načini merjenja niso nujno praktični, ker z njimi ni mogoče določiti dejanske površine (npr. način merjenja sredine stene). Zato se ta dokument osredotoča na merjenje izključno za praktično uporabo.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
19-Feb-2018
Publication Date
18-Feb-2018
Current Stage
6100 - Translation of adopted SIST standards (Adopted Project)
Start Date
02-Sep-2019
Due Date
31-Aug-2020
Completion Date
24-Feb-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 9836:2018
01-marec-2018
6WDQGDUGL]DODVWQRVWLVWDYE'HILQLFLMDLQUDþXQDQMHLQGLNDWRUMHYSRYUãLQHLQ
SURVWRUQLQH

Performance standards in building -- Definition and calculation of area and space

indicators

Normes de performance dans le bâtiment -- Définition et calcul des indicateurs de

surface et de volume
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 9836:2017
ICS:
91.040.01 Stavbe na splošno Buildings in general
SIST ISO 9836:2018 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST ISO 9836:2018
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SIST ISO 9836:2018
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 9836
Third edition
2017-09
Performance standards in building —
Definition and calculation of area and
space indicators
Normes de performance dans le bâtiment — Définition et calcul des
indicateurs de surface et de volume
Reference number
ISO 9836:2017(E)
ISO 2017
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SIST ISO 9836:2018
ISO 9836:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 9836:2018
ISO 9836:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Units ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5 Intra-muros calculation methods and list of indicators for geometric performance ..................3

5.1 Surface areas ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.1.1 Calculation principles .................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.1.2 Covered area ........................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.1.3 Total floor area .................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.1.4 Intra-muros area .............................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.1.5 Net floor area ...................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.1.6 Area of structural elements .................................................................................................................................... 6

5.1.7 Usable area ............................................................................................................................................................................ 6

5.1.8 Services area ........................................................................................................................................................................ 7

5.1.9 Circulation area ................................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.1.10 Building envelope area ............................................................................................................................................... 8

5.1.11 Effective and actual building loss area .......................................................................................................... 8

5.2 Volumes ......................................................................................................................................................................................................15

5.2.1 Calculation principles ...............................................................................................................................................15

5.2.2 Gross volume of buildings or parts of buildings which are enclosed and

covered on all sides.....................................................................................................................................................17

5.2.3 Gross volume of buildings or parts of buildings which are not enclosed on

all sides up to their full height, but which are covered ................................................................17

5.2.4 Gross volume of buildings or parts of buildings which are enclosed by

components, but which are not covered ..................................................................................................18

5.2.5 Net volume .........................................................................................................................................................................18

5.2.6 Net volume above intra-muros area ............................................................................................................18

5.2.7 Net volume above usable area ..........................................................................................................................18

5.2.8 Net volume above services area ......................................................................................................................19

5.2.9 Net volume above circulation area ................................................................................................................19

5.3 Examples of indicators ..................................................................................................................................................................19

5.3.1 Surface area indicators ............................................................................................................................................19

5.3.2 Space indicators.............................................................................................................................................................20

5.3.3 Area/volume indicators ..........................................................................................................................................21

5.4 Commentary ...........................................................................................................................................................................................21

Annex A (informative) Examples of using building loss factors for a new construction .............................22

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................23

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST ISO 9836:2018
ISO 9836:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 59, Buildings and civil engineering works,

Subcommittee SC 15, Framework for the description of housing performance.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 9836:2011), of which it constitutes a

minor revision with the following changes plus other minor editorial modifications:

— in Figure 1, the intra-muros area has been changed;

— in 5.1.7.3, ISO 6241:1984, Tables 1 and 2 has been changed to ISO 19208:2016, Table B.1;

— in 5.4, ISO 6241:1984, Table 2 has been changed to ISO 19208:2016;
— in Bibliography, references have been added;
— in 5.1.11 g) and A.2, the decimal point expression has been corrected.
iv © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 9836:2018
ISO 9836:2017(E)
Introduction

The surface area and volume indicators derived from measuring spaces in buildings can be used to

compare aspects of value, such as the proportion of space or volume which can be utilized functionally.

As approximate values for planning, they can be a basis for further developments.

Reference to surface area and volume indicators when assessing buildings, which either already exist or

which are in the planning stage, indirectly indicates certain economic characteristics of the buildings.

Thus, the relationship between the area taken up by the building and the usable area indicates whether

the building costs and materials have been used to their best advantage.

In the same way, the relationship between the area of the building envelope and the usable area shows

the extent to which basic savings have been made on the envelope and the running costs of the heating

and air conditioning systems.

As far as the determination of the economic performance of whole buildings is concerned, surface

area and volume indicators contain basic data for calculation and comparison of capital costs and for

running costs and maintenance. They give a basis for the minimization of running costs by limiting

the amount of space and the cost of individual materials. For example, if the area of the external walls

is small compared to the usable area, this would indicate not only relatively low energy costs but also

relatively low cleaning and maintenance costs for facades.

NOTE Examples of using building loss factors for a new construction are given in Annex A.

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved v
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SIST ISO 9836:2018
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SIST ISO 9836:2018
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 9836:2017(E)
Performance standards in building — Definition and
calculation of area and space indicators
1 Scope

This document specifies the definition and calculation of surface area and volume indicators.

In defining area measurement, this document uses three measurement concepts:
a) the intra-muros and extra-muros concept used in many parts of the world;
b) the wall centre method of measurement used in many parts of the world;

c) variations on these methods to comply with certain national laws or for particular types of

buildings.

The surface area and volume indicators defined in this document are intended for practical use, as a

basis for measuring various aspects of the performance of buildings or as a planning aid. In other words,

they should enable judgement to be made on functional, technical and economic aspects of buildings.

This document is intended to be used when establishing

— specifications for the geometric performance of a building and its spaces (e.g. in design, purchasing

procedures, etc., or in building regulations where appropriate),

— technical documentation relating to the performance of whole buildings prepared by designers,

contractors and manufacturers,

— the amount of floor area that will not be effectively available for the placement of an individual’s

workplace, furniture, equipment, or for circulation, and

— evaluation, comparison or control of the properties of a building which are connected to its geometric

performance.

NOTE Although there are a variety of methods of area measurement around the world depending on the

country and/or types of buildings, all measuring methods are not necessarily of practical use because of inability

to identify real area (e.g. the wall centre method of measurement). Thus, this document specializes in the

measurement solely for practical use.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 6707-1, Building and civil engineering — Vocabulary — Part 1: General terms
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 6707-1 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST ISO 9836:2018
ISO 9836:2017(E)
3.1
surface area indicator

amount of certain types of area (e.g. usable area) and the relationship between different types of area

(e.g. area occupied by structure/usable area)
3.2
volume indicator

amount of certain types of volume (e.g. net volume) and the relationship between different types of

volume (e.g. gross volume/net volume)

Note 1 to entry: An example of a relationship indicator of volume is gross volume/net volume.

3.3
mixed surface area and volume indicator

indicator relating a type of volume to a type of area (e.g. gross volume/usable area) and a type of area

to a type of volume

Note 1 to entry: Clause 5 gives further definitions of the different surface area and volume indicators, together

with the appropriate calculation methods.

Note 2 to entry: An example of a mixed relationship indicator is area of building envelope/net volume.

3.4
building loss feature

feature or element of a building in which a portion of the floor area is not available for an individual’s

activities, or for furniture, equipment or circulation

Note 1 to entry: Examples of places in which a portion might not be available because of a building loss feature

are workplaces, corridors, etc.

Note 2 to entry: A building loss feature may be a physical element such as a column, or the configuration of an

element such as the curve of a wall, or the configuration of a fire escape route which is mandated by regulation

but not needed for normal circulation.
3.5
effective building loss area

portion of the floor area that is not physically occupied by building material yet is not fully available for

an individual’s activities, or for furniture, equipment or for circulation, because of a building loss feature

Note 1 to entry: Examples of places in which a portion might not be available because of a building loss feature

are workplaces, corridors, etc.
3.6
actual building loss area

portion of the floor area that is not available for an individual's activities, or for furniture, equipment or

for circulation, because it is physically occupied by a building loss feature, or is required to be vacant by

law or regulation or by a lease

Note 1 to entry: Examples of places in which a portion might not be available because of a building loss feature

are workplaces, corridors, etc.
3.7
perimeter encroachment

form of building loss feature which prevents effective use of floor area near a wall or other geometrically

regular building form

Note 1 to entry: Examples of a perimeter encroachment include pilaster, convector, baseboard heating unit and

radiator.
2 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 9836:2018
ISO 9836:2017(E)
4 Units

Surface area and volume indicators are obtained by measuring the plan and elevation of the building.

2 3 2 2 3 3

Their units of measurement differ according to the type of calculation (m : m : m /m : m /m :

2 3 3 2
m /m : m /m ).
5 Intra-muros calculation methods and list of indicators for geometric
performance
5.1 Surface areas
NOTE See Figure 1.
5.1.1 Calculation principles

5.1.1.1 Surfaces which are horizontal or vertical are measured by their actual dimensions. For

calculations of area and space, inclined planes are measured by their vertical projection onto an

(imaginary) horizontal plane or vertical plane as appropriate. For calculations of heat gain or loss, the

actual exposed surface area shall be used instead of the projected area.
5.1.1.2 The surface areas are expressed in square metres, to two decimal places.
5.1.2 Covered area

5.1.2.1 The covered area is the area of ground covered by buildings in their finished state.

5.1.2.2 The covered area is determined by the vertical projection of the external dimensions of the

building onto the ground.
The following are not included in covered area:

— construction or parts of construction not projecting above the surface of the ground;

— secondary components, e.g. external staircases, external ramps, canopies, horizontal sun-shields,

roof overhangs, street lighting;
— the areas of outdoor facilities, e.g. greenhouses and outhouses.
5.1.3 Total floor area

5.1.3.1 The total floor area of a building is the total area of all floor levels. Floor levels may be storeys

which are either completely or partially under the ground, storeys above ground, attics, terraces, roof

terraces, service floors or storage floors (see Figure 1).
It is necessary to distinguish between
a) floor areas which are enclosed and covered on all sides,

b) floor areas which are not enclosed on all sides up to their full height, but which are covered, such as

recessed balconies, and

c) floor areas which are contained within components (e.g. parapets, fascias, handrails), but which

are not covered, such as open balconies.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST ISO 9836:2018
ISO 9836:2017(E)
Key
1 total floor area (see 5.1.3)
2 intra-muros area (see 5.1.4)
3 usable area (see 5.1.7)
4 area of structural elements (see 5.1.6)
5 covered area (see 5.1.2)
Figure 1 — Presentation of principal areas

5.1.3.2 The total floor area of each level is obtained from the external dimensions of the enclosing

elements, at floor height, above and below ground. These elements include finishes, claddings and

parapets.

Recesses and projections for structural or aesthetic purposes and profiling are not included if they

do not alter the net floor area (see 5.1.5). Covered floor areas which are not enclosed or are partially

enclosed and have no enclosing elements [e.g. areas in accordance with 5.1.3.1 b)] are calculated

according to the vertical projection of the outer limit of the covering components.

4 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 9836:2018
ISO 9836:2017(E)
Net floor area is not determined for the following spaces (see 5.1.5.4):
— voids between the ground and the underside of the building, e.g. crawlways;
— space inside ventilated roofs;
— roofs not subjected to foot traffic other than for maintenance purposes.

5.1.3.3 The total floor area is calculated separately for each floor level. Areas with varying storey height

within one floor level (e.g. large halls, auditoria) are also calculated separately.

5.1.3.4 If the floor areas are added together, the proportions of the different areas (according to 5.1.3)

shall be distinguishable in order to enable the evaluation, comparison and separate calculation of the

volumes.

5.1.3.5 The total floor area is made up of the net floor area (see 5.1.5) and the area taken up by the

structure (see 5.1.6). This is diagrammed in Figure 2.
Total Floor Total Floor
Total Floor Total Floor
Area Area
Area Area
Floor Area of
IntrIntra-muroa-muross Floor ArFloor Area ea ofof
Floor Area of
Net Floor ArNet FloorAreeaa
Area External Walls
StructurStructuralal
Area External Walls
Elements
Elements
Floor Area of
Floor Area of Circulation
Floor Area of Floor Area of Circulation
Services ArServices Areeaa
Usable Usable ArAreaea
Internal Walls,
External WExternal Waallslls Internal Walls, AreaArea
Columns,
Columns,
Partitions, etc.
Partitions, etc.
Effective Effective Floor
Effective Effective Floor
Building Loss Area for
Building Loss Area for
Area Occupants
Area Occupants
Figure 2 — Components of total floor area
5.1.4 Intra-muros area

5.1.4.1 The intra-muros area is the total floor area (see 5.1.3) less the floor area taken up by the

external walls (floor area of the building envelope).

5.1.4.2 The intra-muros area is determined separately for each floor level. The calculation principles

established for the total floor area (see 5.1.3) and for the area taken up by the external walls (see 5.1.6)

apply equally. The intra-muros area is obtained by subtracting the area taken up by the external walls

from the total floor area.

5.1.4.3 The intra-muros area includes the net floor area (see 5.1.5) and the area taken up by the

internal walls.
5.1.5 Net floor area

5.1.5.1 The net floor area is the area between (within) the enclosing elements (see also 5.1.3.2).

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 5
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SIST ISO 9836:2018
ISO 9836:2017(E)

5.1.5.2 The net floor area is determined separately for each floor level and is subdivided according

to 5.1.3.1. It is calculated from the clear dimensions of the finished building at floor height, excluding

skirtings, thresholds, etc.

Covered floor areas that are not enclosed or only partially enclosed and have no enclosing elements

[areas mentioned in 5.1.3.1 b)] are determined by the vertical projection of the outer limit of the covering

components. Areas with varying storey height within one floor level (e.g. large halls and auditoria) are

calculated separately.

5.1.5.3 Also included in the net floor area are demountable components such as partitions, pipes

and ducts.

5.1.5.4 The floor areas of structural elements, door and window recesses, and niches to recesses in the

elements enclosing the area are not included in the net floor area.
5.1.5.5 The net floor area is divided into
— usable area (see 5.1.7),
— services area (see 5.1.8), and
— circulation area (see 5.1.9).
5.1.6 Area of structural elements

5.1.6.1 The area of structural elements is the area within the total floor area (on a horizontal section

at floor level) of the enclosing elements (e.g. external and internal load-bearing walls) and the area of

columns, pillars, piers, chimneys, partitions, etc., which cannot be entered (see Figure 1).

5.1.6.2 The area of structural elements is determined separately for each floor level and, where

necessary, is subdivided according to 5.1.3.1. It is calculated from the dimensions of the finished building

at floor height excluding skirtings, thresholds, plinths, etc.

5.1.6.3 Also included in the area of structural elements are the floor areas of door recesses, and

recesses and niches in the enclosing elements (see 5.1.5.4). This is in accordance with 5.1.3.2.

5.1.6.4 The area of structural elements may also be calculated as the difference between the total floor

area (see 5.1.3) and the net floor area (see 5.1.5).
5.1.7 Usable area

5.1.7.1 The usable area is that part of the net floor which corresponds to the purpose and use of the

building (see Figure 1).

5.1.7.2 The usable area is determined separately for floor level and is subdivided according to 5.1.3.1.

5.1.7.3 Usable areas are classified according to the purpose of the building and the use to which they

are put; they are usually divided into main usable areas and subsidiary usable areas.

The classification into main usable area and subsidiary usable area is dependent on whether the

purpose of the space is an integral component of the primary purpose(s) of the building, or in support of

the primary purpose(s) of the building.

Below is a sample list of such purposes. For more detail, see also ISO 19208:2016, Table B.1.

a) Transport (of people, goods, fluids, electricity, etc.).
6 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 9836:2018
ISO 9836:2017(E)

b) Industry (manual work, production, manufacture, agriculture, experimentation, etc.).

c) Office, commerce (study, writing, drawing, retail or wholesale selling, book-keeping, etc.).

d) Medical care (examination, treatment, operations, etc.).
e) Recreation (gymnastics, swimming, play, dance, etc.).
f) Culture (worship, education, meeting, etc.).
g) Housing (sleeping, dwelling, etc.).
h) Circulation (walkway, corridor, stairway, etc.).
i) Catering (cooking, consumption, etc.).
j) Hygiene (bathing, toilet functions, etc.).
k) Cleaning, maintenance (laundry, janitorial, repair, etc.).
l) Storage (of goods, clothing, foods, etc.).
m) Service (power plant, building operations, guard post, etc.).
n) Other.
5.1.8 Services area

5.1.8.1 The services area is that portion of the net floor area with technical installations which service

the building or parts of it, such as:
a) installations and pipes for the disposal of waste water;
b) water supply;
c) heating and hot water systems;

d) gas installations (other than for heating purposes) and installations for liquids;

e) electricity supply generators;
f) ventilation, air-conditioning and cooling systems;
g) telephone switchboard apparatus;
h) lifts, escalators and conveyors (see 5.1.9.3);
i) any other central building service installation.

5.1.8.2 The services area is determined separately for each floor level and, where necessary, is

subdivided according to 5.1.3.1.

5.1.8.3 Floor areas of spaces for principal service installations, man-sized supply shafts and ducts, and

service floors are also included in the services area.

5.1.8.4 Floor areas of spaces in which technical installations directly support occupant operations,

such as a room for computer servers, are part of the usable area and not part of the services area.

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 7
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SIST ISO 9836:2018
ISO 9836:2017(E)
5.1.9 Circulation area

5.1.9.1 The circulation area is that portion of the net area used for circulation within the building (e.g.

the area of stairwells, corridors, internal ramps, waiting areas, escape balconies, etc.).

5.1.9.2 The circulation area is determined separately for each floor level and is subdivided according

to 5.1.3.1. Areas with varying storey height within one floor level are calculated separately.

5.1.9.3 The net floor areas of lift shafts and the floor areas of built-in conveying installations for

general circulation, e.g. escalators, on each floor level (see 5.1.8.1) are also included in the category of

circulation area.
5.1.10 Building envelope area
5.1.10.1 The building envel
...

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 9836
Third edition
2017-09
Performance standards in building —
Definition and calculation of area and
space indicators
Normes de performance dans le bâtiment — Définition et calcul des
indicateurs de surface et de volume
Reference number
ISO 9836:2017(E)
ISO 2017
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ISO 9836:2017(E)
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ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 9836:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Units ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5 Intra-muros calculation methods and list of indicators for geometric performance ..................3

5.1 Surface areas ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.1.1 Calculation principles .................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.1.2 Covered area ........................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.1.3 Total floor area .................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.1.4 Intra-muros area .............................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.1.5 Net floor area ...................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.1.6 Area of structural elements .................................................................................................................................... 6

5.1.7 Usable area ............................................................................................................................................................................ 6

5.1.8 Services area ........................................................................................................................................................................ 7

5.1.9 Circulation area ................................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.1.10 Building envelope area ............................................................................................................................................... 8

5.1.11 Effective and actual building loss area .......................................................................................................... 8

5.2 Volumes ......................................................................................................................................................................................................15

5.2.1 Calculation principles ...............................................................................................................................................15

5.2.2 Gross volume of buildings or parts of buildings which are enclosed and

covered on all sides.....................................................................................................................................................17

5.2.3 Gross volume of buildings or parts of buildings which are not enclosed on

all sides up to their full height, but which are covered ................................................................17

5.2.4 Gross volume of buildings or parts of buildings which are enclosed by

components, but which are not covered ..................................................................................................18

5.2.5 Net volume .........................................................................................................................................................................18

5.2.6 Net volume above intra-muros area ............................................................................................................18

5.2.7 Net volume above usable area ..........................................................................................................................18

5.2.8 Net volume above services area ......................................................................................................................19

5.2.9 Net volume above circulation area ................................................................................................................19

5.3 Examples of indicators ..................................................................................................................................................................19

5.3.1 Surface area indicators ............................................................................................................................................19

5.3.2 Space indicators.............................................................................................................................................................20

5.3.3 Area/volume indicators ..........................................................................................................................................21

5.4 Commentary ...........................................................................................................................................................................................21

Annex A (informative) Examples of using building loss factors for a new construction .............................22

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................23

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ISO 9836:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 59, Buildings and civil engineering works,

Subcommittee SC 15, Framework for the description of housing performance.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 9836:2011), of which it constitutes a

minor revision with the following changes plus other minor editorial modifications:

— in Figure 1, the intra-muros area has been changed;

— in 5.1.7.3, ISO 6241:1984, Tables 1 and 2 has been changed to ISO 19208:2016, Table B.1;

— in 5.4, ISO 6241:1984, Table 2 has been changed to ISO 19208:2016;
— in Bibliography, references have been added;
— in 5.1.11 g) and A.2, the decimal point expression has been corrected.
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ISO 9836:2017(E)
Introduction

The surface area and volume indicators derived from measuring spaces in buildings can be used to

compare aspects of value, such as the proportion of space or volume which can be utilized functionally.

As approximate values for planning, they can be a basis for further developments.

Reference to surface area and volume indicators when assessing buildings, which either already exist or

which are in the planning stage, indirectly indicates certain economic characteristics of the buildings.

Thus, the relationship between the area taken up by the building and the usable area indicates whether

the building costs and materials have been used to their best advantage.

In the same way, the relationship between the area of the building envelope and the usable area shows

the extent to which basic savings have been made on the envelope and the running costs of the heating

and air conditioning systems.

As far as the determination of the economic performance of whole buildings is concerned, surface

area and volume indicators contain basic data for calculation and comparison of capital costs and for

running costs and maintenance. They give a basis for the minimization of running costs by limiting

the amount of space and the cost of individual materials. For example, if the area of the external walls

is small compared to the usable area, this would indicate not only relatively low energy costs but also

relatively low cleaning and maintenance costs for facades.

NOTE Examples of using building loss factors for a new construction are given in Annex A.

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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 9836:2017(E)
Performance standards in building — Definition and
calculation of area and space indicators
1 Scope

This document specifies the definition and calculation of surface area and volume indicators.

In defining area measurement, this document uses three measurement concepts:
a) the intra-muros and extra-muros concept used in many parts of the world;
b) the wall centre method of measurement used in many parts of the world;

c) variations on these methods to comply with certain national laws or for particular types of

buildings.

The surface area and volume indicators defined in this document are intended for practical use, as a

basis for measuring various aspects of the performance of buildings or as a planning aid. In other words,

they should enable judgement to be made on functional, technical and economic aspects of buildings.

This document is intended to be used when establishing

— specifications for the geometric performance of a building and its spaces (e.g. in design, purchasing

procedures, etc., or in building regulations where appropriate),

— technical documentation relating to the performance of whole buildings prepared by designers,

contractors and manufacturers,

— the amount of floor area that will not be effectively available for the placement of an individual’s

workplace, furniture, equipment, or for circulation, and

— evaluation, comparison or control of the properties of a building which are connected to its geometric

performance.

NOTE Although there are a variety of methods of area measurement around the world depending on the

country and/or types of buildings, all measuring methods are not necessarily of practical use because of inability

to identify real area (e.g. the wall centre method of measurement). Thus, this document specializes in the

measurement solely for practical use.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 6707-1, Building and civil engineering — Vocabulary — Part 1: General terms
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 6707-1 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
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ISO 9836:2017(E)
3.1
surface area indicator

amount of certain types of area (e.g. usable area) and the relationship between different types of area

(e.g. area occupied by structure/usable area)
3.2
volume indicator

amount of certain types of volume (e.g. net volume) and the relationship between different types of

volume (e.g. gross volume/net volume)

Note 1 to entry: An example of a relationship indicator of volume is gross volume/net volume.

3.3
mixed surface area and volume indicator

indicator relating a type of volume to a type of area (e.g. gross volume/usable area) and a type of area

to a type of volume

Note 1 to entry: Clause 5 gives further definitions of the different surface area and volume indicators, together

with the appropriate calculation methods.

Note 2 to entry: An example of a mixed relationship indicator is area of building envelope/net volume.

3.4
building loss feature

feature or element of a building in which a portion of the floor area is not available for an individual’s

activities, or for furniture, equipment or circulation

Note 1 to entry: Examples of places in which a portion might not be available because of a building loss feature

are workplaces, corridors, etc.

Note 2 to entry: A building loss feature may be a physical element such as a column, or the configuration of an

element such as the curve of a wall, or the configuration of a fire escape route which is mandated by regulation

but not needed for normal circulation.
3.5
effective building loss area

portion of the floor area that is not physically occupied by building material yet is not fully available for

an individual’s activities, or for furniture, equipment or for circulation, because of a building loss feature

Note 1 to entry: Examples of places in which a portion might not be available because of a building loss feature

are workplaces, corridors, etc.
3.6
actual building loss area

portion of the floor area that is not available for an individual's activities, or for furniture, equipment or

for circulation, because it is physically occupied by a building loss feature, or is required to be vacant by

law or regulation or by a lease

Note 1 to entry: Examples of places in which a portion might not be available because of a building loss feature

are workplaces, corridors, etc.
3.7
perimeter encroachment

form of building loss feature which prevents effective use of floor area near a wall or other geometrically

regular building form

Note 1 to entry: Examples of a perimeter encroachment include pilaster, convector, baseboard heating unit and

radiator.
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ISO 9836:2017(E)
4 Units

Surface area and volume indicators are obtained by measuring the plan and elevation of the building.

2 3 2 2 3 3

Their units of measurement differ according to the type of calculation (m : m : m /m : m /m :

2 3 3 2
m /m : m /m ).
5 Intra-muros calculation methods and list of indicators for geometric
performance
5.1 Surface areas
NOTE See Figure 1.
5.1.1 Calculation principles

5.1.1.1 Surfaces which are horizontal or vertical are measured by their actual dimensions. For

calculations of area and space, inclined planes are measured by their vertical projection onto an

(imaginary) horizontal plane or vertical plane as appropriate. For calculations of heat gain or loss, the

actual exposed surface area shall be used instead of the projected area.
5.1.1.2 The surface areas are expressed in square metres, to two decimal places.
5.1.2 Covered area

5.1.2.1 The covered area is the area of ground covered by buildings in their finished state.

5.1.2.2 The covered area is determined by the vertical projection of the external dimensions of the

building onto the ground.
The following are not included in covered area:

— construction or parts of construction not projecting above the surface of the ground;

— secondary components, e.g. external staircases, external ramps, canopies, horizontal sun-shields,

roof overhangs, street lighting;
— the areas of outdoor facilities, e.g. greenhouses and outhouses.
5.1.3 Total floor area

5.1.3.1 The total floor area of a building is the total area of all floor levels. Floor levels may be storeys

which are either completely or partially under the ground, storeys above ground, attics, terraces, roof

terraces, service floors or storage floors (see Figure 1).
It is necessary to distinguish between
a) floor areas which are enclosed and covered on all sides,

b) floor areas which are not enclosed on all sides up to their full height, but which are covered, such as

recessed balconies, and

c) floor areas which are contained within components (e.g. parapets, fascias, handrails), but which

are not covered, such as open balconies.
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ISO 9836:2017(E)
Key
1 total floor area (see 5.1.3)
2 intra-muros area (see 5.1.4)
3 usable area (see 5.1.7)
4 area of structural elements (see 5.1.6)
5 covered area (see 5.1.2)
Figure 1 — Presentation of principal areas

5.1.3.2 The total floor area of each level is obtained from the external dimensions of the enclosing

elements, at floor height, above and below ground. These elements include finishes, claddings and

parapets.

Recesses and projections for structural or aesthetic purposes and profiling are not included if they

do not alter the net floor area (see 5.1.5). Covered floor areas which are not enclosed or are partially

enclosed and have no enclosing elements [e.g. areas in accordance with 5.1.3.1 b)] are calculated

according to the vertical projection of the outer limit of the covering components.

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ISO 9836:2017(E)
Net floor area is not determined for the following spaces (see 5.1.5.4):
— voids between the ground and the underside of the building, e.g. crawlways;
— space inside ventilated roofs;
— roofs not subjected to foot traffic other than for maintenance purposes.

5.1.3.3 The total floor area is calculated separately for each floor level. Areas with varying storey height

within one floor level (e.g. large halls, auditoria) are also calculated separately.

5.1.3.4 If the floor areas are added together, the proportions of the different areas (according to 5.1.3)

shall be distinguishable in order to enable the evaluation, comparison and separate calculation of the

volumes.

5.1.3.5 The total floor area is made up of the net floor area (see 5.1.5) and the area taken up by the

structure (see 5.1.6). This is diagrammed in Figure 2.
Total Floor Total Floor
Total Floor Total Floor
Area Area
Area Area
Floor Area of
IntrIntra-muroa-muross Floor ArFloor Area ea ofof
Floor Area of
Net Floor ArNet FloorAreeaa
Area External Walls
StructurStructuralal
Area External Walls
Elements
Elements
Floor Area of
Floor Area of Circulation
Floor Area of Floor Area of Circulation
Services ArServices Areeaa
Usable Usable ArAreaea
Internal Walls,
External WExternal Waallslls Internal Walls, AreaArea
Columns,
Columns,
Partitions, etc.
Partitions, etc.
Effective Effective Floor
Effective Effective Floor
Building Loss Area for
Building Loss Area for
Area Occupants
Area Occupants
Figure 2 — Components of total floor area
5.1.4 Intra-muros area

5.1.4.1 The intra-muros area is the total floor area (see 5.1.3) less the floor area taken up by the

external walls (floor area of the building envelope).

5.1.4.2 The intra-muros area is determined separately for each floor level. The calculation principles

established for the total floor area (see 5.1.3) and for the area taken up by the external walls (see 5.1.6)

apply equally. The intra-muros area is obtained by subtracting the area taken up by the external walls

from the total floor area.

5.1.4.3 The intra-muros area includes the net floor area (see 5.1.5) and the area taken up by the

internal walls.
5.1.5 Net floor area

5.1.5.1 The net floor area is the area between (within) the enclosing elements (see also 5.1.3.2).

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ISO 9836:2017(E)

5.1.5.2 The net floor area is determined separately for each floor level and is subdivided according

to 5.1.3.1. It is calculated from the clear dimensions of the finished building at floor height, excluding

skirtings, thresholds, etc.

Covered floor areas that are not enclosed or only partially enclosed and have no enclosing elements

[areas mentioned in 5.1.3.1 b)] are determined by the vertical projection of the outer limit of the covering

components. Areas with varying storey height within one floor level (e.g. large halls and auditoria) are

calculated separately.

5.1.5.3 Also included in the net floor area are demountable components such as partitions, pipes

and ducts.

5.1.5.4 The floor areas of structural elements, door and window recesses, and niches to recesses in the

elements enclosing the area are not included in the net floor area.
5.1.5.5 The net floor area is divided into
— usable area (see 5.1.7),
— services area (see 5.1.8), and
— circulation area (see 5.1.9).
5.1.6 Area of structural elements

5.1.6.1 The area of structural elements is the area within the total floor area (on a horizontal section

at floor level) of the enclosing elements (e.g. external and internal load-bearing walls) and the area of

columns, pillars, piers, chimneys, partitions, etc., which cannot be entered (see Figure 1).

5.1.6.2 The area of structural elements is determined separately for each floor level and, where

necessary, is subdivided according to 5.1.3.1. It is calculated from the dimensions of the finished building

at floor height excluding skirtings, thresholds, plinths, etc.

5.1.6.3 Also included in the area of structural elements are the floor areas of door recesses, and

recesses and niches in the enclosing elements (see 5.1.5.4). This is in accordance with 5.1.3.2.

5.1.6.4 The area of structural elements may also be calculated as the difference between the total floor

area (see 5.1.3) and the net floor area (see 5.1.5).
5.1.7 Usable area

5.1.7.1 The usable area is that part of the net floor which corresponds to the purpose and use of the

building (see Figure 1).

5.1.7.2 The usable area is determined separately for floor level and is subdivided according to 5.1.3.1.

5.1.7.3 Usable areas are classified according to the purpose of the building and the use to which they

are put; they are usually divided into main usable areas and subsidiary usable areas.

The classification into main usable area and subsidiary usable area is dependent on whether the

purpose of the space is an integral component of the primary purpose(s) of the building, or in support of

the primary purpose(s) of the building.

Below is a sample list of such purposes. For more detail, see also ISO 19208:2016, Table B.1.

a) Transport (of people, goods, fluids, electricity, etc.).
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ISO 9836:2017(E)

b) Industry (manual work, production, manufacture, agriculture, experimentation, etc.).

c) Office, commerce (study, writing, drawing, retail or wholesale selling, book-keeping, etc.).

d) Medical care (examination, treatment, operations, etc.).
e) Recreation (gymnastics, swimming, play, dance, etc.).
f) Culture (worship, education, meeting, etc.).
g) Housing (sleeping, dwelling, etc.).
h) Circulation (walkway, corridor, stairway, etc.).
i) Catering (cooking, consumption, etc.).
j) Hygiene (bathing, toilet functions, etc.).
k) Cleaning, maintenance (laundry, janitorial, repair, etc.).
l) Storage (of goods, clothing, foods, etc.).
m) Service (power plant, building operations, guard post, etc.).
n) Other.
5.1.8 Services area

5.1.8.1 The services area is that portion of the net floor area with technical installations which service

the building or parts of it, such as:
a) installations and pipes for the disposal of waste water;
b) water supply;
c) heating and hot water systems;

d) gas installations (other than for heating purposes) and installations for liquids;

e) electricity supply generators;
f) ventilation, air-conditioning and cooling systems;
g) telephone switchboard apparatus;
h) lifts, escalators and conveyors (see 5.1.9.3);
i) any other central building service installation.

5.1.8.2 The services area is determined separately for each floor level and, where necessary, is

subdivided according to 5.1.3.1.

5.1.8.3 Floor areas of spaces for principal service installations, man-sized supply shafts and ducts, and

service floors are also included in the services area.

5.1.8.4 Floor areas of spaces in which technical installations directly support occupant operations,

such as a room for computer servers, are part of the usable area and not part of the services area.

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ISO 9836:2017(E)
5.1.9 Circulation area

5.1.9.1 The circulation area is that portion of the net area used for circulation within the building (e.g.

the area of stairwells, corridors, internal ramps, waiting areas, escape balconies, etc.).

5.1.9.2 The circulation area is determined separately for each floor level and is subdivided according

to 5.1.3.1. Areas with varying storey height within one floor level are calculated separately.

5.1.9.3 The net floor areas of lift shafts and the floor areas of built-in conveying installations for

general circulation, e.g. escalators, on each floor level (see 5.1.8.1) are also included in the category of

circulation area.
5.1.10 Building envelope area

5.1.10.1 The building envelope area is obtained from buildings or parts of buildings which are enclosed

on all sides and covered, including those parts of the structure which are above the top level of the ground

and those below it.
Distinction is to be made between the following, in the order shown:
a) area of the foundations;
b) external wall area below ground level;
c) external wall area above ground level;
d) roof area.

Glazed areas are specified separately as parts of external wall or roof surfaces.

The following are not included in the area considered:

— components of the building which are below the lowest floor level (e.g. parts of the foundation);

— recesses and projections for aesthetic purposes, pavement lights, external staircases, external

ramps, canopies, horizontal sun-shields, roof overhangs, skylights, chimney stacks, etc.

5.1.10.2 The foundation area of a building is obtained from buildings or parts of buildings which are

enclosed on all sides and covered, including only those parts of the structure which are below the top

level of the ground in each part of
...

SLOVENSKI SIST ISO 9836
STANDARD marec 2018
Standardi za lastnosti stavb – Definicija in računanje indikatorjev
površine in prostornine

Performance standards in building – Definition and calculation of area and space

indicators

Normes de performance dans le bâtiment – Définition et calcul des indicateurs de

surface et de volume
Referenčna oznaka
ICS 91.040.01 SIST ISO 9836:2018 (sl)
Nadaljevanje na straneh od 2 do 27

© 2020-03. Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje ali kopiranje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST ISO 9836 : 2018
NACIONALNI UVOD

Standard SIST ISO 9836 (sl), Standardi za lastnosti stavb – Definicija in računanje indikatorjev površine

in prostornine, 2018, ima status slovenskega standarda in je istoveten mednarodnemu standardu ISO

9836 (en), Performance standards in building – Definition and calculation of area and space indicators,

2017.
Ta standard nadomešča SIST ISO 9836:2011.
NACIONALNI PREDGOVOR

Mednarodni standard ISO 9836:2017 je pripravil tehnični odbor ISO/TC 59 Stavbe in gradbeni inženirski

objekti. Slovenski standard SIST ISO 9836:2018 je prevod mednarodnega standarda ISO 9836:2017.

V primeru spora glede besedila slovenskega prevoda v tem standardu je odločilen izvirni mednarodni

standard v angleškem jeziku.

Odločitev za privzem tega standarda je februarja 2018 sprejel Strokovni svet za splošno področje

standardizacije.
ZVEZA S STANDARDI

S privzemom tega mednarodnega standarda veljajo za omejeni namen referenčnih standardov vsi

standardi, navedeni v izvirniku, razen tistih, ki so že sprejeti v nacionalno standardizacijo:

SIST ISO 6707-1 Stavbe in gradbeni inženirski objekti – Slovar – 1. del: Splošni izrazi

OSNOVA ZA IZDAJO STANDARDA
– privzem standarda ISO 9836:2017
PREDHODNA IZDAJA
– standard SIST ISO 9836:2011
OPOMBI

– Povsod, kjer se v besedilu standarda uporablja izraz "mednarodni standard", v SIST ISO 9836:2018

to pomeni "slovenski standard".
– Nacionalni uvod in nacionalni predgovor nista sestavni del standarda.
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SIST ISO 9836 : 2018
VSEBINA Stran

Predgovor ................................................................................................................................................ 4

Uvod ........................................................................................................................................................ 5

1 Področje uporabe ................................................................................................................................ 6

2 Zveze s standardi ................................................................................................................................ 6

3 Izrazi in definicije ................................................................................................................................. 6

4 Merske enote ....................................................................................................................................... 7

5 Načini računanja dimenzij med obodnimi stenami (intra muros) in seznam indikatorjev

geometrijskih lastnosti ........................................................................................................................ 8

5.1 Površine ........................................................................................... ………………………………….8

5.1.1 Načela računanja ...........................................................................................................................8

5.1.2 Zazidana površina ......................................................................................................................... 8

5.1.3 Bruto tlorisna površina ................................................................................................................... 8

5.1.4 Površina med obodnimi stenami (intra muros) ............................................................................ 10

5.1.5 Neto tlorisna površina .................................................................................................................. 10

5.1.6 Površina konstrukcijskih elementov ............................................................................................ 11

5.1.7 Uporabna površina ...................................................................................................................... 11

5.1.8 Tehnična površina ....................................................................................................................... 12

5.1.9 Komunikacijska površina ............................................................................................................. 12

5.1.10 Površina ovoja stavbe ............................................................................................................... 12

5.1.11 Posledična nefunkcionalna in dejanska nefunkcionalna površina stavbe ................................. 13

5.2 Prostornine ..................................................................................................................................... 20

5.2.1 Načela računanja ......................................................................................................................... 20

5.2.2 Bruto prostornina stavb ali delov stavb, ki so omejeni na vseh straneh in v celoti pokriti ........... 21

5.2.3 Bruto prostornina stavb ali delov stavb, ki niso omejeni z vseh strani do polne višine,

so pa pokriti ...................................................................................................................................... 22

5.2.4 Bruto prostornina stavb ali delov stavb, ki so omejeni z elementi, niso pa pokriti ...................... 22

5.2.5 Neto prostornina ........................................................................................................................... 22

5.2.6 Neto prostornina nad površino med obodnimi stenami (intra muros) ......................................... 23

5.2.7 Neto prostornina nad uporabno površino .................................................................................... 23

5.2.8 Neto prostornina nad tehnično površino ..................................................................................... 23

5.2.9 Neto prostornina nad komunikacijsko površino ........................................................................... 23

5.3 Primeri indikatorjev ......................................................................................................................... 23

5.3.1 Indikatorji površine ....................................................................................................................... 23

5.3.2 Indikatorji prostornine .................................................................................................................. 24

5.3.3 Indikatorji površine in prostornine ................................................................................................ 25

5.4 Komentar ......................................................................................................................................... 25

Dodatek A (informativni): Primeri uporabe faktorjev nefunkcionalnih delov za novogradnjo ................ 26

Literatura ................................................................................................................................................ 27

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SIST ISO 9836 : 2018
Predgovor

ISO (Mednarodna organizacija za standardizacijo) je svetovna zveza nacionalnih organov za standarde

(članov ISO). Mednarodne standarde po navadi pripravljajo tehnični odbori ISO. Vsak član, ki želi

delovati na določenem področju, za katero je bil ustanovljen tehnični odbor, ima pravico biti zastopan v

tem odboru. Pri delu sodelujejo mednarodne vladne in nevladne organizacije, povezane z ISO. V vseh

zadevah, ki so povezane s standardizacijo na področju elektrotehnike, ISO tesno sodeluje z

Mednarodno elektrotehniško komisijo (IEC).

Postopki, uporabljeni pri razvoju tega dokumenta, in predvideni postopki za njegovo vzdrževanje so

opisani v Direktivah ISO/IEC, 1. del. Posebna pozornost naj se nameni različnim kriterijem odobritve,

potrebnim za različne vrste dokumentov ISO. Ta dokument je bil pripravljen v skladu z uredniškimi

pravili Direktiv ISO/IEC, 2. del (glej www.iso.org/directives).

Opozoriti je treba na možnost, da je lahko nekaj elementov tega mednarodnega standarda predmet

patentnih pravic. ISO ne prevzema odgovornosti za ugotavljanje katerihkoli ali vseh takih patentnih

pravic. Podrobnosti o morebitnih patentnih pravicah, opredeljenih med pripravo tega dokumenta, bodo

navedene v uvodu in/ali na seznamu ISO s prejetimi patentnimi izjavami (glej www.iso.org/patents).

Morebitna trgovska imena, uporabljena v tem dokumentu, so informacije za uporabnike in ne pomenijo

podpore blagovni znamki.

Za razlago prostovoljne narave standardov, pomena specifičnih pojmov in izrazov ISO, povezanih z

ugotavljanjem skladnosti, ter informacij o tem, kako ISO spoštuje načela Svetovne trgovinske

organizacije (WTO) v tehničnih ovirah pri trgovanju (TBT), glej naslednji naslov URL:

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

Ta dokument je pripravil tehnični odbor ISO/TC 59 Stavbe in gradbeni inženirski objekti, pododbor SC

15 Ogrodje za opis lastnosti stanovanj.

Ta tretja izdaja razveljavlja in nadomešča drugo izdajo (ISO 9836:2011) ter vključuje manjše popravke

z naslednjimi spremembami in druge manjše uredniške spremembe:
̶ na sliki 1 je bila spremenjena površina med obodnimi stenami (intra muros);

̶ v točki 5.1.7.3 je bilo sklicevanje na preglednici 1 in 2 iz standarda ISO 6241:1984 spremenjeno v

sklicevanje na preglednico B.1 iz standarda ISO 19208:2016;

̶ v točki 5.4 je bilo sklicevanje na preglednico 2 iz standarda ISO 6241:1984 spremenjeno v

sklicevanje na standard ISO 19208:2016;
̶ v poglavju "Literatura" so bila dodana sklicevanja;
̶ v točkah 5.1.11 g) in A.2 je bil popravljen zapis decimalne vejice.
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SIST ISO 9836 : 2018
Uvod

Indikatorji površine in prostornine, določeni z merjenjem prostora v stavbah, so lahko uporabljeni za

primerjavo vrednostnih značilnosti, kot je razmerje površine ali prostornine, ki je lahko funkcionalno

uporabljena. Kot približne vrednosti za načrtovanje so lahko podlaga za njihovo nadaljnjo uporabo.

Sklic na indikatorje površine in prostornine pri ocenjevanju stavb, že zgrajenih ali v fazi projektiranja,

posredno kaže na nekatere ekonomske značilnosti stavb. Razmerje med površino, ki jo pokriva stavba,

in uporabno površino zato kaže, ali so bili stroški gradnje in materiali najbolj gospodarno porabljeni.

Na enak način razmerje med površino ovoja stavbe in uporabno površino kaže na obseg osnovnih

prihrankov pri stroških ovoja in obseg tekočih stroškov sistemov za ogrevanje in hlajenje.

Za ugotavljanje ekonomičnosti celotnih stavb indikatorji površine in prostornine vsebujejo osnovne

podatke za računanje in primerjavo glavnih stroškov ter tekočih stroškov in stroškov vzdrževanja. Z

omejevanjem količine prostora in stroškov posameznih materialov dajejo podlago za minimiziranje

tekočih stroškov. Na primer, če je površina obodnih sten v primerjavi z uporabno površino majhna, to

kaže ne samo na relativno nizke stroške energije, ampak tudi na relativno nizke stroške čiščenja in

vzdrževanja fasade.

OPOMBA: Primeri uporabe faktorjev nefunkcionalnih delov novih konstrukcij so podani v dodatku A.

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SIST ISO 9836 : 2019
Standardi za lastnosti stavb – Definicija in računanje indikatorjev površine in
prostornine
1 Področje uporabe
Ta dokument določa definicijo in računanje indikatorjev površine in prostornine.

Pri opredeljevanju merjenja površin ta dokument uporablja tri načine merjenja dimenzij:

a) merjenje med stenami (intra muros) in zunaj sten (extra muros), ki ga uporabljajo v številnih delih

sveta,

b) merjenje po oseh sten (sredini sten), ki ga uporabljajo v številnih delih sveta,

c) kombinacije teh dveh načinov, kot to določajo nacionalne zakonodaje ali so primerne za posebne

vrste stavb.

Indikatorji površine in prostornine, opredeljeni v tem dokumentu, so namenjeni praktični uporabi kot

podlaga za ocenjevanje različnih vidikov kakovosti stavb ali kot pomoč pri načrtovanju. Z drugimi

besedami, ti indikatorji naj bi omogočili presojo glede funkcionalnih, tehničnih in ekonomskih vidikov

stavb.
Ta mednarodni standard naj bi se uporabljal:

– pri določanju geometrijskih lastnosti stavbe in njenih prostorov (npr. pri projektiranju, prodajnih

postopkih itd. ali v gradbenih predpisih, če je to potrebno),

– v projektni dokumentaciji, ki se nanaša na lastnosti stavbe v celoti in ki jo pripravljajo projektanti,

izvajalci in proizvajalci,

– pri določanju tlorisne površine, ki dejansko ne bo na voljo za umestitev delovnega prostora

posameznika, pohištva, opreme ali za komunikacijo,

̶ pri vrednotenju, primerjavi ali kontroli lastnosti stavbe, povezanih z njenimi geometrijskimi lastnostmi.

OPOMBA: Čeprav, kot je navedeno zgoraj, je po svetu več različnih metod za merjenje površine, odvisno od države in/ali

vrste stavb, pa vse merske metode niso nujno praktično uporabne, ker z njimi ni mogoče prepoznati realne

površine (npr. merjenje po oseh sten). Ta mednarodni standard je torej specializiran samo za meritve za praktično

uporabo.
2 Zveze s standardi

Za uporabo tega standarda je nujno potreben naslednji navedeni dokument. Pri datiranih sklicevanjih

se uporablja zgolj navedena izdaja. Pri nedatiranih sklicevanjih se uporablja zadnja izdaja navedenega

dokumenta (vključno z dopolnili).

ISO 6707-1 Stavbe in gradbeni inženirski objekti – Slovar – 1. del: Splošni izrazi

3 Izrazi in definicije

V tem dokumentu se uporabljajo izrazi in definicije, ki so podani v standardu ISO 6707-1, in spodaj

navedeni.

ISO in IEC vzdržujeta terminološke zbirke za uporabo v standardizaciji na naslednjih naslovih:

̶ IEC Electropedia: dostopno na: http://www.electropedia.org/
̶ spletna platforma za brskanje ISO: dostopno na: http://www.iso.org/obp
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SIST ISO 9836 : 2018
3.1
indikator površine

količina posameznih vrst površine (npr. uporabna površina) in razmerje med različnimi vrstami površine

(npr. zazidana površina/uporabna površina)
3.2
indikator prostornine

obseg posameznih vrst prostornine (npr. neto prostornina) in razmerje med različnimi vrstami

prostornine (npr. bruto prostornina/neto prostornina)

OPOMBA 1: Primer razmerja indikatorja prostornine je bruto prostornina/neto prostornina.

3.3
kombiniran indikator površine in prostornine

indikator razmerja med vrsto prostornine in vrsto površine (npr. bruto prostornina/uporabna površina) in

razmerja med vrsto površine in vrsto prostornine

OPOMBA 1: Nadaljnje definicije različnih indikatorjev površine in prostornine ter primerne metode računanja so v točki 5.

OPOMBA 2: Primer kombiniranega indikatorja razmerja je površina ovoja stavbe/neto prostornina.

3.4
nefunkcionalni deli stavbe

deli ali elementi stavbe, v katerih del tlorisne površine ni razpoložljiv za aktivnosti posameznika ali za

pohištvo, opremo ali za komunikacijo

OPOMBA 1: Primeri prostorov, v katerih del mogoče ni razpoložljiv zaradi nefunkcionalnih delov stavbe, so delovni prostori,

hodniki itd.

OPOMBA 2: Nefunkcionalni deli stavbe so lahko fizični elementi, kot je steber, ali oblike elementov, kot je ločna stena, ali oblike

poti požarnih stopnic, ki je predpisana s predpisom, vendar ni potrebna za normalno komunikacijo.

3.5
posledična nefunkcionalna površina stavbe

del tlorisne površine, ki še ni fizično zaseden z gradbenim materialom in ni v celoti razpoložljiv za

aktivnosti posameznika ali za pohištvo, opremo ali za komunikacijo zaradi nefunkcionalnih delov stavbe

OPOMBA 1: Primeri prostorov, v katerih del mogoče ni razpoložljiv zaradi nefunkcionalnih delov stavbe, so delovni prostori,

hodniki itd.
3.6
dejanska nefunkcionalna površina stavbe

del tlorisne površine, ki ni razpoložljiv za aktivnosti posameznika ali za pohištvo, opremo ali za

komunikacijo, ker je fizično zaseden z nefunkcionalnimi deli stavbe ali je z zakonom, predpisom ali

najemom zahtevan kot prost

OPOMBA 1: Primeri prostorov, v katerih del mogoče ni razpoložljiv zaradi nefunkcionalnih delov stavbe, so delovni prostori,

hodniki itd.
3.7
deli, štrleči v prostor

oblika nefunkcionalnih delov stavbe, ki preprečuje učinkovito uporabo tlorisne površine blizu sten ali

drugih pravilnih geometrijskih oblik

OPOMBA 1: Primeri delov, štrlečih v prostor, so: steber in/ali slop, konvektor, pokrov ogrevalne enote in radiator.

4 Merske enote

Indikatorji površine in prostornine se računajo iz tlorisnih in narisnih dimenzij stavbe. Njihove merske

2 3 2 2 3 3 2 3 3 2

enote se razlikujejo glede na vrsto izračuna (m ; m ; m /m ; m /m ; m /m ; m /m ).

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SIST ISO 9836 : 2018

5 Načini računanja dimenzij med obodnimi stenami (intra muros) in seznam indikatorjev

geometrijskih lastnosti
5.1 Površine
OPOMBA: Glej sliko 1.
5.1.1 Načela računanja

5.1.1.1 Vodoravne ali navpične površine se merijo po njihovih dejanskih dimenzijah. Pri poševnih

ploskvah se površina in prostornina merita z njihovo navpično projekcijo na (namišljeno) vodoravno ali

navpično ravnino, kar je primerneje. Pri izračunu toplotnih izgub pa je treba vedno upoštevati dejansko

površino namesto projektirane.
5.1.1.2 Površine so izražene v kvadratnih metrih na dve decimalni mesti.
5.1.2 Zazidana površina

5.1.2.1 Zazidana površina je površina zemljišča, ki ga pokrivajo dokončane stavbe.

5.1.2.2 Zazidano površino določa navpična projekcija zunanjih dimenzij stavbe na zemljišče.

V zazidano površino niso vključeni:
– zgradbe ali deli zgradb, ki ne segajo nad površino zemljišča,

– pomožni deli, npr. zunanja stopnišča, zunanje klančine, napušči, vodoravni sončni zasloni,

nadstreški, elementi cestne razsvetljave,
– površine pomožnih objektov, npr. rastlinjakov in lop.
5.1.3 Bruto tlorisna površina

5.1.3.1 Bruto tlorisna površina stavbe je celotna površina vseh etaž stavbe. Etaže so lahko nadstropja,

ki so v celoti ali delno pod terenom, nadstropja nad terenom, podstrešja, terase, strešne terase, površine

tehničnih in skladiščnih prostorov (glej sliko 1).
Razlikovati je treba med:

a) tlorisnimi površinami, ki so z vseh strani zaprte do polne višine in v celoti pokrite,

b) tlorisnimi površinami, ki niso zaprte z vseh strani do polne višine, so pa pokrite, npr. lože,

c) tlorisnimi površinami, ki so obdane z elementi, kot so npr. parapeti, venci, ograje, in niso pokrite,

npr. odprti balkoni.
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SIST ISO 9836 : 2018
Legenda:
1 bruto tlorisna površina (glej 5.1.3)
2 površina med obodnimi stenami (intra muros) (glej 5.1.4)
3 uporabna površina (glej 5.1.7)
4 površina konstrukcijskih elementov (glej 5.1.6)
5 zazidana površina (glej 5.1.2)
Slika 1: Predstavitev osnovnih površin

5.1.3.2 Bruto tlorisna površina vsake etaže se izračuna iz zunanjih dimenzij obodnih elementov,

izmerjenih v nivoju etaže nad in pod zemljo. Ometi, fasadne obloge in parapeti so všteti.

Utori in štrline, narejeni iz konstrukcijskih ali estetskih razlogov, ter spremembe profila po višini niso

vključeni, če ne spreminjajo neto tlorisne površine (glej 5.1.5). Zazidane tlorisne površine, ki niso zaprte

ali so delno zaprte in nimajo navpičnih elementov, npr. površine v skladu s 5.1.3.1.b), se računajo do

navpične projekcije zunanjega roba strehe.
Neto tlorisna površina se ne ugotavlja za naslednje (glej 5.1.5.4):

– prazne prostore med zemljiščem in spodnjo stranjo stavbe, npr. vzdrževalne rove,

– prostor znotraj prezračevanih streh,
̶ strehe, po katerih se hodi samo med vzdrževanjem.

5.1.3.3 Bruto tlorisna površina se računa za vsako etažo posebej. Tudi površine, na katerih se višina

etaže v enem talnem nivoju spreminja (npr. velike dvorane, avditoriji), se izračunajo posebej.

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SIST ISO 9836 : 2018

5.1.3.4 Če se tlorisne površine seštevajo, morajo biti razmerja med različnimi površinami (po 5.1.3)

razpoznavna, tako da jih je mogoče ovrednotiti, primerjati in ločeno izračunati prostornine.

5.1.3.5 Bruto tlorisna površina je sestavljena iz neto tlorisne površine (glej 5.1.5) in površine, ki jo

zavzema konstrukcija (glej 5.1.6). To je prikazano na diagramu na sliki 2.
Slika 2: Sestavine bruto tlorisne površine
5.1.4 Površina med obodnimi stenami (intra muros)

5.1.4.1 Površina med obodnimi stenami (intra muros) je bruto tlorisna površina (glej 5.1.3), zmanjšana

za tlorisno površino obodnih sten (tlorisno površino oboda stavbe).

5.1.4.2 Površina med obodnimi stenami (intra muros) se določi za vsako etažo posebej. Pri tem se

enakovredno upoštevajo načela za računanje bruto tlorisne površine (glej 5.1.3) in površine, ki jo

zavzemajo obodne stene (glej 5.1.6). Površina med obodnimi stenami (intra muros) se izračuna tako,

da se od bruto tlorisne površine odšteje tlorisna površina obodnih sten.

5.1.4.3 Površina med obodnimi stenami (intra muros) vključuje neto tlorisno površino (glej 5.1.5) in

tlorisno površino notranjih sten.
5.1.5 Neto tlorisna površina

5.1.5.1 Neto tlorisna površina je površina med navpičnimi elementi, ki omejujejo prostor (glej tudi

5.1.3.2).

5.1.5.2 Neto tlorisna površina se določi za vsako etažo posebej in se razdeli, kot je določeno v točki

5.1.3.1. Računa se s svetlimi dimenzijami dokončane stavbe, merjenimi v nivoju tal, brez obrob, pragov

itd.

Zazidane tlorisne površine, ki niso zaprte ali so samo delno zaprte in nimajo navpičnih elementov

[površine, ki so omenjene v 5.1.3.1.b)], se določijo z navpično projekcijo zunanjega roba strehe.

Površine, na katerih se višina etaže v enem talnem nivoju spreminja (npr. velike dvorane, avditoriji), se

računajo posebej.

5.1.5.3 V neto tlorisno površino so vključeni tudi elementi, ki jih je mogoče demontirati, npr. predelne

stene, cevi in kanali za napeljave.

5.1.5.4 V neto tlorisno površino niso vključene površine konstrukcijskih elementov, okenskih in vratnih

odprtin ter niš v elementih, ki omejujejo prostor.
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SIST ISO 9836 : 2018
5.1.5.5 Neto tlorisna površina se deli v:
– uporabno površino (glej 5.1.7),
– tehnično površino (glej 5.1.8),
– komunikacijsko površino (glej 5.1.9).
5.1.6 Površina konstrukcijskih elementov

5.1.6.1 Površina konstrukcijskih elementov je del bruto tlorisne površine (horizontalni del v nivoju tal),

ki ga sestavljajo tlorisna površina navpičnih elementov (npr. zunanjih in notranjih nosilnih sten) in

površine stebrov, slopov, vmesnih podpor, dimnikov, predelnih sten in drugih elementov, v katere ni

mogoče vstopiti (glej sliko 1).

5.1.6.2 Površina konstrukcijskih elementov se določi za vsako etažo posebej in se razdeli, kjer je

potrebno, v skladu s 5.1.3.1. Računa se z dimenzijami dokončane stavbe, merjenimi v nivoju tal, brez

obrob, pragov, podstavkov itd.

5.1.6.3 V površino konstrukcijskih elementov so vključene tudi tlorisne površine vratnih odprtin ter

odprtin in niš v navpičnih elementih (glej 5.1.5.4). To je v skladu s 5.1.3.2.

5.1.6.4 Površina konstrukcijskih elementov se lahko izračuna tudi kot razlika med bruto tlorisno

površino (glej 5.1.3) in neto tlorisno površino (glej 5.1.5).
5.1.7 Uporabna površina

5.1.7.1 Uporabna površina je tisti del neto tlorisne površine, ki ustreza namenu in uporabi stavbe (glej

sliko 1).

5.1.7.2 Uporabna površina se določi za vsako etažo posebej in se razdeli v skladu s 5.1.3.1.

5.1.7.3 Uporabne površine se razvrščajo po namenu stavbe in njihovi uporabi; po navadi so razdeljene

na uporabne površine glavnih in pomožnih prostorov.

Delitev uporabne površine glavnih in pomožnih prostorov je odvisna od tega, ali je prostor sestavni del

primarnega(-ih) namena(-ov) stavbe ali prostor le-temu (le-tem) služi.

Spodaj je primer seznama takih namenov. Za več podrobnosti glej preglednico B.1 v standardu ISO

19208:2016.
a) Transport (ljudi, blaga, tekočin, elektrike itd.).
b) Industrija (ročno delo, proizvodnja, tovarne, kmetijstvo, preskušanje itd.).

c) Pisarne, trgovine (učenje, pisanje, risanje, prodaja na debelo in drobno, knjigovodstvo itd.).

d) Medicinska oskrba (pregledi, zdravljenje, operacije itd.).
e) Rekreacija (gimnastika, plavanje, igra, ples itd.).
f) Kultura (obredni nameni, izobraževanje, sestanki itd.).
g) Stanovanja (spanje, bivanje itd.).
h) Komunikacija (pešpoti, hodniki, stopnice itd.).
i) Gostinstvo (kuhanje, prehranjevanje itd.).
j) Higiena (umivanje, toaleta itd.).
k) Čiščenje, vzdrževanje (pranje perila, prostor za hišnika, popravila itd.).
l) Skladišče (blaga, oblačil, hrane itd.).
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SIST ISO 9836 : 2018
m) Servisni prostori (elektro agregat, pogonski prostori, vratarska loža itd.).
n) Drugo.
5.1.8 Tehnična površina

5.1.8.1 Tehnična površina je del neto tlorisne površine, na katerem so tehnične inštalacije, ki oskrbujejo

stavbo ali njen del, npr.:
a) inštalacije in cevi za odvod odpadne vode,
b) inštalacije za oskrbo z vodo,
c) sistemi za ogrevanje in toplo vodo,
d) plinske inštalacije (razen za ogrevanje) in inštalacije za tekočine,
e) inštalacije za oskrbo z električnim tokom, generatorji,
f) sistemi za prezračevanje, klimatizacijo in hlajenje,
g) telefonska centrala,
h) dvigala, tekoče stopnice in transporterji (glej 5.1.9.3),
i) druge centralne inštalacije za stavbo.

5.1.8.2 Tehnična površina se določi za vsako etažo posebej in se, če je potrebno, razdeli v skladu s

5.1.3.1.

5.1.8.3 V tehnično površino so vključene tudi tlorisne površine glavnih postaj za tehnične inštalacije,

dostopnih jaškov za dostavo in kanalov.

5.1.8.4 Površine prostorov, v katerih so tehnične naprave za neposredno pomoč najemniku, kot so

računalniški serverji, so del uporabne površine in niso del tehnične površine.
5.1.9 Komunikacijska površina

5.1.9.1 Komunikacijska površina je del neto površine za komunikacijo znotraj stavbe (npr. površina

stopnišč, hodnikov, notranjih klančin, čakalnic, zasilnih izhodov itd.).

5.1.9.2 Komunikacijska površina se določi za vsako etažo posebej in se razdeli v skladu s 5.1.3.1.

Površine, na katerih se višina etaže na enem talnem nivoju spreminja, se računajo ločeno.

5.1.9.3 V kategorijo komunikacijske površine so na vsaki etaži vključene tudi neto tlorisne površine

jaškov za dvigala in tlorisne površine vgrajenih premičnih naprav za komunikacijo (npr. tekoče stopnice)

(glej 5.1.8.1).
5.1.10 Površina ovoja stavbe

5.1.10.1 Površina ovoja stavbe se ugotavlja za stavbe ali dele stavb, ki so z vseh strani omejeni in

pokriti, vključno s tistimi deli objekta pod terenom in nad njim.
Razlikovati je treba med naslednjimi površinami:
a) površina stavbne osnove,
b) površina obodnih sten pod terenom,
c) površina obodnih sten nad terenom,
d) površina strehe.
Zastekljene površine so določene ločeno kot deli površin obodnih sten ali streh.
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SIST ISO 9836 : 2018
V to površino niso vključeni:
– deli stavbe, ki so pod tlemi najnižje etaže (npr. deli temeljev),

– niše in štrline, narejene iz estetskih razlogov, zunanje svetilke, zunanja stopnišča, zunanje

klančine, markize, vodoravni sončni zasloni, nadstreški, svetlobniki, dimniki itd.

5.1.10.2 Površina stavbne osnove se določa za stavbe ali dele stavb, ki so na vseh straneh omejeni in

pokriti, vključno s tistimi deli objekta, ki so pod terenom v vsakem delu najnižje etaže.

5.1.11 Posledična nefunkcionalna in dejanska nefunkcionalna površina stavbe

5.1.11.1 Posledična nefunkcionalna površina stavbe je vsota tistih delov uporabnih in komunikacijskih

površin, ki niso vedno ali povsem na voljo za aktivnosti posameznika (npr. delovni prostor, površine za

počivanje itd.), pohištvo, opremo ali komunikacijo, kot bi bilo lokaciji primerno, na način, kot je prikazano

spodaj:

a) Kadar stebri, slopi ali drugi elementi stavbe štrlijo v uporabno površino in je tlorisna površina med

takimi elementi ali med takimi elementi in steno taka, da njene velikosti ali postavitve ni mogoče

učinkovito uporabiti za postavitev pohištva ali izvajanje funkcij uporabnika, je taka vmesna tlorisna

površina posledična nefunkcionalna površina stavbe (glej slike 3, 4, 5 in 6).
Legenda:
1 posledična nefunkcionalna površina
2 deli, štrleči v prostor
3 dejanska nefunkcionalna površina
4 prevladujoči del
Slika 3: Stebri in/ali slopi, ki štrlijo v prostor, prisilijo delovne enote,
da se pomaknejo od stene
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SIST ISO 9836 : 2018
Legenda:
1 posledična nefunkcionalna površina
2 deli, štrleči v prostor
3 dejanska nefunkcionalna površina
4 prevladujoči del

Slika 4: Stebri in/ali slopi, ki štrlijo v prostor, zmanjšajo uporabnost dela zaprte funkcionalne

površine
Odprta Odprta Odprta
funkcionalna funkcionalna funkcionalna
površina površina površina
Legenda:
1 deli, štrleči
...

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