Space engineering - Assessment of space worst case charging handbook

Common engineering practices involve the assessment, through computer simulation (with software like NASCAP [RD.4] or SPIS [RD.5]), of the levels of absolute and differential potentials reached by space systems in flight. This is usually made mandatory by customers and by standards for the orbits most at risk such as GEO or MEO and long transfers to GEO by, for example, electric propulsion.
The ECSS-E-ST-20-06 standard requires the assessment of spacecraft charging but it is not appropriate in a standard to explain how such an assessment is performed. It is the role of this document ECSS-E-HB-20-06, to explain in more detail important aspects of the charging process and to give guidance on how to carry out charging assessment by computer simulation.
The ECSS-E-ST-10-04 standard specifies many aspects of the space environment, including the plasma and radiation characteristics corresponding to worst cases for surface and internal charging. In this document the use of these environment descriptions in worst case simulations is described.
The emphasis in this document is on high level charging in natural environments. One aspect that is currently not addressed is the use of active sources e.g. for electric propulsion or spacecraft potential control. The tools to address this are still being developed and this area can be addressed in a later edition.

Raumfahrtproduktsicherung - Handbuch zu Minderungsmethoden von Strahlungseffekten auf ASICs und FPGA

Ingénierie spatiale - Guide sur les techniques de durcissement des ASICs et FPGAs vis-à-vis des effets des radiations

Vesoljski inženiring - Ocena priročnika za polnjenje v najslabšem primeru v vesolju

Običajne inženirske prakse vključujejo oceno ravni absolutnih in diferencialnih potencialov, ki jih dosegajo vesoljski sistemi med letom. Za oceno se uporabi računalniško simulacijo (s programsko opremo, kot sta NASCAP [RD.4] ali SPIS [RD.5]). To običajno zahtevajo stranke in standardi za orbite z največjim tveganjem, kot sta GEO ali MEO, in dolgi prenosi v GEO, na primer z električnim pogonom.
Standard ECSS-E-ST-20-06 zahteva oceno polnjenja vesoljskih plovil, vendar v njem ni pojasnjeno, kako se taka ocena izvaja. Naloga dokumenta ECSS-E-HB-20-06 je namreč, da podrobneje opiše pomembne vidike postopka polnjenja in poda napotke, kako izvesti oceno polnjenja z računalniško simulacijo.
Standard ECSS-E-ST-10-04 določa številne vidike vesoljskega okolja, vključno s plazemskimi in sevalnimi lastnostmi, ki ustrezajo najslabšim primerom površinskega in notranjega polnjenja. V tem dokumentu je opisana uporaba teh opisov okolja v simulacijah najslabšega primera.
Poudarek je na visoki ravni polnjenja v naravnem okolju. Eden od vidikov, ki trenutno ni obravnavan, je uporaba aktivnih virov, npr. za električni pogon ali nadzor potenciala vesoljskega plovila. Orodja za obravnavo tega se še razvijajo in to področje bo mogoče obravnavati v poznejši izdaji.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
24-Oct-2021
Publication Date
03-Feb-2022
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
31-Jan-2022
Due Date
07-Apr-2022
Completion Date
04-Feb-2022

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-20-06:2022
01-marec-2022
Vesoljski inženiring - Ocena priročnika za polnjenje v najslabšem primeru v
vesolju
Space engineering - Assessment of space worst case charging handbook
Raumfahrtproduktsicherung - Handbuch zu Minderungsmethoden von
Strahlungseffekten auf ASICs und FPGA

Ingénierie spatiale - Guide sur les techniques de durcissement des ASICs et FPGAs vis-

à-vis des effets des radiations
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 17603-20-06:2022
ICS:
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-20-06:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-20-06:2022
TECHNICAL REPORT CEN/TR 17603-20-06
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
January 2022
ICS 49.140
English version
Space engineering - Assessment of space worst case
charging handbook

Ingénierie spatiale - Guide sur les techniques de Raumfahrtproduktsicherung - Handbuch zu

durcissement des ASICs et FPGAs vis-à-vis des effets Minderungsmethoden von Strahlungseffekten auf

des radiations ASICs und FPGA

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 29 November 2021. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/CLC/JTC 5.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels
© 2022 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means
Ref. No. CEN/TR 17603-20-06:2022 E
reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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Table of contents

European Foreword ................................................................................................... 6

Introduction ................................................................................................................ 7

1 Scope ....................................................................................................................... 8

2 References .............................................................................................................. 9

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms .......................................................... 13

Terms from other documents .................................................................................. 13

Abbreviated terms................................................................................................... 13

4 Surface charging .................................................................................................. 15

Fundamentals ......................................................................................................... 15

General methodology of surface charging analyses ................................................ 17

4.2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 17

4.2.2 Necessity of 3D surface charging analyses ............................................... 17

4.2.3 Simulation process .................................................................................... 18

4.2.4 Assessment of simulation results .............................................................. 19

Electrostatic discharge ............................................................................................ 20

4.3.1 ESD types ................................................................................................. 20

4.3.2 Thresholds for ESD occurrence ................................................................ 20

4.3.3 Quantitative characterization of ESD electrical transients .......................... 21

4.3.4 Interpretation of results ............................................................................. 25

Critical aspects with respect to worst case surface charging analyses .................... 25

4.4.1 Orbit .......................................................................................................... 25

4.4.2 Material properties .................................................................................... 26

4.4.3 Sunlit/Eclipse ............................................................................................ 26

4.4.4 Protons ..................................................................................................... 27

4.4.5 Electric propulsion ..................................................................................... 27

How to set up a simulation ...................................................................................... 27

4.5.1 Charging environment parameters ............................................................ 27

4.5.2 Modelling requirements for surface charging analyses .............................. 27

4.5.3 Spacecraft geometry modelling ................................................................. 28

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4.5.4 Gmsh – The CAD interface to SPIS .......................................................... 29

4.5.5 Physical groups and surface materials definition ....................................... 33

4.5.6 Basic electrical circuit of the satellite ......................................................... 36

4.5.7 Plasma models ......................................................................................... 37

4.5.8 Global parameters..................................................................................... 37

4.5.9 Consistency checks .................................................................................. 38

5 Internal Charging .................................................................................................. 40

Fundamentals ......................................................................................................... 40

5.1.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 40

5.1.2 Floating metals .......................................................................................... 40

5.1.3 Insulators .................................................................................................. 40

5.1.4 Charge Deposition .................................................................................... 41

5.1.5 Conductivity .............................................................................................. 41

5.1.6 Time-dependence ..................................................................................... 43

General methodology ............................................................................................. 43

5.2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 43

5.2.2 Internal charging analyses ........................................................................ 44

5.2.3 Critical aspects with respect to worst case internal charging analysis ....... 45

5.2.4 Modelling aspects for internal charging analyses ...................................... 49

5.2.5 Environment .............................................................................................. 50

5.2.6 Geometry .................................................................................................. 50

5.2.7 Materials parameters ................................................................................ 51

5.2.8 Simulation tools in 1D and 3D ................................................................... 51

5.2.9 Scenarios .................................................................................................. 52

5.2.10 Important Outputs ..................................................................................... 52

6 General aspects of surface and internal charging analysis ............................. 53

Material characterization aspects ............................................................................ 53

Charging analyses and project phases ................................................................... 53

6.2.1 Phase 0: Mission analysis ......................................................................... 53

6.2.2 Phase A: Feasibility ................................................................................... 53

6.2.3 Phase B: Preliminary definition ................................................................. 53

6.2.4 Phase C: Detailed definition ...................................................................... 54

6.2.5 Phase D: Production ................................................................................. 54

6.2.6 Phase E: Utilisation ................................................................................... 54

Orbit plasma environment ....................................................................... 55

Plasma environment for different Earth orbits ......................................................... 55

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GEO worst case environments ............................................................................... 56

A.2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 56

A.2.2 ECSS ........................................................................................................ 56

A.2.3 NASA ........................................................................................................ 56

A.2.4 ONERA/CNES .......................................................................................... 58

LEO/Polar ............................................................................................................... 58

Figures

Figure 4-1: Current contributions influencing the surface charging of a body in space

plasma ............................................................................................................... 16

Figure 4-2: Flowchart showing the steps needed to determine the necessity of a 3D

surface charging analysis ................................................................................... 18

Figure 4-3: Flow diagram of the typical process of a 3D charging analysis ........................... 19

Figure 4-4: Charged surface with area A showing the geometrical meaning and the

range for the parameter R .................................................................................. 23

Figure 4-5: Two-dimensional meshing of a solar array (from Sarrailh et al 2013 0) .............. 24

Figure 4-6: Examples of 2 discharges .................................................................................. 24

Figure 4-7: Definition of nodes and lines with Gmsh ............................................................. 30

Figure 4-8: Definition of surfaces and volume with Gmsh ..................................................... 31

Figure 4-9: Top: Surface meshes of the spacecraft and boundary. Bottom: Volume

mesh of the computational space. ...................................................................... 32

Figure 4-10: Definition of surface materials through the SPIS group editor ........................... 33

Figure 4-11: Example of material properties list used by SPIS ............................................. 35

Figure 4-12: SPIS configuration of satellite electrical connections ........................................ 36

Figure 4-13: SPIS plasma parameters settings for the ECSS-E-ST-10-04 GEO worst

case environment for surface charging. .............................................................. 37

Figure 5-1: Mulassis 0 simulation of net flux (forward minus backward travelling) due to

a 5 MeV incident beam in a planar sample of Aluminium. CSDA range is

approximately 11,4 mm ...................................................................................... 41

Figure 5-2: Decision flow diagram for performing an internal charging analysis .................... 44

Figure 5-3: Current density v shielding depth curve for a geostationary orbit with

longitude 195deg East with nominal date 21/09/1994 according to the
FLUMIC model as calculated by the Mulassis tool in SPENVIS. The

FLUMIC spectrum was calculated by DICTAT in SPENVIS. ............................... 46

Figure 5-4: Current density v shielding depth curve for the peak of the outer radiation

belt L=4,4, B/B0=1,0 with nominal date 21/09/1994 according to the
FLUMIC model as calculated by the Mulassis tool in SPENVIS. The

FLUMIC spectrum was calculated by DICTAT in SPENVIS. ............................... 48

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Tables

Table 4-1: Meanings of the material properties used in SPIS ............................................... 35

Table 5-1: Current density v shielding depth values for a geostationary orbit with

longitude 195deg East with nominal date 21/09/1994 according to the
FLUMIC model as calculated by the Mulassis tool in SPENVIS. The

FLUMIC spectrum was calculated by DICTAT in SPENVIS. ............................... 47

Table 5-2: Current density v shielding depth values for the peak of the outer radiation

belt L=4,4, B/B0=1,0 with nominal date 21/09/1994 according to the
FLUMIC model as calculated by the Mulassis tool in SPENVIS. The

FLUMIC spectrum was calculated by DICTAT in SPENVIS. ............................... 48

Table A-1 : Type of environments and order of magnitudes of density and temperature

encountered along typical orbits ......................................................................... 55

Table A-2 : Order of magnitudes of key plasma and charging parameters expected in

typical environments .......................................................................................... 55

Table A-3 : ECSS-E-ST-10-04 worst case charging environment ......................................... 56

Table A-4 : NASA-HDBK-4002A worst case charging environment ...................................... 56

Table A-5 : NASA ‘more realistic’ geosynchronous worst case environment

specification ....................................................................................................... 57

Table A-6 : Severe charging environments in GEO 0 ........................................................... 58

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European Foreword
This document (CEN/TR 17603-20-06:2022) has been prepared by Technical Committee
CEN/CLC/JTC 5 “Space”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

It is highlighted that this technical report does not contain any requirement but only collection of data

or descriptions and guidelines about how to organize and perform the work in support of EN 16603-

20.

This Technical report (CEN/TR 17603-20-06:2021) originates from ECSS-E-HB-20-06A.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and

the European Free Trade Association.

This document has been developed to cover specifically space systems and has therefore precedence

over any TR covering the same scope but with a wider domain of applicability (e.g.: aerospace).

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Introduction

Spacecraft charging occurs due to the deposition of charge on spacecraft surfaces or in internal

materials due to charged particles from the environment. Resulting high voltages and high electric

fields cause electrostatic discharges which are a hazard to many spacecraft systems. Broadly speaking,

spacecraft charging can be divided into surface charging, which is caused by plasma particles with

energy up to several 10s of keV and internal charging which is caused by trapped radiation electrons

with energy around 0,2 MeV and above.

Both surface and internal charging have been associated with malfunctions and damage to spacecraft

systems over many years.
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Scope

Common engineering practices involve the assessment, through computer simulation (with software

like NASCAP 0 or SPIS 0), of the levels of absolute and differential potentials reached by space

systems in flight. This is usually made mandatory by customers and by standards for the orbits most

at risk such as GEO or MEO and long transfers to GEO by, for example, electric propulsion.

The ECSS-E-ST-20-06 standard requires the assessment of spacecraft charging but it is not appropriate

in a standard to explain how such an assessment is performed. It is the role of this document ECSS-E-

HB-20-06, to explain in more detail important aspects of the charging process and to give guidance on

how to carry out charging assessment by computer simulation.

The ECSS-E-ST-10-04 standard specifies many aspects of the space environment, including the plasma

and radiation characteristics corresponding to worst cases for surface and internal charging. In this

document the use of these environment descriptions in worst case simulations is described.

The emphasis in this document is on high level charging in natural environments. One aspect that is

currently not addressed is the use of active sources e.g. for electric propulsion or spacecraft potential

control. The tools to address this are still being developed and this area can be addressed in a later

edition.
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References
EN Reference Reference in text # Title

EN 16601-00-01 ECSS-S-ST-00-01 [RD.1] ECSS-S-ST-00-01, ECSS system – Glossary of terms

EN 17603-10-04 ECSS-E-ST-10-04 [RD.2] ECSS-E-ST-10-04, Space engineering, Space
environment

EN 17603-20-06 ECSS-E-ST-20-06 [RD.3] ECSS-E-ST-20-06, Space engineering, Spacecraft

charging
[RD.4] Myron J. Mandell, Victoria A. Davis, David L.
Cooke, Member, IEEE, Adrian T. Wheelock, and C. J.
Roth, Nascap-2k Spacecraft Charging Code
Overview, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA
SCIENCE, VOL. 34, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2006
[RD.5] Benoit Thiébault, Benjamin Jeanty-Ruard, Pierre
Souquet, Julien Forest, Jean-Charles Matéo-Vélez,
Pierre Sarrailh, David Rodgers, Alain Hilgers,
Fabrice Cipriani, Denis Payan, and Nicolas Balcon,
SPIS 5.1: An Innovative Approach for Spacecraft
Plasma Modeling, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON
PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 43, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER
2015. [SPIS can be downloaded from
http://dev.spis.org/projects/spine/home/spis]
[RD.6] D. Payan, V. Inguimbert, and J.-M. Siguier, ESD and
secondary arcing powered by the solar array –
toward full arc free power lines, 14 SCTC, ESTEC,
2016
[RD.7] M. Bodeau, Updated current and voltage thresholds
for sustained arcs in power systems, IEEE Trans. on
Plasma Science,
Vol. 42, No. 7, 2014
[RD.8] C. Imhof, H. Mank, and J. Lange, Charging
simulations for a low earth orbit satellite with SPIS
using different environmental inputs,
14 SCTC, ESTEC, 2016
[RD.9] Yeh and Gussenhoven, The statistical electron
environment for Defense Meteorological Satellite
Program eclipse charging, JGR, vo.92, no.A7,
pp.7705-7715, 1987
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EN Reference Reference in text # Title
[RD.10] F. Lei, P. R. Truscott, C. S. Dyer, B. Quaghebeur, D.
Heynderickx, P. Nieminen, H. Evans, and E. Daly,
MULASSIS: A Geant4-Based Multilayered Shielding
Simulation Tool, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON
NUCLEAR SCIENCE, VOL. 49, NO. 6, DECEMBER
2002
[RD.11] Adamec, V. and J. Calderwood, J Phys. D: Appl.
Phys., 8, 551-560, 1975.
[RD.12] D.J.Rodgers, K. Ryden G.L. Wrenn, P.M. Latham, J.
Sorensen, & L. Levy (1998). An Engineering Tool for
the Prediction of Internal Dielectric Charging, Proc.
6th Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference,
Hanscom, USA
[RD.13] R. Hanna, T. Paulmier, P. Molinie, M. Belhaj, B.
Dirassen, D. Payan and N. Balcon, J. Appl. Phys. 115,
033713 (2014)]
[RD.14] Insoo Jun, Henry B. Garrett, Wousik Kim, and
Joseph I. Minow, Review of an Internal Charging
Code, NUMIT, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON
PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 36, NO. 5, OCTOBER
2008
[RD.15] F. Lei, D. Rodgers and P. Truscott, MCICT MONTE-
CARLO INTERNAL CHARGING TOOL, Proc. 14
Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference,
ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, NL, 08 APRIL 2016
[RD.16] Alex Hands, Keith Ryden, Craig Underwood, David
Rodgers and Hugh Evans, A New Model of Outer
Belt Electrons for Dielectric Internal Charging
(MOBE-DIC) IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR
SCIENCE, VOL. 62, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2015
[RD.17] G. P. Ginet, P. O’Brien, S. L. HustonW. R. Johnston,
T. B. Guild, R. Friedel, C. D. Lindstrom, C. J. Roth, P.
Whelan, R. A. Quinn, D. Madden, S. Morley, Yi-Jiun
Su, AE9, AP9 and SPM: New Models for Specifying
the Trapped Energetic Particle and Space Plasma
Environment, Space Science Reviews November
2013, Volume 179, Issue 1–4, pp 579–615
[RD.18] B. Jeanty-Ruard, A. Trouche, P. Sarrailh, J. Forest.
Advanced CAD tool and experimental integration of
GRAS/GEANT-4 for internal charging analysis in
SPIS. Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference
SCTC 2016, Apr 2016, NOORDWIJK, Netherlands.
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EN Reference Reference in text # Title
[RD.19] D. Payan, A. Sicard-Piet, J.C. Mateo-Velez, D.Lazaro,
S. Bourdarie, et al.. Worst case of Geostationary
charging environment spectrum based on LANL
flight data. Spacecraft Charging Technology
Conference 2014 (13 SCTC), Jun 2014, PASADENA,
United States.
[RD.20] Gussenhoven, M.S. and E. G. Mullen (1983),
Geosynchronous environment for severe spacecraft
charging, J. Spacecraft and Rockets 20, N°1, p. 26.
[RD.21] Matéo-Vélez, J.-C., Sicard, A., Payan, D.,
Ganushkina, N., Meredith, N. P., & Sillanpäa, I.
(2018). Spacecraft surface charging induced by
severe environments at geosynchronous orbit. Space
Weather, 16.
[RD.22] NASA-HDBK-4002A, Mitigating in space charging
effects – a guideline, 03-03-2011
[RD.23] Inguimbert, V., Siguier, J. M., Sarrailh, P., Matéo-
Vélez, J. C., Payan, D., Murat, G., & Baur, C.
Influence of Different Parameters on Flashover
Propagation on a Solar Panel. IEEE Transactions on
Plasma Science (2017)
[RD.24] E. Amorim, D. Payan, R. Reulet, and D. Sarrail,
“Electrostatic discharges on a 1 m2 solar array
coupon—Influence of the energy stored on
coverglass on flashover current,” in Proc. 9th
Spacecraft Charging Technol. Conf., Tsukuba, Japan,
Apr. 2005
[RD.25] R. Briet,, “Scaling laws for pulse waveforms from
surface discharges,” in Proc. 9th SCTC, Tsukuba,
Japan, Apr. 2005.,
[RD.26] D. C. Ferguson and B. V. Vayner, “Flashover current
pulse formation and the perimeter theory,” IEEE
Trans. Plasma Sci., vol. 41, no. 12, pp. 3393–3401,
Dec. 2013
[RD.27] J.-F. Roussel et al., “SPIS multiscale and Multiphysics
capabilities: Development and application to GEO
charging and flashover modelling,” IEEE Trans.
Plasma Sci., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 183–191, Feb. 2012.
[RD.28] J. A. Young and M. W. Crofton, “The effects of
material at arc site on ESD propagation,” in Proc.
14th SCTC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, Apr., pp.
1–7, 2016
[RD.29] P. Sarrailh et al., “Plasma bubble expansion model of
the flash-over current collection on a solar array-
comparison to EMAGS3 results,” IEEE Trans. Plasma
Sci., vol. 41, no. 12, pp. 3429–3437, Dec. 2013
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EN Reference Reference in text # Title
[RD.30] V. Inguimbert et al., “Measurements of the flashover
expansion on a real-solar panel—Preliminary results
of EMAGS3 project,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., vol.
41, no. 12, pp. 3370–3379, Dec. 2013.
[RD.31] A. Gerhard et al., “Analysis of solar array
performance degradation during simulated
flashover discharge experiments on a full panel and
using a simulator circuit,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci.,
vol. 43, no. 11, pp. 3933–3938, Nov. 2015
[RD.32] Sarno-Smith, Lois K., Larsen, Brian A., Skoug, Ruth
M., Liemohn, Michael W., Breneman, Aaron,
Wygant, John R., Thomsen, Michelle F., Spacecraft
surface charging within geosynchronous orbit
observed by the Van Allen Probes, Space Weather,
Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 151–164, February 2016
[RD.33] Ganushkina, N. Yu., Amariutei, O. A., Welling, D.,
Heynderickx, D., Nowcast model for low-energy
electrons in the inner magnetosphere, Space
Weather, Volume 13, issue 1, pp. 16-34, 2015
[RD.34] NASA Technical paper 2361,1984 Design guidelines
for assessing and controlling spacecraft charging
effects
[RD.35] Matéo-Vélez, J.-C., Sicard, A., Payan, D.,
Ganushkina, N., Meredith, N. P., & Sillanpäa, I.
(2018). Spacecraft surface charging induced by
severe environments at geosynchronous orbit. Space
Weather, 16. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017SW001689
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Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
Terms from other documents

a. For the purpose of this document, the terms and definitions from ECSS-S-ST-00-01 apply, in

particular the following terms:
1. environment
Abbreviated terms

For the purpose of this document, the abbreviated terms from ECSS-S-ST-00-01 apply and in

particular the following:
Abbreviation Meaning
astronomical unit
beginning-of-life
BOL
computer-aided design
CAD
continuous slowing down approximation
CSDA
(relating to range of radiation in matter)
electromagnetic compatibility
EMC
electrostatic discharge
ESD
end-of-life
EOL
Geometry Definition Markup Language
GDML
graphical user interface
GUI
geostationary orbit
GEO
geostationary transfer orbit
GTO
medium Earth orbit
MEO
multi-layer insulation
MLI
LoaSAlamos National Laboratory
LANL
low Earth orbit
LEO
secondary electron emission
SEE
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In addition the following acronyms are used in this document
Acronym Meaning
United States Airforce electron environment model / Standard
AE9/SPM
Plasma Model
Software with ability to perform 3D internal charging
CIRSOS
simulations (Collaborative Iterative Radiation Simulation
Optimisation Software)
Software for 1D Internal charging analysis (Dielectric Internal
DICTAT
Charging Threat Assessment Tool)
An ESA study of Solar Array Triggering Arc Phenomena
EMAGS-3
A worst case electron environment model for internal
FLUMIC
charging (Fluence Model for Internal Charging)
Software generator of finite element meshes
Gmsh
Software for 1D Internal charging analysis (Monte Carlo
MCICT
Internal Charging Tool)
A worst case electron environment model for internal
MOBE-DIC
charging (Model of Outer Belt Electrons for Dielectric
Internal Charging)
Software for 3D simulation of surface charging (NASA
NASCAP
Charging Analysis Program)
Software for 1D Internal charging analysis (Numerical
NUMIT
Integration)
A spacecraft dedicated to surface charging observations
SCATHA
(Spacecraft Charging at High Altitudes)
Software for 3D simulation of surface charging (Spacecraft
SPIS
Plasma Interaction Simulation)
Web service for space environment analysis (Space
SPENVIS
Environment Information System)
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Surface charging
Fundamentals

This Section gives a brief overview of the most important physical mechanisms connected with the

surface charging of a body which is exposed to the space environment. Some of the randomly

propagating charged particles incident on the surface of the body are collected by the surface, while

the others are deflected or re-emitted. The ratio between these two contributions depends on the

surface material and on the energy and angle of incidence of the impacting particles. The collected

particles can be seen as a current from the plasma environment to the satellite. Because negatively

charged electrons have a higher mean velocity than positively charged ions the spacecraft usually

tends to assume absolute negative potentials.

Besides the simple collection of charged particles, additional effects can lead to a

re-emitted current from the surface. So, incoming particles are able to eject electrons from the surface

material. This
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17603-20-06:2021
01-oktober-2021
Vesoljski inženiring - Ocena priročnika za polnjenje v najslabšem primeru v
vesolju
Space engineering - Assessment of space worst case charging handbook
Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch zur Bewertung von Weltraum-Worst-Case-Ladungen
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: FprCEN/TR 17603-20-06
ICS:
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17603-20-06:2021 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17603-20-06:2021
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kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17603-20-06:2021
TECHNICAL REPORT
FINAL DRAFT
FprCEN/TR 17603-20-06
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
August 2021
ICS 49.140
English version
Space engineering - Assessment of space worst case
charging handbook

Ingénierie spatiale - Guide sur les techniques de Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch zur Bewertung von

durcissement des ASICs et FPGAs vis-à-vis des effets Weltraum-Worst-Case-Ladungen

des radiations

This draft Technical Report is submitted to CEN members for Vote. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/CLC/JTC 5.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a Technical Report. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a Technical Report.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. FprCEN/TR 17603-20-06:2021 E

reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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Table of contents

European Foreword ................................................................................................... 6

Introduction ................................................................................................................ 7

1 Scope ....................................................................................................................... 8

2 References .............................................................................................................. 9

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms .......................................................... 13

3.1 Terms from other documents .................................................................................. 13

3.2 Abbreviated terms................................................................................................... 13

4 Surface charging .................................................................................................. 15

4.1 Fundamentals ......................................................................................................... 15

4.2 General methodology of surface charging analyses ................................................ 17

4.2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 17

4.2.2 Necessity of 3D surface charging analyses ............................................... 17

4.2.3 Simulation process .................................................................................... 18

4.2.4 Assessment of simulation results .............................................................. 19

4.3 Electrostatic discharge ............................................................................................ 20

4.3.1 ESD types ................................................................................................. 20

4.3.2 Thresholds for ESD occurrence ................................................................ 20

4.3.3 Quantitative characterization of ESD electrical transients .......................... 21

4.3.4 Interpretation of results ............................................................................. 25

4.4 Critical aspects with respect to worst case surface charging analyses .................... 25

4.4.1 Orbit .......................................................................................................... 25

4.4.2 Material properties .................................................................................... 26

4.4.3 Sunlit/Eclipse ............................................................................................ 26

4.4.4 Protons ..................................................................................................... 27

4.4.5 Electric propulsion ..................................................................................... 27

4.5 How to set up a simulation ...................................................................................... 27

4.5.1 Charging environment parameters ............................................................ 27

4.5.2 Modelling requirements for surface charging analyses .............................. 27

4.5.3 Spacecraft geometry modelling ................................................................. 28

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4.5.4 Gmsh – The CAD interface to SPIS .......................................................... 29

4.5.5 Physical groups and surface materials definition ....................................... 33

4.5.6 Basic electrical circuit of the satellite ......................................................... 36

4.5.7 Plasma models ......................................................................................... 37

4.5.8 Global parameters..................................................................................... 37

4.5.9 Consistency checks .................................................................................. 38

5 Internal Charging .................................................................................................. 40

5.1 Fundamentals ......................................................................................................... 40

5.1.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 40

5.1.2 Floating metals .......................................................................................... 40

5.1.3 Insulators .................................................................................................. 40

5.1.4 Charge Deposition .................................................................................... 41

5.1.5 Conductivity .............................................................................................. 41

5.1.6 Time-dependence ..................................................................................... 43

5.2 General methodology ............................................................................................. 43

5.2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 43

5.2.2 Internal charging analyses ........................................................................ 44

5.2.3 Critical aspects with respect to worst case internal charging analysis ....... 45

5.2.4 Modelling aspects for internal charging analyses ...................................... 49

5.2.5 Environment .............................................................................................. 50

5.2.6 Geometry .................................................................................................. 50

5.2.7 Materials parameters ................................................................................ 51

5.2.8 Simulation tools in 1D and 3D ................................................................... 51

5.2.9 Scenarios .................................................................................................. 52

5.2.10 Important Outputs ..................................................................................... 52

6 General aspects of surface and internal charging analysis ............................. 53

6.1 Material characterization aspects ............................................................................ 53

6.2 Charging analyses and project phases ................................................................... 53

6.2.1 Phase 0: Mission analysis ......................................................................... 53

6.2.2 Phase A: Feasibility ................................................................................... 53

6.2.3 Phase B: Preliminary definition ................................................................. 53

6.2.4 Phase C: Detailed definition ...................................................................... 54

6.2.5 Phase D: Production ................................................................................. 54

6.2.6 Phase E: Utilisation ................................................................................... 54

Annex A Orbit plasma environment ....................................................................... 55

A.1 Plasma environment for different Earth orbits ......................................................... 55

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A.2 GEO worst case environments ............................................................................... 56

A.2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 56

A.2.2 ECSS ........................................................................................................ 56

A.2.3 NASA ........................................................................................................ 56

A.2.4 ONERA/CNES .......................................................................................... 58

A.3 LEO/Polar ............................................................................................................... 59

Figures

Figure 4-1: Current contributions influencing the surface charging of a body in space

plasma ............................................................................................................... 16

Figure 4-2: Flowchart showing the steps needed to determine the necessity of a 3D

surface charging analysis ................................................................................... 18

Figure 4-3: Flow diagram of the typical process of a 3D charging analysis ........................... 19

Figure 4-4: Charged surface with area A showing the geometrical meaning and the

range for the parameter R .................................................................................. 23

Figure 4-5: Two-dimensional meshing of a solar array (from Sarrailh et al 2013 0) .............. 24

Figure 4-6: Examples of 2 discharges .................................................................................. 24

Figure 4-7: Definition of nodes and lines with Gmsh ............................................................. 30

Figure 4-8: Definition of surfaces and volume with Gmsh ..................................................... 31

Figure 4-9: Top: Surface meshes of the spacecraft and boundary. Bottom: Volume

mesh of the computational space. ...................................................................... 32

Figure 4-10: Definition of surface materials through the SPIS group editor ........................... 33

Figure 4-11: Example of material properties list used by SPIS ............................................. 35

Figure 4-12: SPIS configuration of satellite electrical connections ........................................ 36

Figure 4-13: SPIS plasma parameters settings for the ECSS-E-ST-10-04 GEO worst

case environment for surface charging. .............................................................. 37

Figure 5-1: Mulassis 0 simulation of net flux (forward minus backward travelling) due to

a 5 MeV incident beam in a planar sample of Aluminium. CSDA range is

approximately 11,4 mm ...................................................................................... 41

Figure 5-2: Decision flow diagram for performing an internal charging analysis .................... 44

Figure 5-3: Current density v shielding depth curve for a geostationary orbit with

longitude 195deg East with nominal date 21/09/1994 according to the
FLUMIC model as calculated by the Mulassis tool in SPENVIS. The

FLUMIC spectrum was calculated by DICTAT in SPENVIS. ............................... 46

Figure 5-4: Current density v shielding depth curve for the peak of the outer radiation

belt L=4,4, B/B0=1,0 with nominal date 21/09/1994 according to the
FLUMIC model as calculated by the Mulassis tool in SPENVIS. The

FLUMIC spectrum was calculated by DICTAT in SPENVIS. ............................... 48

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Tables

Table 4-1: Meanings of the material properties used in SPIS ............................................... 35

Table 5-1: Current density v shielding depth values for a geostationary orbit with

longitude 195deg East with nominal date 21/09/1994 according to the
FLUMIC model as calculated by the Mulassis tool in SPENVIS. The

FLUMIC spectrum was calculated by DICTAT in SPENVIS. ............................... 47

Table 5-2: Current density v shielding depth values for the peak of the outer radiation

belt L=4,4, B/B0=1,0 with nominal date 21/09/1994 according to the
FLUMIC model as calculated by the Mulassis tool in SPENVIS. The

FLUMIC spectrum was calculated by DICTAT in SPENVIS. ............................... 48

Table A-1 : Type of environments and order of magnitudes of density and temperature

encountered along typical orbits ......................................................................... 55

Table A-2 : Order of magnitudes of key plasma and charging parameters expected in

typical environments .......................................................................................... 55

Table A-3 : ECSS-E-ST-10-04 worst case charging environment ......................................... 56

Table A-4 : NASA-HDBK-4002A worst case charging environment ...................................... 56

Table A-5 : NASA ‘more realistic’ geosynchronous worst case environment

specification ....................................................................................................... 57

Table A-6 : Severe charging environments in GEO 0 ........................................................... 58

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European Foreword

This document (FprCEN/TR 17603-20-06:2021) has been prepared by Technical Committee

CEN/CLC/JTC 5 “Space”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

It is highlighted that this technical report does not contain any requirement but only collection of data

or descriptions and guidelines about how to organize and perform the work in support of EN 16603-

20.

This Technical report (FprCEN/TR 17603-20-06:2021) originates from ECSS-E-HB-20-06A.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such

patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and

the European Free Trade Association.

This document has been developed to cover specifically space systems and has therefore precedence

over any TR covering the same scope but with a wider domain of applicability (e.g.: aerospace).

This document is currently submitted to the CEN CONSULTATION.
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Introduction

Spacecraft charging occurs due to the deposition of charge on spacecraft surfaces or in internal

materials due to charged particles from the environment. Resulting high voltages and high electric

fields cause electrostatic discharges which are a hazard to many spacecraft systems. Broadly speaking,

spacecraft charging can be divided into surface charging, which is caused by plasma particles with

energy up to several 10s of keV and internal charging which is caused by trapped radiation electrons

with energy around 0,2 MeV and above.

Both surface and internal charging have been associated with malfunctions and damage to spacecraft

systems over many years.
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Scope

Common engineering practices involve the assessment, through computer simulation (with software

like NASCAP 0 or SPIS 0), of the levels of absolute and differential potentials reached by space

systems in flight. This is usually made mandatory by customers and by standards for the orbits most

at risk such as GEO or MEO and long transfers to GEO by, for example, electric propulsion.

The ECSS-E-ST-20-06 standard requires the assessment of spacecraft charging but it is not appropriate

in a standard to explain how such an assessment is performed. It is the role of this document ECSS-E-

HB-20-06, to explain in more detail important aspects of the charging process and to give guidance on

how to carry out charging assessment by computer simulation.

The ECSS-E-ST-10-04 standard specifies many aspects of the space environment, including the plasma

and radiation characteristics corresponding to worst cases for surface and internal charging. In this

document the use of these environment descriptions in worst case simulations is described.

The emphasis in this document is on high level charging in natural environments. One aspect that is

currently not addressed is the use of active sources e.g. for electric propulsion or spacecraft potential

control. The tools to address this are still being developed and this area can be addressed in a later

edition.
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References
EN Reference Reference in text # Title

EN 16601-00-01 ECSS-S-ST-00-01 [RD.1] ECSS-S-ST-00-01, ECSS system – Glossary of terms

EN 17603-10-04 ECSS-E-ST-10-04 [RD.2] ECSS-E-ST-10-04, Space engineering, Space
environment

EN 17603-20-06 ECSS-E-ST-20-06 [RD.3] ECSS-E-ST-20-06, Space engineering, Spacecraft

charging
[RD.4] Myron J. Mandell, Victoria A. Davis, David L.
Cooke, Member, IEEE, Adrian T. Wheelock, and C. J.
Roth, Nascap-2k Spacecraft Charging Code
Overview, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA
SCIENCE, VOL. 34, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2006
[RD.5] Benoit Thiébault, Benjamin Jeanty-Ruard, Pierre
Souquet, Julien Forest, Jean-Charles Matéo-Vélez,
Pierre Sarrailh, David Rodgers, Alain Hilgers,
Fabrice Cipriani, Denis Payan, and Nicolas Balcon,
SPIS 5.1: An Innovative Approach for Spacecraft
Plasma Modeling, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON
PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 43, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER
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[RD.6] D. Payan, V. Inguimbert, and J.-M. Siguier, ESD and
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[RD.7] M. Bodeau, Updated current and voltage thresholds
for sustained arcs in power systems, IEEE Trans. on
Plasma Science,
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[RD.8] C. Imhof, H. Mank, and J. Lange, Charging
simulations for a low earth orbit satellite with SPIS
using different environmental inputs,
14 SCTC, ESTEC, 2016
[RD.9] Yeh and Gussenhoven, The statistical electron
environment for Defense Meteorological Satellite
Program eclipse charging, JGR, vo.92, no.A7,
pp.7705-7715, 1987
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EN Reference Reference in text # Title
[RD.10] F. Lei, P. R. Truscott, C. S. Dyer, B. Quaghebeur, D.
Heynderickx, P. Nieminen, H. Evans, and E. Daly,
MULASSIS: A Geant4-Based Multilayered Shielding
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Sorensen, & L. Levy (1998). An Engineering Tool for
the Prediction of Internal Dielectric Charging, Proc.
6th Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference,
Hanscom, USA
[RD.13] R. Hanna, T. Paulmier, P. Molinie, M. Belhaj, B.
Dirassen, D. Payan and N. Balcon, J. Appl. Phys. 115,
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[RD.14] Insoo Jun, Henry B. Garrett, Wousik Kim, and
Joseph I. Minow, Review of an Internal Charging
Code, NUMIT, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON
PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 36, NO. 5, OCTOBER
2008
[RD.15] F. Lei, D. Rodgers and P. Truscott, MCICT MONTE-
CARLO INTERNAL CHARGING TOOL, Proc. 14
Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference,
ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, NL, 08 APRIL 2016
[RD.16] Alex Hands, Keith Ryden, Craig Underwood, David
Rodgers and Hugh Evans, A New Model of Outer
Belt Electrons for Dielectric Internal Charging
(MOBE-DIC) IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR
SCIENCE, VOL. 62, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2015
[RD.17] G. P. Ginet, P. O’Brien, S. L. HustonW. R. Johnston,
T. B. Guild, R. Friedel, C. D. Lindstrom, C. J. Roth, P.
Whelan, R. A. Quinn, D. Madden, S. Morley, Yi-Jiun
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the Trapped Energetic Particle and Space Plasma
Environment, Space Science Reviews November
2013, Volume 179, Issue 1–4, pp 579–615
[RD.18] B. Jeanty-Ruard, A. Trouche, P. Sarrailh, J. Forest.
Advanced CAD tool and experimental integration of
GRAS/GEANT-4 for internal charging analysis in
SPIS. Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference
SCTC 2016, Apr 2016, NOORDWIJK, Netherlands.
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EN Reference Reference in text # Title
[RD.19] D. Payan, A. Sicard-Piet, J.C. Mateo-Velez, D.Lazaro,
S. Bourdarie, et al.. Worst case of Geostationary
charging environment spectrum based on LANL
flight data. Spacecraft Charging Technology
Conference 2014 (13 SCTC), Jun 2014, PASADENA,
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[RD.20] Gussenhoven, M.S. and E. G. Mullen (1983),
Geosynchronous environment for severe spacecraft
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[RD.21] Matéo-Vélez, J.-C., Sicard, A., Payan, D.,
Ganushkina, N., Meredith, N. P., & Sillanpäa, I.
(2018). Spacecraft surface charging induced by
severe environments at geosynchronous orbit. Space
Weather, 16.
[RD.22] NASA-HDBK-4002A, Mitigating in space charging
effects – a guideline, 03-03-2011
[RD.23] Inguimbert, V., Siguier, J. M., Sarrailh, P., Matéo-
Vélez, J. C., Payan, D., Murat, G., & Baur, C.
Influence of Different Parameters on Flashover
Propagation on a Solar Panel. IEEE Transactions on
Plasma Science (2017)
[RD.24] E. Amorim, D. Payan, R. Reulet, and D. Sarrail,
“Electrostatic discharges on a 1 m2 solar array
coupon—Influence of the energy stored on
coverglass on flashover current,” in Proc. 9th
Spacecraft Charging Technol. Conf., Tsukuba, Japan,
Apr. 2005
[RD.25] R. Briet,, “Scaling laws for pulse waveforms from
surface discharges,” in Proc. 9th SCTC, Tsukuba,
Japan, Apr. 2005.,
[RD.26] D. C. Ferguson and B. V. Vayner, “Flashover current
pulse formation and the perimeter theory,” IEEE
Trans. Plasma Sci., vol. 41, no. 12, pp. 3393–3401,
Dec. 2013
[RD.27] J.-F. Roussel et al., “SPIS multiscale and Multiphysics
capabilities: Development and application to GEO
charging and flashover modelling,” IEEE Trans.
Plasma Sci., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 183–191, Feb. 2012.
[RD.28] J. A. Young and M. W. Crofton, “The effects of
material at arc site on ESD propagation,” in Proc.
14th SCTC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, Apr., pp.
1–7, 2016
[RD.29] P. Sarrailh et al., “Plasma bubble expansion model of
the flash-over current collection on a solar array-
comparison to EMAGS3 results,” IEEE Trans. Plasma
Sci., vol. 41, no. 12, pp. 3429–3437, Dec. 2013
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EN Reference Reference in text # Title
[RD.30] V. Inguimbert et al., “Measurements of the flashover
expansion on a real-solar panel—Preliminary results
of EMAGS3 project,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., vol.
41, no. 12, pp. 3370–3379, Dec. 2013.
[RD.31] A. Gerhard et al., “Analysis of solar array
performance degradation during simulated
flashover discharge experiments on a full panel and
using a simulator circuit,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci.,
vol. 43, no. 11, pp. 3933–3938, Nov. 2015
[RD.32] Sarno-Smith, Lois K., Larsen, Brian A., Skoug, Ruth
M., Liemohn, Michael W., Breneman, Aaron,
Wygant, John R., Thomsen, Michelle F., Spacecraft
surface charging within geosynchronous orbit
observed by the Van Allen Probes, Space Weather,
Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 151–164, February 2016
[RD.33] Ganushkina, N. Yu., Amariutei, O. A., Welling, D.,
Heynderickx, D., Nowcast model for low-energy
electrons in the inner magnetosphere, Space
Weather, Volume 13, issue 1, pp. 16-34, 2015
[RD.34] NASA Technical paper 2361,1984 Design guidelines
for assessing and controlling spacecraft charging
effects
[RD.35] Matéo-Vélez, J.-C., Sicard, A., Payan, D.,
Ganushkina, N., Meredith, N. P., & Sillanpäa, I.
(2018). Spacecraft surface charging induced by
severe environments at geosynchronous orbit. Space
Weather, 16. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017SW001689
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Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms from other documents

a. For the purpose of this document, the terms and definitions from ECSS-S-ST-00-01 apply, in

particular the following terms:
1. environment
3.2 Abbreviated terms

For the purpose of this document, the abbreviated terms from ECSS-S-ST-00-01 apply and in

particular the following:
Abbreviation Meaning
astronomical unit
beginning-of-life
BOL
computer-aided design
CAD
continuous slowing down approximation
CSDA
(relating to range of radiation in matter)
electromagnetic compatibility
EMC
electrostatic discharge
ESD
end-of-life
EOL
Geometry Definition Markup Language
GDML
graphical user interface
GUI
geostationary orbit
GEO
geostationary transfer orbit
GTO
medium Earth orbit
MEO
multi-layer insulation
MLI
LoaSAlamos National Laboratory
LANL
low Earth orbit
LEO
secondary electron emission
SEE
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In addition the following acronyms are used in this document
Acronym Meaning
United States Airforce electron environment model / Standard
AE9/SPM
Plasma Model
Software with ability to perform 3D internal charging
CIRSOS
simulations (Collaborative Iterative Radiation Simulation
Optimisation Software)
Software for 1D Internal charging analysis (Dielectric Internal
DICTAT
Charging Threat Assessment Tool)
An ESA study of Solar Array Triggering Arc Phenomena
EMAGS-3
A worst case electron environment model for internal
FLUMIC
charging (Fluence Model for Internal Charging)
Software generator of finite element meshes
Gmsh
Software for 1D Internal charging analysis (Monte Carlo
MCICT
Internal Charging Tool)
A worst case electron environment model for internal
MOBE-DIC
charging (Model of Outer Belt Electrons for Dielectric
Internal Charging)
Software for 3D simulation of surface charging (NASA
NASCAP
Charging Analysis Program)
Software for 1D Internal charging analysis (Numerical
NUMIT
Integration)
A spacecraft dedicated to surface charging observations
SCATHA
(Spacecraft Charging at High Altitudes)
Software for 3D simulation of surface charging (Spacecraft
SPIS
Plasma Interaction Simulation)
Web service for space environment analysis (Space
SPENVIS
Environment Information System)
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Surface charging
4.1 Fundamentals

This Section gives a brief overview of the most important physical mechanisms connected with the

surface charging of a body which is exposed to the space environment. Some of the randomly

propagating charged particles incident on the surface of the body are collected by the surface, while

the others are deflected or re-emitted. The ratio between these two contributions depends on the

surface material and on the energy and angle of incidence of the impacting particles. The

...

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