Document management -- Portable document format

ISO 32000-2:2017 specifies a digital form for representing electronic documents to enable users to exchange and view electronic documents independent of the environment in which they were created or the environment in which they are viewed or printed. It is intended for developers of software that creates PDF files (PDF writers), software that reads existing PDF files and (usually) interprets their contents for display (PDF readers), software that reads and displays PDF content and interacts with the computer users to possibly modify and save the PDF file (interactive PDF processors) and PDF products that read and/or write PDF files for a variety of other purposes (PDF processors). (PDF writers and PDF readers are more specialised classifications of interactive PDF processors and all are PDF processors). ISO 32000-2:2017 does not specify the following: - specific processes for converting paper or electronic documents to the PDF file format; - specific technical design, user interface implementation, or operational details of rendering; - specific physical methods of storing these documents such as media and storage conditions; - methods for validating the conformance of PDF files or PDF processors; - required computer hardware and/or operating system.

Gestion de documents -- Format de document portable

General Information

Status
Replaced
Publication Date
26-Jul-2017
Withdrawal Date
26-Jul-2017
Current Stage
9599 - Withdrawal of International Standard
Completion Date
27-Jul-2017
Ref Project

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 32000-2
First edition
2017-07
Document management —
Portable document format —
Part 2:
PDF 2.0
Gestion de documents — Format de document portable —
Partie 2: PDF 2.0
Reference number
ISO 32000-2:2017(E)
ISO 2017
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ISO 32000-2:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

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ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 32000-2:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ................................................................................................................................................................. vii

Introduction .......................................................................................................................................................... viii

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................... 2

3 Terms and definitions .............................................................................................................................. 7

4 Notation ..................................................................................................................................................... 15

4.1 General ....................................................................................................................................................... 15

4.2 Established notations ............................................................................................................................ 15

5 Version designations ............................................................................................................................. 17

6 Conformance ............................................................................................................................................ 18

6.1 General ....................................................................................................................................................... 18

6.2 Conforming PDF documents ................................................................................................................ 18

6.3 PDF processors ........................................................................................................................................ 18

7 Syntax ......................................................................................................................................................... 20

7.1 General ....................................................................................................................................................... 20

7.2 Lexical conventions ................................................................................................................................ 21

7.3 Objects........................................................................................................................................................ 23

7.4 Filters ......................................................................................................................................................... 34

7.5 File structure ............................................................................................................................................ 52

7.6 Encryption ................................................................................................................................................ 70

7.7 Document structure ............................................................................................................................... 95

7.8 Content streams and resources ........................................................................................................ 109

7.9 Common data structures .................................................................................................................... 113

7.10 Functions ................................................................................................................................................. 121

7.11 File specifications ................................................................................................................................. 130

7.12 Extensions dictionary .......................................................................................................................... 139

8 Graphics ................................................................................................................................................... 142

8.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................... 142

8.2 Graphics objects .................................................................................................................................... 142

8.3 Coordinate systems .............................................................................................................................. 146

8.4 Graphics state ........................................................................................................................................ 153

8.5 Path construction and painting ........................................................................................................ 165

8.6 Colour spaces ......................................................................................................................................... 173

8.7 Patterns ................................................................................................................................................... 216

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ISO 32000-2:2017(E)

8.8 External objects .................................................................................................................................... 250

8.9 Images...................................................................................................................................................... 251

8.10 Form XObjects ....................................................................................................................................... 267

8.11 Optional content ................................................................................................................................... 273

9 Text ........................................................................................................................................................... 290

9.1 General .................................................................................................................................................... 290

9.2 Organisation and use of fonts ........................................................................................................... 290

9.3 Text state parameters and operators ............................................................................................ 297

9.4 Text objects ............................................................................................................................................ 303

9.5 Introduction to font data structures .............................................................................................. 308

9.6 Simple fonts ........................................................................................................................................... 309

9.7 Composite fonts .................................................................................................................................... 324

9.8 Font descriptors ................................................................................................................................... 340

9.9 Embedded font programs .................................................................................................................. 348

9.10 Extraction of text content .................................................................................................................. 352

10 Rendering ............................................................................................................................................... 357

10.1 General .................................................................................................................................................... 357

10.2 Raster output device native colour................................................................................................. 358

10.3 CIE-Based colour to device colour................................................................................................... 358

10.4 Conversions among device colour spaces .................................................................................... 358

10.5 Transfer functions ............................................................................................................................... 361

10.6 Halftones ................................................................................................................................................. 362

10.7 Scan conversion details ...................................................................................................................... 379

10.8 Rendering for separations ................................................................................................................ 382

11 Transparency ........................................................................................................................................ 384

11.1 General .................................................................................................................................................... 384

11.2 Overview of transparency ................................................................................................................. 384

11.3 Basic compositing computations..................................................................................................... 386

11.4 Transparency groups .......................................................................................................................... 399

11.5 Soft masks ............................................................................................................................................... 411

11.6 Specifying transparency in PDF ....................................................................................................... 412

11.7 Colour space and rendering issues ................................................................................................. 422

12 Interactive features ............................................................................................................................. 434

12.1 General .................................................................................................................................................... 434

12.2 Viewer preferences ............................................................................................................................. 434

12.3 Document-level navigation ............................................................................................................... 438

12.4 Page-level navigation .......................................................................................................................... 455

12.5 Annotations ............................................................................................................................................ 462

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ISO 32000-2:2017(E)

12.6 Actions ..................................................................................................................................................... 502

12.7 Forms ........................................................................................................................................................ 524

12.8 Digital signatures .................................................................................................................................. 563

12.9 Measurement properties.................................................................................................................... 591

12.10 Geospatial features .............................................................................................................................. 597

12.11 Document requirements .................................................................................................................... 602

13 Multimedia features............................................................................................................................. 610

13.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................... 610

13.2 Multimedia .............................................................................................................................................. 610

13.3 Sounds ...................................................................................................................................................... 633

13.4 Movies ...................................................................................................................................................... 634

13.5 Alternate presentations ...................................................................................................................... 636

13.6 3D Artwork ............................................................................................................................................. 638

13.7 Rich media .............................................................................................................................................. 696

14 Document interchange ........................................................................................................................ 709

14.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................... 709

14.2 Procedure sets ....................................................................................................................................... 709

14.3 Metadata .................................................................................................................................................. 710

14.4 File identifiers ....................................................................................................................................... 714

14.5 Page-piece dictionaries ....................................................................................................................... 715

14.6 Marked content ..................................................................................................................................... 716

14.7 Logical structure ................................................................................................................................... 718

14.8 Tagged PDF ............................................................................................................................................. 741

14.9 Repurposing and accessibility support ......................................................................................... 789

14.10 Web capture ........................................................................................................................................... 795

14.11 Prepress support .................................................................................................................................. 807

14.12 Document parts ..................................................................................................................................... 827

14.13 Associated files ...................................................................................................................................... 831

Annex A (informative) Operator Summary ............................................................................................... 837

Annex B (informative) Operators in Type 4 Functions ........................................................................... 841

Annex C (informative) Advice on maximising portability ..................................................................... 843

Annex D (normative) Character sets and encodings ............................................................................... 846

Annex E (normative) PDF Name Registry ................................................................................................... 870

Annex F (normative) Linearized PDF ........................................................................................................... 872

Annex G (informative) Linearized PDF access strategies ...................................................................... 894

Annex H (informative) Example PDF files .................................................................................................. 898

Annex I (normative) PDF versions and compatibility ............................................................................. 928

Annex J (informative) XObject comparison ................................................................................................ 930

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ISO 32000-2:2017(E)

Annex K (normative) XFA forms ................................................................................................................... 936

Annex L (normative) Parent-child relationships between standard structure elements ........... 939

Annex M (informative) Standard structure elements in the default (PDF 1.7) namespace ........ 958

Annex N (informative) Best practice for halftones .................................................................................. 959

Annex O (normative) Fragment identifiers ............................................................................................... 962

Annex P (informative) An algorithm to determine the actual blending colour space of a

transparency group ........................................................................................................................................... 965

Annex Q (normative) Method for determining transparency on a page ........................................... 967

Bibliography ........................................................................................................................................................ 969

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ISO 32000-2:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national

standards bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally

carried out through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a

technical committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee.

International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in

the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all

matters of electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 171, Document management

applications, Subcommittee SC 2, Application issues, in collaboration with Technical Committee ISO/TC

130, Graphic technology.
A list of all the parts of ISO 32000 can be found on the ISO website.
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ISO 32000-2:2017(E)
Introduction
0.1 PDF

PDF enables users to exchange and view electronic documents easily and reliably, independent of the

environment in which they were created or the environment in which they are viewed or printed.

page description
At the core of PDF is an advanced imaging model derived from the PostScript®

language. This PDF Imaging Model enables the description of text and graphics in a device-independent

and resolution-independent manner at a complete, precise and professional level. Unlike PostScript,

which is a programming language, PDF is based on a structured binary file format that is optimised for

high performance in interactive viewing.

PDF includes objects such as annotations and hypertext links that are not part of the page content itself

but are useful for interactive viewing and document interchange. PDF also includes data structures

such as tagged PDF, XMP and an associated files mechanism, that are useful for document management

and content reuse.

PDF files can be created natively in PDF form, converted from other electronic formats. Since PDF

supports a wide range of image and compression technologies, it is a suitable format for documents

digitised from paper, microform, or other hard copy formats. Businesses, governments, libraries,

archives and other institutions and individuals around the world use PDF to represent considerable

bodies of important information. Since its introduction in 1993, aided by the explosive growth of the

Internet, PDF has become widely used for the electronic exchange of documents.

There are several specific applications of PDF that have evolved in which limiting the use of some

features of PDF while requiring the use of others, enhances the usefulness of PDF. The following

International Standards address specialised uses of PDF:

• PDF/X (ISO 15930) is the industry standard for the intermediate representation of printed

material in electronic prepress systems for conventional printing applications.

• PDF/A (ISO 19005) is the industry standard for the archiving of digital documents.

• PDF/UA (ISO 14289) is the industry standard for accessible PDF documents and processors.

• PDF/E (ISO 24517) provides a mechanism for representing engineering documents and

exchanging engineering data.

• PDF/VT (ISO 16612-2) is for high volume printing of personalised documents including variable

data.

As corporations, government agencies, and educational institutions streamline their operations by

replacing paper-based workflows with electronic exchange of information, the impact and opportunity

for the application of PDF will continue to grow at a rapid pace.

PDF, together with software for creating, viewing, printing and processing PDF files in a variety of

ways, fulfils a set of requirements for electronic documents including:

PostScript® is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated. This information is given for the convenience of users of this document and

does not constitute an endorsement by ISO of the product named..
viii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 32000-2:2017(E)

• preservation of document fidelity independent of the device, platform, and software,

• merging of content from diverse sources — Web sites, word processing and spreadsheet

programs, scanned documents, photos, and graphics — into one self-contained document while

maintaining the integrity of all original source documents,
• an extensible metadata model at the document and object level,
• collaborative editing of documents from multiple locations or platforms,
• digital signatures to certify authenticity,

• security and permissions to allow the creator to retain control of the document and associated

rights,
• accessibility of content to those with disabilities,

• extraction and reuse of content for use with other file formats and applications, and

• electronic forms to gather and/or represent data within business systems.
0.2 ISO 32000 and PDF

PDF was developed and specified by Adobe Systems Incorporated beginning in 1993 and continuing

until 2007 when ISO 32000-1 was first prepared. The Adobe Systems version PDF 1.7 was the basis for

ISO 32000-1. The ISO 32000 series has been created as a multi-part document, of which this is Part 2.

This allows future parts to be created without rendering ISO 32000, or applications based on it,

obsolete. See clause 5, "Version designations" for how the version numbers of PDF (1.0, 1.1, 1.2, […]

2.0) relate to one another.

The primary purpose of this document is to define well-formed PDF documents (conforming PDF files).

In carefully specifying what constitutes a well-defined PDF document, it is natural to describe why a

particular feature is to be included in the file and what effect it is designed to have on PDF processing

software. So, although the primary objective of this document is to describe the content of conforming

PDF documents, it also serves secondary purposes of defining exactly how a PDF component is

constructed, suggesting why a producer might choose to use the various PDF constructs, as well as

what behaviour is elicited from software consuming that PDF file. The choice of which specific set of

features a particular PDF processor supports is not specified.

PDF files represent electronic documents. Over time, it was natural to add features that take advantage

of PDF’s nature, and the power of computer viewing devices. The size of the PDF documentation has

more than quadrupled since its first introduction, and the number of features that a PDF processor is

expected to support has grown to be large.
0.3 Changes introduced in this document

Starting with PDF 2.0 the term "conforming reader" is no longer used. The terms "interactive PDF

processor", "PDF reader" and "PDF writer" are used instead, and have a conditional conformance

definition. See 6.1, "Conforming PDF documents" for further discussion of this change.

This specification includes many changes from ISO 32000-1:2008, however only significant new

features are marked as being new in PDF 2.0.
PDF 2.0 includes the following new features:
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ISO 32000-2:2017(E)
• 7.6.7, "Unencrypted wrapper document"
• 8.6.5.9, "Use of black point compensation";
• 12.5.6.24, "Projection annotations";
• 12.8.3.4, "CAdES signatures as used in PDF";
• 12.8.4, "Long term validation of signatures";

• 12.8.4.3, "Document Security Store (DSS)" and 12.8.5, "Document timestamp (DTS) dictionary";

• 12.10, "Geospatial features";
• 13.7, "Rich media" annotations;
• 14.7.4, "Namespaces" for tagged PDF;
• 14.9.6, "Pronunciation hints";
• 14.12, "Document parts";
• 14.13, "Associated files";
• Support for PRC (see 13.6, "3D Artwork");
• Support for UTF-8.
PDF 2.0 adds many new capabilities to existing features in PDF, including:
• Transparency and blend mode attributes for annotations;
• Stamp Annot intent;
• Polygon/Polyline real paths;
• 256-bit AES encryption;
• ECC-based certificates;
• Unicode-based passwords;
• Document requirement extensions;
• New value for tab order of fields and annotations;
• Page-level OutputIntents;
• Referenced (external) OutputIntents;
• Thumbnails for embedded files;
• Halftone Origin (HTO);
• Measurement & Point Data for image & form XObjects;
• L (length) key for inline image data;
• Viewer preferences enforcement (of print scaling);
• 3D measurements;
• GoToDp action;
• RichMediaExecute action;

• Extension to GoTo and GoToR to support linking to a specific structure element;

• Extension to Signature
...

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