Water safety signs and beach safety flags

This document gives guidance for the selection and use of water safety signs as specified in ISO 7010 and beach safety flags as specified in ISO 20712-2 in aquatic environments. It provides guidance on their location, mounting positions, lighting and maintenance. It also provides guidance on the design and location of multiple signs. This document does not apply to traffic signs for use on the public highway or maritime signalling. It is not applicable to flags for use on firing ranges or to flags used to indicate water quality. It does not cover means of escape signs and their illumination which may be present. NOTE 1 The illustrations in this document are as accurate as possible within the limitations of the printing process. NOTE 2 This document refers to water safety signs which were originally specified in ISO 20712-1[1]. These water safety signs have been integrated in ISO 7010, but are not specifically identified as water safety signs. [1] This document has been withdrawn and replaced by ISO 7010.

Signaux de sécurité relatifs à l'eau et drapeaux de sécurité pour les plages

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Status
Published
Publication Date
23-Jul-2020
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
18-Jun-2020
Completion Date
17-Jun-2020
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 20712-3
Third edition
2020-07
Water safety signs and beach safety
flags —
Part 3:
Guidance for use
Signaux de sécurité relatifs à l'eau et drapeaux de sécurité pour les
plages —
Partie 3: Lignes directrices pour l'utilisation
Reference number
ISO 20712-3:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 20712-3:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 20712-3:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3  Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4  Guidance for selection and siting of signs and flags ........................................................................................................ 2

4.1 Guidance for risk assessment ..................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Siting ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

4.2.1 Water safety signs and multiple signs ........................................................................................................... 3

4.2.2 Beach safety flags ............................................................................................................................................................ 3

5 Water safety signs ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 General requirements for aquatic environments ...................................................................................................... 3

5.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1.2 Mounting height ............................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1.3 Lighting .................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1.4 Sign height and maximum viewing distance ........................................................................................... 4

5.1.5 Use of supplementary text ....................................................................................................................................... 6

5.1.6 Construction: durability and suitability ...................................................................................................... 6

5.1.7 Servicing and maintenance ..................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2 Specific requirements for the swimming pool environment .......................................................................... 6

6  Beach safety flags ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2 Application of specific beach safety flags ......................................................................................................................... 7

6.2.1 Red flag BF.01 ..................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2.2 Yellow flag BF.02 .............................................................................................................................................................. 7

6.2.3 Red/yellow flag BF.03 .................................................................................................................................................. 7

6.2.4 Black/white flag BF.04 ................................................................................................................................................ 8

6.2.5 Red/white flag BF.05 .................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.2.6 Truncated orange cone ............................................................................................................................................... 8

6.3 Materials for beach safety flags ................................................................................................................................................ 8

6.4 Operation of flags .................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.4.1 Mounting position .......................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.4.2 Size of flag .............................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.4.3 Hoisting and taking down of flags..................................................................................................................... 8

6.5 Flagpole ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.6 Inspection and maintenance of flags and flagpoles ................................................................................................ 9

6.7 Storage of flags ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

7  Multiple signs ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.1 General requirements ....................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.2 Presentation of information ........................................................................................................................................................ 9

7.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.2.2 Typeface .................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

7.2.3 Type size ................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

7.2.4 Colour .....................................................................................................................................................................................10

7.2.5 Use of symbols ................................................................................................................................................................10

7.2.6 Terminology and language ...................................................................................................................................10

7.3 Types of multiple signs .................................................................................................................................................................10

7.3.1 Approach signs ...............................................................................................................................................................10

7.3.2 Primary access signs .................................................................................................................................................11

7.3.3 Secondary access signs ............................................................................................................................................12

7.3.4 Directional signs ............................................................................................................................................................13

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 20712-3:2020(E)

8 Tsunami signing system .............................................................................................................................................................................14

8.1 Planning .....................................................................................................................................................................................................14

8.2 Tsunami safety signs and associated safety information signs ..................................................................14

Annex A (informative) Distance factor z ........................................................................................................................................................16

Annex B (informative) Examples of signing swimming pools .................................................................................................17

Annex C (informative) Examples of positioning beach safety flags ...................................................................................19

Annex D (informative) Typeface for text .......................................................................................................................................................21

Annex E (informative) Examples of tsunami signing system ....................................................................................................23

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................28

iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 20712-3:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 145, Graphical symbols, Subcommittee

SC 2, Safety identification, signs, shapes, symbols and colours.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 20712-3:2014), of which it constitutes a

minor revision. The changes to the previous edition are as follows:

— references to ISO 20712-1 replaced with ISO 7010 as water safety signs with new registration

numbers have been incorporated in ISO 7010;

— all four references in Clause 2 moved to the Bibliography as these are informative;

— 3.3, 'distance factor’ added as an admitted term;
— NOTEs in 5.2, 6.5, Annex D and Annex E changed to body text;
— minor editorial changes.
A list of all parts in the ISO 20712 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 20712-3:2020(E)
Introduction

This document reflects good practice in the use of water safety signs and beach safety flags. The

illustrations show examples of the selection and location of water safety signs and beach safety flags

designed to provide information about aquatic hazards and the action necessary to avoid those hazards.

A standardized method of signing with the use of appropriate supplementary text throughout the

working and public environment assists the process of education and instruction on the meaning of

water safety signs and beach safety flags, and the appropriate actions to take. The intention of this

document is to ensure a uniformity of application of water safety signs and beach safety flags which

leads to increased familiarity, and therefore improved safety, for the users including visitors and for the

general public.

The illustrations within this document are based on assumptions that some of the people may be

unfamiliar with the features of indoor or outdoor swimming pools or of the beach. The illustrations

are not intended to cover every potentially hazardous situation and they should be interpreted as

recommendations and not as minimum requirements.

The use of water safety signs and beach safety flags does not replace the need for proper working

methods and safety instruction or for training in accident prevention and the actions to be taken in the

event of an emergency, or for the provision of lifeguards.

This publication does not purport to include all the necessary provisions of a contract. Users are

responsible for its correct application.

NOTE 1 Some countries’ statutory regulations might differ in some respect from those given in this document.

NOTE 2 Some countries might differ in some respect from the requirements given in this document where

they use the diamond geometric shape for warning signs.
vi © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 20712-3:2020(E)
Water safety signs and beach safety flags —
Part 3:
Guidance for use

IMPORTANT — The colours represented in the electronic file of this document can be neither

viewed on screen nor printed as true representations. For the purposes of colour matching

see ISO 3864-4, which provides colorimetric and photometric properties together with, as a

guideline, references from colour order systems.
1 Scope

This document gives guidance for the selection and use of water safety signs as specified in ISO 7010

and beach safety flags as specified in ISO 20712-2 in aquatic environments. It provides guidance on

their location, mounting positions, lighting and maintenance. It also provides guidance on the design

and location of multiple signs.

This document does not apply to traffic signs for use on the public highway or maritime signalling. It

is not applicable to flags for use on firing ranges or to flags used to indicate water quality. It does not

cover means of escape signs and their illumination which may be present.

NOTE 1 The illustrations in this document are as accurate as possible within the limitations of the printing

process.

NOTE 2 This document refers to water safety signs which were originally specified in ISO 20712-1 . These

water safety signs have been integrated in ISO 7010, but are not specifically identified as water safety signs.

2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3  Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
beach

area forming a shoreline or sloping bank at the edge of the sea or a river estuary or lake

[SOURCE: ISO 20712-2:2007, 3.1]
1) This document has been withdrawn and replaced by ISO 7010.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 20712-3:2020(E)
3.2
beach safety flag

material that gives a particular safety message by means of a combination of one or more colours and a

geometric shape, and is attached by one end to a pole or rope

Note 1 to entry: A flag can also have additional support, e.g. a horizontal support.

[SOURCE: ISO 20712-2:2007, 3.2]
3.3
factor of distance
distance factor

relationship between the height (h) of a sign and the observation distance (l), used to determine

observation distances of signs
z = l/h

[SOURCE: ISO 3864-1:2011, 3.2, modified — 'distance factor' added as an admitted term.]

3.4
multiple sign

two or more safety signs and/or associated supplementary information on the same carrier

3.5
pool basin
water tank where water-related activities can take place
3.6
pool surround

area around a pool basin for entry and exit to the pool basin and general circulation space

3.7
safety sign

sign which gives a general safety message, obtained by a combination of a colour and geometric shape

and which, by the addition of a graphical symbol, gives a particular safety message

[SOURCE: ISO 3864-1:2011, 3.12]
3.8
sign height

diameter of a circular geometric shape or height of a rectangular or triangular geometric shape of the

type of safety sign

Note 1 to entry: Any outer border to the safety sign is excluded. See ISO 3864-1.

4  Guidance for selection and siting of signs and flags
4.1 Guidance for risk assessment

Selection and use are determined following the results of a risk assessment. The risk assessment should

take into account the following specific issues:
a) hazards and associated risks of the aquatic environment;
b) regulations or legislation;
c) operation and management of the aquatic environment;
d) users and their foreseeable behaviour.
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 20712-3:2020(E)

In specific situations, other issues may have to be considered in a risk assessment.

NOTE The users can be in unfamiliar environments, not wearing their normal sight-correction lenses or in

bare feet.

As the result of the risk assessment, a comprehensive statement of requirements should be prepared and

used as the basis for the detailed design and specification for the selection and use of signs and flags.

4.2 Siting
4.2.1  Water safety signs and multiple signs

The siting of water safety signs and multiple signs should allow users to recognize hazards and take

appropriate action to avoid them.
The following matters (issues, factors) should be considered:
a) location of hazards and their signage;
b) location of entrances/access to facilities;
c) location of any other signs;

d) location of architectural features, décor, structures, vegetation or people that could conceal or

divert attention from signs;

e) lighting level and characteristics under both normal and mains-failure conditions;

f) appropriate supplementary text to water safety signs;
g) appropriate information on multiple signs.
4.2.2  Beach safety flags

The siting of beach safety flags should allow users to recognize hazards and take appropriate action to

avoid them.
The following matters (issues, factors) should be considered:
a) nature and location of hazards and their relevant signage;
b) zoning or boundaries of aquatic activities;

c) location of structures, beach furniture or vegetation that could conceal or divert attention from flags;

d) location of flagpoles;

e) appropriate information on multiple signs, such as an explanation of the meaning of flags and the

presence or otherwise of a lifeguard service.
5 Water safety signs
5.1  General requirements for aquatic environments
5.1.1  General
The system designer should identify the locations of the hazards.

Safety signs should conform to ISO 7010. Safety signs should conform with the colorimetric and

photometric requirements given in ISO 3864-4.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 20712-3:2020(E)

The required sign height of the safety sign should be determined from the maximum viewing distance

under different external illumination conditions and the relevant distance factor z according to Annex

A, Table A.1.

The following principles should be taken into account when planning water safety signage; signs should:

a) be sited conspicuously within the normal field of vision;
b) contrast with their surroundings;

NOTE The contrast and conspicuousness may be increased by the provision of an outer border or by

mounting on a sign board with a colour contrasting with the surroundings.
c) be visible from any place within the vicinity of the hazard;

d) be sited at the same height throughout the aquatic facility, as far as is reasonable;

e) take precedence over all other signs with the exception of escape route signing, if applicable;

f) be placed so that they are not a hazard;
g) be placed at sharp changes in depth, if applicable;
h) be illuminated, if applicable, to ensure that they are visible and legible.

Care should be taken to avoid over-provision of safety signs at one location as this can confuse viewers

and result in individual safety messages not being noticed or understood.
5.1.2 Mounting height

The following principles should be applied to assist users of the facilities to predict the location of

successive signs, whether they are mounted on walls, posts or overhead.

a) Signs should be mounted as close as practicable to the observer’s line of sight in the vertical plane.

For a standing adult, this will be approximately 5° up or down from a point 1500 mm above ground

level in front of the observer.

b) Signs that are freestanding or mounted overhead should be placed so that they are not a hazard.

c) Where practical, the space in front of the sign should be clear so that people without sight-

correction lenses or with visual impairments are able to approach the sign to reduce their viewing

distance.
5.1.3 Lighting

If artificial lighting is provided, effective illumination is required both in normal and in mains-failure

conditions, if applicable.
There are various ways of ensuring the satisfactory illumination of signs.

Some types of lighting, for example low-pressure sodium, do not enable effective colour recognition

and are therefore unlikely to be suitable for the illumination of water safety signs.

Where a sign is illuminated by an external artificial light source, the vertical illumination should be a

minimum of 100 lx under normal lighting conditions.
5.1.4 Sign height and maximum viewing distance
A sign should be both visible and legible at the maximum viewing distance.

NOTE 1 The sign height necessary to achieve these criteria will depend upon the viewing distance and the

illumination of the sign. Measurement of sign height is given in Table 1.
4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 20712-3:2020(E)

NOTE 2 In external environments, a sign could be made more visible by provision of a larger colour contrasting

border or background.
Table 1 — Measurement of sign height
Sign Type of sign
height
Safe condition Mandatory action Prohibition Warning

The required maximum viewing distance of a sign should be determined by its position within the

area and take into account the needs of people with normal sight and people with visual impairments.

Distance factors z for different illumination conditions and visual acuity are given in Annex A, Table A.1.

The recommended maximum viewing distance for a particular sign height h, in millimetres (mm), can

be calculated from the following formula:
lz= h
where
l is the required viewing distance, in millimetres (mm);
z is the relevant factor of distance from Table A.1.

Recommended maximum viewing distances for different minimum sign heights under normal/natural

illumination are given in Table 2.

Table 2 — Recommended maximum viewing distance for different minimum sign heights under

normal/natural illumination
Minimum sign height Maximum viewing distance
mm m
Normal visual acuity Visual acuity 6/60
60 3,6 0,36
80 4,8 0,48
120 7,2 0,72
180 10,8 1,08
240 14,4 1,44

For intermediate viewing distances, the next largest available sign height should be used.

The maximum viewing distances in Table 2 relate to viewing normal to the sign. When a sign is viewed at

an angle of α to the normal, the maximum viewing distances are reduced by the multiplying factor cos α.

The relevant viewing distance should be such that the observer is informed of potential hazards and of

the safety precautions and/or actions required to avoid the hazard(s) before the observer makes any

contact with the hazard(s).

Any variation of the sizes of signs within a facility should be kept to a minimum.

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 20712-3:2020(E)
5.1.5  Use of supplementary text

A supplementary text sign will help to ensure that the meaning of the water safety sign is fully

understood and may convey additional information. For guidance on supplementary text, see Annex D.

5.1.6  Construction: durability and suitability
Signs should be selected to be suitable for their operating environment.
NOTE ISO 17398 covers aspects of performance and durability of safety signs.
Factors that should be considered include:
a) durability of base material;
b) durability of graphical content;
c) colour/light fastness;
d) resistance to damage from bather traffic or from cleaning;
e) resistance to exposure to water;
f) resistance to corrosion, such as by sea spray;
g) resistance to graffiti;
h) flame resistance;
i) type and suitability of fixings;
j) resistance to wind loads.
Installed signs should be suitable for the expected environmental conditions.

Installers and designers should seek adequate assurance from suppliers in these aspects.

5.1.7 Servicing and maintenance

Signs should be cleaned and visually inspected at regular intervals, and action should be taken to

remedy any defects. A sign which has been damaged or faded should be replaced.
A sign must be removed when its function is no longer needed.
5.2  Specific requirements for the swimming pool environment

The system designer should identify the locations of the hazards associated with the swimming pool

...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 20712-3
ISO/TC 145/SC 2
Water safety signs and beach safety
Secretariat: DIN
flags —
Voting begins on:
2020-04-22
Part 3:
Voting terminates on:
Guidance for use
2020-06-17
Signaux de sécurité relatifs à l'eau et drapeaux de sécurité pour les
plages —
Partie 3: Lignes directrices pour l'utilisation
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/FDIS 20712-3:2020(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 20712-3:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 20712-3:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3  Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4  Guidance for selection and siting of signs and flags ........................................................................................................ 2

4.1 Guidance for risk assessment ..................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Siting ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

4.2.1 Water safety signs and multiple signs ........................................................................................................... 3

4.2.2 Beach safety flags ............................................................................................................................................................ 3

5 Water safety signs ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 General requirements for aquatic environments ...................................................................................................... 3

5.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1.2 Mounting height ............................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1.3 Lighting .................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1.4 Sign height and maximum viewing distance ........................................................................................... 4

5.1.5 Use of supplementary text ....................................................................................................................................... 5

5.1.6 Construction: durability and suitability ...................................................................................................... 6

5.1.7 Servicing and maintenance ..................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2 Specific requirements for the swimming pool environment .......................................................................... 6

6  Beach safety flags ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2 Application of specific beach safety flags ......................................................................................................................... 7

6.2.1 Red flag BF.01 ..................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2.2 Yellow flag BF.02 .............................................................................................................................................................. 7

6.2.3 Red/yellow flag BF.03 .................................................................................................................................................. 7

6.2.4 Black/white flag BF.04 ................................................................................................................................................ 8

6.2.5 Red/white flag BF.05 .................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.2.6 Truncated orange cone ............................................................................................................................................... 8

6.3 Materials for beach safety flags ................................................................................................................................................ 8

6.4 Operation of flags .................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.4.1 Mounting position .......................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.4.2 Size of flag .............................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.4.3 Hoisting and taking down of flags..................................................................................................................... 8

6.5 Flagpole ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.6 Inspection and maintenance of flags and flagpoles ................................................................................................ 9

6.7 Storage of flags ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

7  Multiple signs ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.1 General requirements ....................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.2 Presentation of information ........................................................................................................................................................ 9

7.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.2.2 Typeface .................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

7.2.3 Type size ................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

7.2.4 Colour .....................................................................................................................................................................................10

7.2.5 Use of symbols ................................................................................................................................................................10

7.2.6 Terminology and language ...................................................................................................................................10

7.3 Types of multiple signs .................................................................................................................................................................10

7.3.1 Approach signs ...............................................................................................................................................................10

7.3.2 Primary access signs .................................................................................................................................................11

7.3.3 Secondary access signs ............................................................................................................................................12

7.3.4 Directional signs ............................................................................................................................................................13

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 20712-3:2020(E)

8 Tsunami signing system .............................................................................................................................................................................14

8.1 Planning .....................................................................................................................................................................................................14

8.2 Tsunami safety signs and associated safety information signs ..................................................................14

Annex A (informative) Distance factor z ........................................................................................................................................................16

Annex B (informative) Examples of signing swimming pools .................................................................................................17

Annex C (informative) Examples of positioning beach safety flags ...................................................................................19

Annex D (informative) Typeface for text .......................................................................................................................................................21

Annex E (informative) Examples of tsunami signing system ....................................................................................................23

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................28

iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 20712-3:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 145, Graphical symbols, Subcommittee

SC 2, Safety identification, signs, shapes, symbols and colours.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 20712-3:2014), of which it constitutes a

minor revision. The changes to the previous edition are as follows:

— references to ISO 20712-1 replaced with ISO 7010 as water safety signs with new registration

numbers have been incorporated in ISO 7010;

— all four references in Clause 2 moved to the Bibliography as these are informative;

— 3.3, 'distance factor’ added as an admitted term;
— NOTEs in 5.2, 6.5, Annex D and Annex E changed to body text;
— minor editorial changes.
A list of all parts in the ISO 20712 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
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ISO/FDIS 20712-3:2020(E)
Introduction

This document reflects good practice in the use of water safety signs and beach safety flags. The

illustrations show examples of the selection and location of water safety signs and beach safety flags

designed to provide information about aquatic hazards and the action necessary to avoid those hazards.

A standardized method of signing with the use of appropriate supplementary text throughout the

working and public environment assists the process of education and instruction on the meaning of

water safety signs and beach safety flags, and the appropriate actions to take. The intention of this

document is to ensure a uniformity of application of water safety signs and beach safety flags which

leads to increased familiarity, and therefore improved safety, for the users including visitors and for the

general public.

The illustrations within this document are based on assumptions that some of the people may be

unfamiliar with the features of indoor or outdoor swimming pools or of the beach. The illustrations

are not intended to cover every potentially hazardous situation and they should be interpreted as

recommendations and not as minimum requirements.

The use of water safety signs and beach safety flags does not replace the need for proper working

methods and safety instruction or for training in accident prevention and the actions to be taken in the

event of an emergency, or for the provision of lifeguards.

This publication does not purport to include all the necessary provisions of a contract. Users are

responsible for its correct application.

NOTE 1 Some countries’ statutory regulations might differ in some respect from those given in this document.

NOTE 2 Some countries might differ in some respect from the requirements given in this document where

they use the diamond geometric shape for warning signs.
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FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 20712-3:2020(E)
Water safety signs and beach safety flags —
Part 3:
Guidance for use

IMPORTANT — The colours represented in the electronic file of this document can be neither

viewed on screen nor printed as true representations. For the purposes of colour matching

see ISO 3864-4, which provides colorimetric and photometric properties together with, as a

guideline, references from colour order systems.
1 Scope

This document gives guidance for the selection and use of water safety signs as specified in ISO 7010

and beach safety flags as specified in ISO 20712-2 in aquatic environments. It provides guidance on

their location, mounting positions, lighting and maintenance. It also provides guidance on the design

and location of multiple signs.

This document does not apply to traffic signs for use on the public highway or maritime signalling. It

is not applicable to flags for use on firing ranges or to flags used to indicate water quality. It does not

cover means of escape signs and their illumination which may be present.

NOTE 1 The illustrations in this document are as accurate as possible within the limitations of the printing

process.

NOTE 2 This document refers to water safety signs which were originally specified in ISO 20712-1 . These

water safety signs have been integrated in ISO 7010, but are not specifically identified as water safety signs.

2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3  Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
beach

area forming a shoreline or sloping bank at the edge of the sea or a river estuary or lake

[SOURCE: ISO 20712-2:2007, 3.1]
3.2
beach safety flag

material that gives a particular safety message by means of a combination of one or more colours and a

geometric shape, and is attached by one end to a pole or rope

Note 1 to entry: A flag can also have additional support, e.g. a horizontal support.

1) This document has been withdrawn and replaced by ISO 7010.
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ISO/FDIS 20712-3:2020(E)
[SOURCE: ISO 20712-2:2007, 3.2]
3.3
factor of distance
distance factor

relationship between the height (h) of a sign and the observation distance (l), used to determine

observation distances of signs
z = l/h

[SOURCE: ISO 3864-1:2011, 3.2, modified — 'distance factor' added as an admitted term.]

3.4
multiple sign

two or more safety signs and/or associated supplementary information on the same carrier

3.5
pool basin
water tank where water-related activities can take place
3.6
pool surround

area around a pool basin for entry and exit to the pool basin and general circulation space

3.7
safety sign

sign which gives a general safety message, obtained by a combination of a colour and geometric shape

and which, by the addition of a graphical symbol, gives a particular safety message

[SOURCE: ISO 3864-1:2011, 3.12]
3.8
sign height

diameter of a circular geometric shape or height of a rectangular or triangular geometric shape of the

type of safety sign

Note 1 to entry: Any outer border to the safety sign is excluded. See ISO 3864-1.

4  Guidance for selection and siting of signs and flags
4.1 Guidance for risk assessment

Selection and use are determined following the results of a risk assessment. The risk assessment should

take into account the following specific issues:
a) hazards and associated risks of the aquatic environment;
b) regulations or legislation;
c) operation and management of the aquatic environment;
d) users and their foreseeable behaviour.

In specific situations, other issues may have to be considered in a risk assessment.

NOTE The users can be in unfamiliar environments, not wearing their normal sight-correction lenses or in

bare feet.
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ISO/FDIS 20712-3:2020(E)

As the result of the risk assessment, a comprehensive statement of requirements should be prepared and

used as the basis for the detailed design and specification for the selection and use of signs and flags.

4.2 Siting
4.2.1  Water safety signs and multiple signs

The siting of water safety signs and multiple signs should allow users to recognize hazards and take

appropriate action to avoid them.
The following matters (issues, factors) should be considered:
a) location of hazards and their signage;
b) location of entrances/access to facilities;
c) location of any other signs;

d) location of architectural features, décor, structures, vegetation or people that could conceal or

divert attention from signs;

e) lighting level and characteristics under both normal and mains-failure conditions;

f) appropriate supplementary text to water safety signs;
g) appropriate information on multiple signs.
4.2.2  Beach safety flags

The siting of beach safety flags should allow users to recognize hazards and take appropriate action to

avoid them.
The following matters (issues, factors) should be considered:
a) nature and location of hazards and their relevant signage;
b) zoning or boundaries of aquatic activities;

c) location of structures, beach furniture or vegetation that could conceal or divert attention from flags;

d) location of flagpoles;

e) appropriate information on multiple signs, such as an explanation of the meaning of flags and the

presence or otherwise of a lifeguard service.
5 Water safety signs
5.1  General requirements for aquatic environments
5.1.1  General
The system designer should identify the locations of the hazards.

Safety signs should conform to ISO 7010. Safety signs should conform with the colorimetric and

photometric requirements given in ISO 3864-4.

The required sign height of the safety sign should be determined from the maximum viewing distance

under different external illumination conditions and the relevant distance factor z according to Annex

A, Table A.1.
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ISO/FDIS 20712-3:2020(E)

The following principles should be taken into account when planning water safety signage; signs should:

a) be sited conspicuously within the normal field of vision;
b) contrast with their surroundings;

NOTE The contrast and conspicuousness may be increased by the provision of an outer border or by

mounting on a sign board with a colour contrasting with the surroundings.
c) be visible from any place within the vicinity of the hazard;

d) be sited at the same height throughout the aquatic facility, as far as is reasonable;

e) take precedence over all other signs with the exception of escape route signing, if applicable;

f) be placed so that they are not a hazard;
g) be placed at sharp changes in depth, if applicable;
h) be illuminated, if applicable, to ensure that they are visible and legible.

Care should be taken to avoid over-provision of safety signs at one location as this can confuse viewers

and result in individual safety messages not being noticed or understood.
5.1.2 Mounting height

The following principles should be applied to assist users of the facilities to predict the location of

successive signs, whether they are mounted on walls, posts or overhead.

a) Signs should be mounted as close as practicable to the observer’s line of sight in the vertical plane.

For a standing adult, this will be approximately 5° up or down from a point 1500 mm above ground

level in front of the observer.

b) Signs that are freestanding or mounted overhead should be placed so that they are not a hazard.

c) Where practical, the space in front of the sign should be clear so that people without sight-

correction lenses or with visual impairments are able to approach the sign to reduce their viewing

distance.
5.1.3 Lighting

If artificial lighting is provided, effective illumination is required both in normal and in mains-failure

conditions, if applicable.
There are various ways of ensuring the satisfactory illumination of signs.

Some types of lighting, for example low-pressure sodium, do not enable effective colour recognition

and are therefore unlikely to be suitable for the illumination of water safety signs.

Where a sign is illuminated by an external artificial light source, the vertical illumination should be a

minimum of 100 lx under normal lighting conditions.
5.1.4 Sign height and maximum viewing distance
A sign should be both visible and legible at the maximum viewing distance.

NOTE 1 The sign height necessary to achieve these criteria will depend upon the viewing distance and the

illumination of the sign. Measurement of sign height is given in Table 1.

NOTE 2 In external environments, a sign could be made more visible by provision of a larger colour contrasting

border or background.
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ISO/FDIS 20712-3:2020(E)
Table 1 — Measurement of sign height
Sign Type of sign
height
Safe condition Mandatory action Prohibition Warning

The required maximum viewing distance of a sign should be determined by its position within the

area and take into account the needs of people with normal sight and people with visual impairments.

Distance factors z for different illumination conditions and visual acuity are given in Annex A, Table A.1.

The recommended maximum viewing distance for a particular sign height h, in millimetres (mm), can

be calculated from the following formula:
lz= h
where
l is the required viewing distance, in millimetres (mm);
z is the relevant factor of distance from Table A.1.

Recommended maximum viewing distances for different minimum sign heights under normal/natural

illumination are given in Table 2.

Table 2 — Recommended maximum viewing distance for different minimum sign heights under

normal/natural illumination
Minimum sign height Maximum viewing distance
mm m
Normal visual acuity Visual acuity 6/60
60 3,6 0,36
80 4,8 0,48
120 7,2 0,72
180 10,8 1,08
240 14,4 1,44

For intermediate viewing distances, the next largest available sign height should be used.

The maximum viewing distances in Table 2 relate to viewing normal to the sign. When a sign is viewed at

an angle of α to the normal, the maximum viewing distances are reduced by the multiplying factor cos α.

The relevant viewing distance should be such that the observer is informed of potential hazards and of

the safety precautions and/or actions required to avoid the hazard(s) before the observer makes any

contact with the hazard(s).

Any variation of the sizes of signs within a facility should be kept to a minimum.

5.1.5  Use of supplementary text

A supplementary text sign will help to ensure that the meaning of the water safety sign is fully

understood and may convey additional information. For guidance on supplementary text, see Annex D.

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ISO/FDIS 20712-3:2020(E)
5.1.6  Construction: durability and suitability
Signs should be selected to be suitable for their operating environment.
NOTE ISO 17398 covers aspects of performance and durability of safety signs.
Factors that should be considered include:
a) durability of base material;
b) durability of graphical content;
c) colour/light fastness;
d) resistance to damage from bather traffic or from cleaning;
e) resistance to exposure to water;
f) resistance to corrosion, such as by sea spray;
g) resistance to graffiti;
h) flame resistance;
...

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