Optical fibre cables - Shrinkage effects on cable and cable element end termination - Guidance

IEC TR 62959:2021 which is a Technical Report, provides information on cable shrinkage characterisation of optical fibre cables that consist of standard glass optical fibres for telecommunication application. The characterisation is directed to the effects of cable shrinkage or cable element shrinkage on the termination of cables. Shrinkage can or cannot be a concern depending on the method of termination. Examples of different cable termination cases are included and described. Tests for the evaluation of cable shrinkage are recommended that can be used as indicators, and shrinkage classification by several grades are given.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
16-Feb-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
17-Feb-2021
Ref Project

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IEC TR 62959:2021 - Optical fibre cables - Shrinkage effects on cable and cable element end termination - Guidance
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IEC TR 62959
Edition 1.0 2021-02
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Optical fibre cables – Shrinkage effects on cable and cable element end
termination – Guidance
IEC TR 62959:2021-02(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC TR 62959
Edition 1.0 2021-02
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Optical fibre cables – Shrinkage effects on cable and cable element end
termination – Guidance
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 33.180.10 ISBN 978-2-8322-9434-5

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC TR 62959:2021  IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 7

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 9

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 10

2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 10

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................... 10

4 Abbreviated terms ......................................................................................................... 11

5 Characteristics of optical fibre cables ............................................................................ 11

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 11

5.2 Cable materials ..................................................................................................... 11

5.2.1 Plastic materials ............................................................................................ 11

5.2.2 Reversible thermal expansion and contraction ............................................... 11

5.2.3 Irreversible thermal contraction (shrinkage) ................................................... 12

5.2.4 Forces between cable elements caused by thermal changes ......................... 13

5.3 Cable design ......................................................................................................... 13

5.4 Basic cable types .................................................................................................. 14

5.5 Cable performance ............................................................................................... 15

5.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 15

5.5.2 Optical performance during temperature changes .......................................... 15

5.5.3 Cable shrinkage characteristic ....................................................................... 16

5.5.4 Cable shrinkage during connector termination process .................................. 16

6 Test methods for cable shrinkage .................................................................................. 17

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 17

6.2 Conditions before shrinkage testing ...................................................................... 17

6.3 Test method F11 ................................................................................................... 17

6.4 Test method F17 ................................................................................................... 18

7 Conclusions of the cable shrinkage study ...................................................................... 19

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 19

7.2 Conclusion for simplex cables ............................................................................... 19

7.3 Conclusion for loose tube cables .......................................................................... 20

8 Termination cases of optical fibre cables ....................................................................... 20

8.1 General ................................................................................................................. 20

8.2 Different termination cases ................................................................................... 20

9 Recommended tests for evaluation of shrinkage effects ................................................. 21

9.1 General ................................................................................................................. 21

9.2 Limitation of tests for determination of shrinkage effects ....................................... 22

9.3 Cables terminated with connectors........................................................................ 22

9.3.1 Performance indicator tests ........................................................................... 22

9.3.2 Cable shrinkage ............................................................................................. 22

9.3.3 Cable thermal expansion and contraction ...................................................... 22

9.3.4 Cable element forces ..................................................................................... 22

9.4 Cables terminated with hardened connectors ........................................................ 22

9.4.1 Performance indicator tests ........................................................................... 22

9.4.2 Cable shrinkage (fibre protrusion) .................................................................. 23

9.5 Cables fixed into a module and fibres terminated with connectors ......................... 23

9.5.1 Performance indicator tests ........................................................................... 23

9.5.2 Cable shrinkage (fibre protrusion) .................................................................. 23

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IEC TR 62959:2021  IEC 2021 – 3 –

9.6 Cables fixed into a divider and fan-out cables terminated with connectors ............ 23

9.6.1 Performance indicator tests ........................................................................... 23

9.6.2 General ......................................................................................................... 24

9.6.3 Shrinkage (fibre protrusion) ........................................................................... 24

9.6.4 Shrinkage of fan-out cable ............................................................................. 24

9.7 Cables fixed into a protective housing and terminated with splices ........................ 25

9.7.1 Performance indicator tests ........................................................................... 25

9.7.2 Cable shrinkage (fibre protrusion) .................................................................. 25

9.7.3 Sheath shrinkage ........................................................................................... 25

9.8 Cables fixed into a protective housing and terminated with connectors ................. 25

9.8.1 Performance indicator tests ........................................................................... 25

9.8.2 Cable shrinkage ............................................................................................. 25

10 Recommended test parameters for shrinkage testing and shrinkage grades .................. 26

10.1 General ................................................................................................................. 26

10.2 Recommended test parameters for shrinkage testing ............................................ 26

10.3 Shrinkage grades for Method F11A ....................................................................... 27

10.4 Recommended shrinkage limit for Method F11B.................................................... 27

10.5 Fibre protrusion grades for Method F17 ................................................................ 27

Annex A (informative) Test results of the cable shrinkage study ........................................... 29

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 29

A.2 Shrinkage test results of simplex cables ............................................................... 29

A.2.1 Simplex cable types for shrinkage tests ......................................................... 29

A.2.2 Shrinkage test with different aging methods and duration .............................. 29

A.2.3 Shrinkage test with various numbers of temperature cycles ........................... 33

A.2.4 Shrinkage test with different sample lengths .................................................. 34

A.2.5 Shrinkage test versus optical performance of two different simplex

cables ............................................................................................................ 34

A.2.6 Shrinkage test versus optical performance of different versions of a

simplex cable ................................................................................................. 36

A.2.7 Change in length during and after climatic exposure ...................................... 36

A.3 Shrinkage test results for loose tube cables .......................................................... 37

A.3.1 Loose tube cable types for shrinkage tests .................................................... 37

A.3.2 Shrinkage test (method F11 modified) of four loose tube cable types ............. 37

A.3.3 Shrinkage test (method F17) of four loose tube cable types ........................... 39

A.3.4 Shrinkage test of nine unitube cable types ..................................................... 43

Annex B (informative) Test method for change in length during climatic exposure ................ 45

B.1 General ................................................................................................................. 45

B.2 Cable samples ...................................................................................................... 45

B.3 Apparatus for determination of the change in length ............................................. 45

B.4 Procedure for determination of the change in length ............................................. 46

B.5 Test results for the change in length ..................................................................... 46

B.6 Procedure for determination of the change in attenuation...................................... 47

B.7 Test results for the change in attenuation ............................................................. 47

B.8 Comparison of change in length with change in attenuation .................................. 50

B.9 Conclusion ............................................................................................................ 51

Annex C (informative) Shrinkage testing template ................................................................ 52

Annex D (informative) Recommended tests for performance evaluation of cables to

be terminated with connectors .............................................................................................. 53

D.1 General ................................................................................................................. 53

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– 4 – IEC TR 62959:2021  IEC 2021

D.2 Connector types and design .................................................................................. 53

D.3 Simplex and duplex cable types ............................................................................ 55

D.4 Termination of a cable to a connector ................................................................... 56

D.5 Overview of recommended cable tests .................................................................. 57

D.6 Main performance of a terminated cable ............................................................... 57

D.7 Guidance for change of temperature test methods ................................................ 58

Annex E (informative) Recommended tests for performance evaluation of cables to be

terminated with hardened connectors .................................................................................... 59

E.1 General ................................................................................................................. 59

E.2 Connector types and design .................................................................................. 59

E.3 Cable types for hardened connectors .................................................................... 59

E.4 Termination of a cable to a hardened connector .................................................... 59

E.5 Overview of recommended cable tests .................................................................. 60

E.6 Environmental performance of a terminated cable ................................................. 60

Annex F (informative) Recommended tests for performance evaluation of cables fixed

into a module and fibres terminated with connectors ............................................................. 61

F.1 General ................................................................................................................. 61

F.2 Connector types and design .................................................................................. 61

F.3 Cable types ........................................................................................................... 61

F.4 Termination of a cable to a module ....................................................................... 61

F.5 Overview of recommended cable tests .................................................................. 62

F.6 Main performance of a terminated cable ............................................................... 62

Annex G (informative) Recommended tests for performance evaluation of cables fixed

into a divider and fan-out cables terminated with connectors................................................. 63

G.1 General ................................................................................................................. 63

G.2 Connector types and design .................................................................................. 63

G.3 Cable types ........................................................................................................... 63

G.3.1 Cables ........................................................................................................... 63

G.3.2 Fan-out cables ............................................................................................... 63

G.4 Termination of a cable into a divider and at fan-out cables .................................... 64

G.5 Overview of recommended cable tests .................................................................. 64

G.5.1 Recommended test for cable assembly .......................................................... 64

G.5.2 Recommended tests for cables ...................................................................... 64

G.5.3 Recommended tests for fan-out cables .......................................................... 65

Annex H (informative) Recommended tests for performance evaluation of cables fixed

into a protective housing and terminated with splices ............................................................ 66

H.1 General ................................................................................................................. 66

H.2 Types of protective housings................................................................................. 66

H.3 Cable types ........................................................................................................... 67

H.4 Termination of a cable in a protective housing ...................................................... 67

H.5 Overview of recommended cable tests .................................................................. 67

H.6 Main performance of a terminated cable ............................................................... 68

Annex I (informative) Recommended tests for performance evaluation of cables fixed

into a protective housing and terminated with connectors ..................................................... 69

I.1 General ................................................................................................................. 69

I.2 Types of protective housings................................................................................. 69

I.3 Cable types ........................................................................................................... 69

I.4 Termination of a cable into a protective housing ................................................... 69

I.5 Overview of recommended cable tests .................................................................. 70

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IEC TR 62959:2021  IEC 2021 – 5 –

I.6 Main performance of a terminated cable ............................................................... 70

Annex J (informative) Recommended test parameters for change of temperature

testing .................................................................................................................................. 71

J.1 Test methods and severities ................................................................................. 71

J.2 Additional recommendations for the change of temperature test ........................... 72

Annex K (informative) Cross-references of cable test methods ............................................ 73

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 74

Figure 1 – Qualitative example of force during decreasing temperature of two polymer

materials ............................................................................................................................... 13

Figure 2 – Cable sample for shrinkage testing according to Method F11 ............................... 18

Figure 3 – Cable sample for fibre protrusion testing according to Method F17 ....................... 19

Figure A.1 – Sheath shrinkage in mm of cable type 1 with different temperatures ................. 31

Figure A.2 – Sheath shrinkage in mm of cable type 2 with different temperatures ................. 32

Figure A.3 – Sheath shrinkage in mm of cable type 3 with different temperatures ................. 33

Figure A.4 – Sheath shrinkage at different number of cycles ................................................. 34

Figure A.5 – Change in attenuation during temperature cycling ............................................. 35

Figure A.6 – Change in attenuation versus sheath shrinkage ................................................ 36

Figure A.7 – Preparation of sample and measured lengths ................................................... 38

Figure A.8 – Shrinkage of sheath and loose tube after different number of cycles ................. 39

Figure A.9 – Preparation of sample and measured or calculated protrusion lengths .............. 40

Figure A.10 – Protrusion length of cable type 1 ..................................................................... 41

Figure A.11 – Protrusion length of cable type 2 ..................................................................... 41

Figure A.12 – Protrusion length of cable type 3 ..................................................................... 42

Figure A.13 – Protrusion length of cable type 4 ..................................................................... 42

Figure A.14 – Change of fibre protrusion............................................................................... 44

Figure B.1 – Apparatus for holding cable samples ................................................................ 45

Figure B.2 – Temperature cycle with measurement points .................................................... 46

Figure B.3 – Cable sheath length measurement results ........................................................ 47

Figure B.4 – Change in attenuation of orange cable samples at 1 310 nm ............................ 48

Figure B.5 – Change in attenuation of orange cable samples at 1 550 nm ............................ 48

Figure B.6 – Change in attenuation of orange cable samples at 1 625 nm ............................ 49

Figure B.7 – Change in attenuation of yellow cable samples at 1 310 nm .............................. 49

Figure B.8 – Change in attenuation of yellow cable samples at 1 550 nm .............................. 50

Figure B.9 – Change in attenuation of yellow cable samples at 1 625 nm .............................. 50

Figure D.1 – Cable terminated with connector plug ............................................................... 53

Figure D.2 – LC connector variants ....................................................................................... 53

Figure D.3 – Simplex cable terminated at LC simplex connector ........................................... 54

Figure D.4 – Fibre movement in spring-loaded connectors .................................................... 55

Figure D.5 – Simplex cable type ........................................................................................... 55

Figure D.6 – Duplex cable types ........................................................................................... 56

Figure D.7 – Test arrangement for method F12 ..................................................................... 58

Figure E.1 – Cable terminated with hardened connector ....................................................... 59

Figure F.1 – Cable fixed into a module and terminated with connectors ................................ 61

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– 6 – IEC TR 62959:2021  IEC 2021

Figure G.1 – Cable fixed into a divider and fan-out cables terminated with connectors .......... 63

Figure H.1 – Cable fixed into a protective housing and terminated with splices ..................... 66

Figure I.1 – Cable fixed into a protective housing and terminated with connectors ................ 69

Figure J.1 – Change of temperature test configuration .......................................................... 72

Table 1 – Linear coefficients of thermal expansion of materials (informative) ........................ 12

Table 2 – Typical characteristics of indoor and outdoor cables .............................................. 15

Table 3 – Overview of different termination cases ................................................................. 21

Table 4 – Temperature cycling severities for shrinkage testing for Methods F11A and

F17 ....................................................................................................................................... 27

Table 5 – Recommended sheath shrinkage grades ............................................................... 27

Table 6 – Recommended change of fibre protrusion ∆L grades ........................................... 28

Table 7 – Recommended change of fibre protrusion ∆L grades ........................................... 28

Table A.1 – Overview of shrinkage results ............................................................................ 34

Table A.2 – Overview of simplex results ................................................................................ 35

Table A.3 – Details of loose tube cable types ........................................................................ 37

Table A.4 – Details of unitube cable types ............................................................................ 43

Table B.1 – Comparison of change in length with change in attenuation ............................... 51

Table C.1 – Shrinkage testing template ................................................................................. 52

Table D.1 – Recommended tests for cables to be terminated with connectors ....................... 57

Table E.1 – Recommended tests for cables to be terminated with hardened

connectors ............................................................................................................................ 60

Table F.1 – Recommended tests for cables fixed into module and terminated with

connectors ............................................................................................................................ 62

Table G.1 – Recommended tests for cable assembly ............................................................ 64

Table G.2 – Recommended tests for cables fixed into dividers .............................................. 64

Table G.3 – Recommended tests for fan-out cables .............................................................. 65

Table H.1 – Recommended tests for cables fixed at protective housing and terminated

with splices ........................................................................................................................... 67

Table I.1 – Recommended tests for cables fixed into a protective housing and

terminated with connectors ................................................................................................... 70

Table J.1 – Severities for change of temperature testing ....................................................... 71

Table K.1 – Cross reference table of mechanical test methods ............................................. 73

Table K.2 – Cross reference table of environmental test methods ......................................... 73

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IEC TR 62959:2021  IEC 2021 – 7 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
OPTICAL FIBRE CABLES –
SHRINKAGE EFFECTS ON CABLE AND CABLE
ELEMENT END TERMINATION – GUIDANCE
FOREWORD

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