Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB); Guide to DAB standards


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ETSI TR 101 495 V2.2.1 (2019-11)

Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB);
Guide to DAB standards

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2 ETSI TR 101 495 V2.2.1 (2019-11)

audio, broadcast, broadcasting, DAB, digital
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© ETSI 2019.
© European Broadcasting Union 2019.
All rights reserved.

DECT™, PLUGTESTS™, UMTS™ and the ETSI logo are trademarks of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members.

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GSM and the GSM logo are trademarks registered and owned by the GSM Association.

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3 ETSI TR 101 495 V2.2.1 (2019-11)
Intellectual Property Rights . 5
Foreword . 5
Modal verbs terminology . 5
1 Scope . 6
2 References . 6
2.1 Normative references . 6
2.2 Informative references . 6
3 Definition of terms, symbols and abbreviations . 8
3.1 Terms . 8
3.2 Symbols . 8
3.3 Abbreviations . 8
4 Introduction . 9
5 DAB system standards . 10
5.1 Introduction . 10
5.2 DAB system definition . 10
5.2.1 DAB system standard . 10
5.2.2 Registered tables . 11
5.2.3 Rules of implementation . 11
5.2.4 Conditional Access . 11
5.3 Audio coding . 11
5.3.1 Introduction. 11
5.3.2 DAB+ audio . 11
5.3.3 DAB audio . 11
5.3.4 DAB audio testing . 12
5.4 Data transport coding . 12
5.4.1 Introduction. 12
5.4.2 File transfer - MOT . 12
5.4.3 Transparent Data Channel - TDC . 12
5.4.4 MPEG-2 Transport Stream . 12
6 DAB contribution, distribution and network standards . 12
6.1 Introduction . 12
6.2 Contribution networks - STI . 13
6.3 Transmission interface - DIQ . 13
6.4 Distribution networks - ETI. 13
6.5 IP encapsulation - EDI . 14
7 Data applications . 14
7.1 Introduction . 14
7.2 SlideShow. 14
7.3 Service and Programme Information (SPI) . 14
7.3.1 Introduction. 14
7.3.2 SPI xml . 15
7.3.3 SPI binary . 15
7.4 Filecasting . 15
7.5 Text applications . 15
7.5.1 DL Plus . 15
7.5.2 Journaline . 15
7.6 DMB . 15
7.7 TPEG . 16
7.8 OMRI . 16
7.9 Filtered Information Service (FIS) . 16
8 Receiver specifications . 16
8.1 Introduction . 16

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4 ETSI TR 101 495 V2.2.1 (2019-11)
8.2 Minimum requirements . 16
9 Historical DAB specifications . 16
9.1 Introduction . 16
9.2 Guidelines for Implementation and Operation . 16
9.3 Rules of operation for MOT . 17
9.4 Broadcast Web Site . 17
9.5 Service planning . 17
9.6 Java™ . 17
9.7 TMC . 17
9.8 Voice applications . 17
9.9 Middleware. 18
9.10 Intellitext . 18
9.11 IPDC services . 18
9.12 Mobile internet . 18
9.12.1 IP tunnelling. 18
9.12.2 Protocols . 19
9.12.3 Interaction channel . 19
9.13 RDS linkage . 19
History . 20


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5 ETSI TR 101 495 V2.2.1 (2019-11)
Intellectual Property Rights
Essential patents
IPRs essential or potentially essential to normative deliverables may have been declared to ETSI. The information
pertaining to these essential IPRs, if any, is publicly available for ETSI members and non-members, and can be found
in ETSI SR 000 314: "Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs); Essential, or potentially Essential, IPRs notified to ETSI in
respect of ETSI standards", which is available from the ETSI Secretariat. Latest updates are available on the ETSI Web
server (
Pursuant to the ETSI IPR Policy, no investigation, including IPR searches, has been carried out by ETSI. No guarantee
can be given as to the existence of other IPRs not referenced in ETSI SR 000 314 (or the updates on the ETSI Web
server) which are, or may be, or may become, essential to the present document.
The present document may include trademarks and/or tradenames which are asserted and/or registered by their owners.
ETSI claims no ownership of these except for any which are indicated as being the property of ETSI, and conveys no
right to use or reproduce any trademark and/or tradename. Mention of those trademarks in the present document does
not constitute an endorsement by ETSI of products, services or organizations associated with those trademarks.
This Technical Report (TR) has been produced by Joint Technical Committee (JTC) Broadcast of the European
Broadcasting Union (EBU), Comité Européen de Normalisation ELECtrotechnique (CENELEC) and the European
Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI).
NOTE 1: The EBU/ETSI JTC Broadcast was established in 1990 to co-ordinate the drafting of standards in the
specific field of broadcasting and related fields. Since 1995 the JTC Broadcast became a tripartite body
by including in the Memorandum of Understanding also CENELEC, which is responsible for the
standardization of radio and television receivers. The EBU is a professional association of broadcasting
organizations whose work includes the co-ordination of its members' activities in the technical, legal,
programme-making and programme-exchange domains. The EBU has active members in about
60 countries in the European broadcasting area; its headquarters is in Geneva.
European Broadcasting Union
Tel: +41 22 717 21 11
Fax: +41 22 717 24 81

The Eureka Project 147 was established in 1987, with funding from the European Commission, to develop a system for
the broadcasting of audio and data to fixed, portable or mobile receivers. Their work resulted in the publication of
European Standard, ETSI EN 300 401 [i.1], for DAB (note 2) which now has world-wide acceptance.
NOTE 2: DAB is a registered trademark owned by one of the Eureka Project 147 partners.
The DAB family of standards is supported by WorldDAB, an organization with members drawn from broadcasting
organizations and telecommunication providers together with companies from the professional and consumer
electronics industry.
Modal verbs terminology
In the present document "should", "should not", "may", "need not", "will", "will not", "can" and "cannot" are to be
interpreted as described in clause 3.2 of the ETSI Drafting Rules (Verbal forms for the expression of provisions).
"must" and "must not" are NOT allowed in ETSI deliverables except when used in direct citation.

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6 ETSI TR 101 495 V2.2.1 (2019-11)
1 Scope
The present document provides brief explanations about the many different standards and guidelines for Digital Audio
Broadcasting (DAB), what they cover and how they interrelate. The present document seeks to provide a useful guide to
allow implementers to determine which aspects of the DAB system are in common use, and which are more specialized,
for both consumer and professional equipment. Those specifications that are no longer considered to be in mainstream
use (and are identified as "Historical" in the ETSI Work Programme) are also detailed.
2 References
2.1 Normative references
Normative references are not applicable in the present document.
2.2 Informative references
References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or
non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the
referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee
their long term validity.
The following referenced documents are not necessary for the application of the present document but they assist the
user with regard to a particular subject area.
[i.1] ETSI EN 300 401: "Radio broadcasting systems; Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) to mobile,
portable and fixed receivers".
[i.2] ETSI TS 101 756: "Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB); Registered Tables".
[i.3] ETSI TS 103 176: "Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB); Rules of implementation; Service
information features".
[i.4] ETSI TS 102 367: "Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB); Conditional Access".
[i.5] ETSI TS 102 563: "Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB); DAB+ audio coding (MPEG HE-
[i.6] ETSI TS 103 466: "Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB); DAB Audio Coding (MPEG layer II)".
[i.7] ETSI TS 101 757: "Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) Conformance testing for DAB Audio".
[i.8] ETSI EN 301 234: "Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB); Multimedia Object Transfer (MOT)
[i.9] ETSI TS 101 759: "Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB); Data Broadcasting - Transparent Data
Channel (TDC)".
[i.10] ETSI TS 102 427: "Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB); Data Broadcasting - MPEG-2 TS
[i.11] ETSI EN 300 797: "Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB); Distribution interfaces; Service Transport
Interface (STI)".
[i.12] ETSI TS 101 860: "Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB); Distribution interfaces; Service Transport
Interface (STI); STI Levels".
[i.13] ETSI EN 300 798: "Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB); Distribution interfaces; Digital baseband
In-phase and Quadrature (DIQ) interface".

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7 ETSI TR 101 495 V2.2.1 (2019-11)
[i.14] ETSI ETS 300 799: "Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB); Distribution interfaces; Ensemble
Transport Interface (ETI)".
[i.15] ETSI TS 102 693: "Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB); Encapsulation of DAB Interfaces (EDI)".
[i.16] ETSI TS 102 821: "Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM); Distribution and Communications
Protocol (DCP)".
[i.17] ETSI TS 101 499: "Hybrid Digital Radio (DAB, DRM, RadioDNS); SlideShow; User Application
[i.18] ETSI TS 102 818: " Hybrid Digital Radio (DAB, DRM, RadioDNS); XML Specification for
Service and Programme Information (SPI)".
[i.19] ETSI TS 102 371: "Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB); Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM);
Transportation and Binary Encoding Specification for Service and Programme Information (SPI)".
[i.20] ETSI TS 103 177: "Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB); Filecasting; User Application
[i.21] ETSI TS 102 980: "Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB); Dynamic Label Plus (DL Plus);
Application specification".
[i.22] ETSI TS 102 979: "Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB); Journaline; User application
[i.23] ETSI TS 102 428: "Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB); DMB video service; User Application
[i.24] ETSI TS 103 551: "Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB); Transport of TPEG services".
[i.25] ETSI TS 103 461: "Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB); Domestic and in-vehicle digital radio
receivers; Minimum requirements and Test specifications for technologies and products".
[i.26] ETSI TR 101 496 (all parts): "Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB); Guidelines and rules for
implementation and operation".
[i.27] ETSI TR 101 497: "Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB); Rules of Operation for the Multimedia
Object Transfer Protocol".
[i.28] ETSI TS 101 498 (all parts): "Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB); Broadcast Website".
[i.29] ETSI TR 101 758: "Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB); Signal strengths and receiver parameters;
Targets for typical operation".
[i.30] ETSI TS 101 993: "Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB); A Virtual Machine for DAB: DAB Java
[i.31] ETSI TS 102 368: "Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB); DAB - TMC (Traffic Message Channel)".
[i.32] ETSI TS 102 632: "Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB); Voice Applications".
[i.33] ETSI TS 102 635 (all parts): "Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB); Middleware".
[i.34] ETSI TS 102 652: "Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB); Intellitext; Application specification".
[i.35] ETSI TS 102 978: "Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB); IPDC Services; Transport specification".
[i.36] ETSI ES 201 735: "Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB); Internet Protocol (IP) Datagram
[i.37] ETSI ES 201 736: "Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB); Network Independent Protocols for
Interactive Services".

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8 ETSI TR 101 495 V2.2.1 (2019-11)
[i.38] ETSI ES 201 737: "Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB); Interaction channel through Global
System for Mobile communications (GSM) the Public switched Telecommunications System
(PSTN); Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) and Digital Enhanced Cordless
Telecommunications (DECT)".
[i.39] ETSI EN 301 700: "Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB); VHF/FM Broadcasting: cross-referencing
to simulcast DAB services by RDS-ODA 147".
[i.40] IEC 62106: "Specification of the radio data system (RDS) for VHF/FM sound broadcasting in the
frequency range from 87,5 to 108,0 MHz".
[i.41] ETSI TS 103 632: "Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB); Open Mobile Radio Interface (OMRI);
Application Programming Interface (API)".
[i.42] ETSI TS 103 689: "Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB); Filtered Information Service (FIS);
Application specification".
3 Definition of terms, symbols and abbreviations
3.1 Terms
3.2 Symbols
3.3 Abbreviations
For the purposes of the present document, the following abbreviations apply:
API Application Programming Interface
BWS Broadcast WebSite
CA Conditional Access
DAB Digital Audio Broadcasting
DCP Distribution and Communications Protocol
DECT Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications
DIQ Digital baseband In-phase and Quadrature
DL Dynamic Label
DMB Digital Multimedia Broadcasting
DRM Digital Radio Mondiale
EBU European Broadcasting Union
EDI Encapsulation of DAB Interfaces
EPG Electronic Programme Guide
ETI Ensemble Transport Interface
FIC Fast Information Channel
FM Frequency Modulation
FM-RDS Frequency Modulation - Radio Data System
GI Group Information
GSM Global System for Mobile communication
HE-AAC High Efficiency - Advanced Audio Coding
HTML Hyper Text Markup Language
IEC International Electrotechnical Committee
IP Internet Protocol
IPDC Internet Protocol Data Channel
ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network
JTC Joint Technical Committee
LI Logical Interface

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9 ETSI TR 101 495 V2.2.1 (2019-11)
Mbit/s Mega (10 ) bits per second
MHz Mega (10 ) Hertz
MOT Multimedia Object Transfer
MPEG Moving Pictures Expert Group
MSC Main Service Channel
MTU Maximum Transfer Unit
ODA Open Data Application
OFDM Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
OMRI Open Mobile Radio Interface
PAD Programme Associated Data
PFT Protection, Fragmentation and Transport
PI Programme Information
PSI/SI Programme Specific Information/Service Information
PSSC Personal DAB Service Session Control
PSTN Public Switched Telecommunications System
RDS Radio Data System
RDS-ODA RDS Open Data Application
RF Radio Frequency
RTP Real-time Transport Protocol
SAT Sub-channel Assignment Table
SFN Single Frequency Network
SI Service Information
SPI Service and Programme Information
STI Service Transport Interface
STI-C Service Transport Interface - Control
STI-D Service Transport Interface - Data
TDC Transparent Data Channel
TMC Traffic Message Channel
TPEG Transport Protocol Experts Group
XML eXtensible Markup Language
4 Introduction
The DAB system originated as a European funded project known as Eureka 147. The members of the project team
decided to standardize the system at ETSI and the system standard was first published in 1995. Since then the system
has been modified in various ways and additional standards documents have also been created to facilitate additional
features, interoperable equipment interfaces for contribution and distribution networks, additional transport modes, data
applications and so on. The present document is designed to provide some background and guidance to those
considering using the DAB system so that the appropriate standards documents are consulted.
DAB is primarily a system for digital radio and so the coding and modulation is designed to provide reliable mobile
reception. This also allows non-audio services to be carried, including mobile video services, traffic data and a host of
other applications.
DAB is relatively wideband for a broadcast radio system and therefore carries several services, known as a multiplex.
However, the multiplex is primarily a feature of the transmission system. One key benefit of digital radio is that it
should be easy to use: therefore receiver makers should ensure that the user can understand the way to select services,
and this is often best achieved with a flat list.
DAB is most widely used as a digital radio transmission system using DAB+ audio coding and text messages carried as
dynamic labels. Additional data often accompanies the audio: visuals via the SlideShow application and logos and
programme information via the SPI application.

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10 ETSI TR 101 495 V2.2.1 (2019-11)
5 DAB system standards
5.1 Introduction
The DAB system is built around a core which defines the coding, modulation and transmission system parameters.
Surrounding the core, two basic data mechanisms are provided: stream mode and packet mode. Also defined is the
signalling channel that allows a receiver to make sense of the content of the multiplex.
Audio coding and data transport definitions are provided in separate documents, along with the enumeration of certain
signalling parameters and the rules of operation for complex service information features.
This scheme is shown in figure 1.

Figure 1: Building blocks of the DAB system
5.2 DAB system definition
5.2.1 DAB system standard
ETSI EN 300 401 [i.1] is the DAB system standard. It was first published in 1995. In 2016 the WorldDAB Technical
Committee performed a detailed review of the standard and the way that it had been utilized during its 20 year lifetime.
The conclusion of that work was a simplified and revised version of the standard published as V2.1.1 in 2017. It
describes the DAB system, designed for delivery of high-quality digital audio programme and data services for mobile,
portable and fixed reception from terrestrial transmitters in frequency bands from 30 MHz to 300 MHz. The DAB
system is designed to provide spectrum and power efficient techniques in terrestrial transmitter network planning,
known as the Single Frequency Network (SFN).
ETSI EN 300 401 [i.1] defines the DAB transmission sign

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