International regulation of the constituent parts of space systems
International cooperation in the field of space development is possible provided that all companies that take part in it regulate their activities by the same legal documents. Therefore, if we are talking about companies that are engaged in developments in the field of space engineering, then all their production processes must be strictly regulated in accordance with international requirements. The development of space systems is a multilevel process, where each stage has its own technical features. A very important point that concerns space systems is the issue of their safety, since the life of the crew that will operate these systems directly depends on it. Verification of finished systems involves several stages of the procedure, which in turn makes it possible to conduct tests in different conditions, taking into account the most negative of them. In order to ensure the reliability of space systems, it is worth simulating a critical situation, taking into account all possible consequences. Such a step will provide an opportunity to assess the system's resistance to the influence of external factors. We have prepared an article for you in which we have collected certain articles that discuss the requirements for the production of components of space systems. This text will be especially useful for companies that operate in this segment and want to be competitive in the market, as well as take a leading position among their competitors.
The launch of a spacecraft is a technically complex process, the planning of which, in turn, must take into account various scenarios of the development of events, up to the worst. Therefore, these calculations are made in order to ensure the safety of the crew that is on board the spacecraft. One important aspect that should be subject to prior assessment is the charge level of the spacecraft, according to the standards for orbits subject to the highest level of risk. However, it is important to note that in order to conduct a correct assessment, it is worth initially figuring out how to conduct this assessment correctly, in order to quickly delve into this issue, international standards are being created, such as CEN/TR 17603-20-06:2022.
Common engineering practices involve the assessment, through computer simulation (with software like NASCAP [RD.4] or SPIS [RD.5]), of the levels of absolute and differential potentials reached by space systems in flight. This is usually made mandatory by customers and by standards for the orbits most at risk such as GEO or MEO and long transfers to GEO by, for example, electric propulsion.
The ECSS-E-ST-20-06 standard requires the assessment of spacecraft charging but it is not appropriate in a standard to explain how such an assessment is performed. It is the role of this document ECSS-E-HB-20-06, to explain in more detail important aspects of the charging process and to give guidance on how to carry out charging assessment by computer simulation.
The ECSS-E-ST-10-04 standard specifies many aspects of the space environment, including the plasma and radiation characteristics corresponding to worst cases for surface and internal charging. In this document the use of these environment descriptions in worst case simulations is described.
The emphasis in this document is on high level charging in natural environments. One aspect that is currently not addressed is the use of active sources e.g. for electric propulsion or spacecraft potential control. The tools to address this are still being developed and this area can be addressed in a later edition.
When you work with the information that is given in this International Standard, it is worth considering the fact that it considers the worst conditions for both surface and internal spacecraft charging. Simulation of such situations allows us to correctly analyze the risks and make the necessary adjustments before using the spacecraft. You can read the full text of this International Standard on our website.
Space engineering - Structural materials handbook - Part 2: Design calculation methods and general design aspects
Space engineering is one of the most difficult branches of engineering. Given this fact, it is especially important to be responsible in the process of selecting materials for the creation of spacecraft. The scientific and technological process, at the moment, has made a very strong step forward, which in turn greatly expands the possibilities, but at the same time complicates the selection process. Therefore, in order to make the process of selecting structural materials easier, international standards are being created and constantly updated, such as CEN/TR 17603-32-02:2022.
The structural materials handbook, SMH, combines materials and design information on established polymer matrix composites with provisional information on the emerging groups of newer advanced materials and their composites. Design aspects are described, along with factors associated with joining and manufacturing. Where possible, these are illustrated by examples or case studies. The Structural materials handbook contains 8 Parts.
A glossary of terms, definitions and abbreviated terms for these handbooks is contained in Part 8. The parts are as follows:
Part 1 Overview and material properties and applications Clauses 1 ‐ 9
Part 2 Design calculation methods and general design aspects Clauses 10 ‐ 22
Part 3 Load transfer and design of joints and design of structures Clauses 23 ‐ 32
Part 4 Integrity control, verification guidelines and manufacturing Clauses 33 ‐ 45
Part 5 New advanced materials, advanced metallic materials, general design aspects and load transfer and design of joints Clauses 46 ‐ 63
Part 6 Fracture and material modelling, case studies and design and integrity control and inspection Clauses 64 ‐ 81
Part 7 Thermal and environmental integrity, manufacturing aspects, in‐orbit and health monitoring, soft materials, hybrid materials and nanotechnoligies Clauses 82 ‐ 107
Part 8 Glossary NOTE: The 8 parts will be numbered TR17603-32-01 to TR 17603-32-08
Specialists working in companies that design and manufacture spacecraft must be highly competent in their field in order to do their job. Designing requires knowledge of many specific terms, for this an international standard was created, which we talked about above. If you need advice on any issues related to this standard, you can contact our specialists.
International space cooperation involves the use of unified interfaces in order to ensure compatibility between different devices. In order to achieve this, spacecraft design companies must manufacture their products in accordance with international standards. In order to facilitate international cooperation between companies, international standards are created that regulate the requirements for the production of interfaces, such as EN 16603-50-16:2021.
Using standard communication protocols for spacecraft communication links can provide interface compatibility between communication devices and components. Thus, it can improve the design and development process as well as integration and test activities at all levels and provide the potential of reusability across projects. The aim of this space engineering standard is to define the interface services and to specify their corresponding network protocol elements for spacecraft using the Time-Triggered Ethernet data network. It also aims at defining requirements for the harmonisation of the physical interfaces and usage of the [IEEE 802.3] and [SAE AS6802] layer features.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constraints of a space project in conformance with ECSS‐S‐ST‐00
This International Standard will be especially useful for companies that manufacture spacecraft communication lines. The unified requirements that are given in this document make it possible to manufacture such interface components that can be reused in the future, which significantly increases the usefulness of the product. If you are interested in the production of quality spacecraft interface elements, then you should pay attention to this document.
The production of space systems is a complex multi-level process that requires increased control. Each component of the system must be subject to due verification. One of the necessary types of research is thermal analysis. In order to regulate this process, this international standard was created, which in turn is a kind of guide for employees who are engaged in thermal analysis. All the necessary information is collected in such a document as CEN/TR 17603-31-17:2022.
This handbook is dedicated to the subject of thermal analysis for space applications. Thermal analysis is an important method of verification during the development of space systems. The purpose of this handbook is to provide thermal analysts with practical guidelines which support efficient and high quality thermal modelling and analysis. Specifically, the handbook aims to improve:
1.the general comprehension of the context, drivers and constraints for thermal analysis campaigns;
2.the general quality of thermal models through the use of a consistent process for thermal modelling;
3.the credibility of thermal model predictions by rigorous verification of model results and outputs;
4.long term maintainability of thermal models via better model management, administration and documentation;
5.the efficiency of inter-organisation collaboration by setting out best practice for model transfer and conversion.
The intended users of the document are people, working in the domain of space systems, who use thermal analysis as part of their work. These users can be in industry, in (inter)national agencies, or in academia. Moreover, the guidelines are designed to be useful to users working on products at every level of a space project - that is to say at system level, sub-system level, unit level etc. In some cases a guideline could not be globally applicable (for example not relevant for very high temperature applications). In these cases the limitations are explicitly given in the text of the handbook.
This manual is an indispensable document for people who use thermal analysis in the field of space systems in their work. Thanks to the provisions that are collected in this document, you will be able to organize your work in accordance with international requirements, and, accordingly, increase its competitiveness. You can get acquainted with this international standard on our website at the link attached below.
Verification of space systems for compliance with international standards
The development and production of space systems is an important step in the scientific and technological progress that we can observe now. At the same time, we can say that in order to accelerate it, it is necessary to pay great attention to international cooperation, which is possible only if space systems of the appropriate quality are produced. Separately, I would like to emphasize the importance of the compliance of space systems produced with international standards, since this carries a number of advantages. Therefore, companies that are engaged in production in the field of space engineering must implement in their work the provisions that are described in these documents. It is also worth noting that the production of spacecraft, as well as its component parts, is a procedure that requires strict regulation. During production, many factors should be taken into account, among which modeling of the most unfavorable conditions that may arise during the operation of space systems is very important. This method of analysis makes it possible to correctly predict how the spacecraft will behave in certain conditions. Particular attention to such research methods should be on the part of companies that are engaged in production in this area. Sophisticated testing methods, on the one hand, enable companies to produce a competitive product, but on the other hand, they can be a challenge for companies, as they can be difficult to understand. If you are interested in becoming a leader in the manufacture of spacecraft and their components, then you should read these documents.
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