Information security -- Non-repudiation

This document specifies mechanisms for the provision of specific, communication-related, non‑repudiation services using asymmetric cryptographic techniques.

Sécurité de l'information -- Non-répudiation

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Published
Publication Date
03-Sep-2020
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
06-Aug-2020
Completion Date
05-Aug-2020
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ISO/IEC 13888-3:2020 - Information security -- Non-repudiation
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 13888-3
Third edition
2020-09
Information security — Non-
repudiation —
Part 3:
Mechanisms using asymmetric
techniques
Sécurité de l'information — Non-répudiation —
Partie 3: Mécanismes utilisant des techniques asymétriques
Reference number
ISO/IEC 13888-3:2020(E)
ISO/IEC 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 13888-3:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
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Email: copyright@iso.org
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 13888-3:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6 Trusted third party involvement ......................................................................................................................................................... 3

7 Digital signatures ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

8 Use of non-repudiation tokens with and without delivery authorities .......................................................4

9 Evidence produced by the end entities ......................................................................................................................................... 5

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

9.2 Non-repudiation of origin ............................................................................................................................................................. 5

9.2.1 Non-repudiation of origin token ........................................................................................................................ 5

9.2.2 Mechanism for non-repudiation of origin .................................................................................................. 6

9.3 Non-repudiation of delivery ........................................................................................................................................................ 6

9.3.1 Non-repudiation of delivery token ................................................................................................................... 6

9.3.2 Mechanism for non-repudiation for delivery .......................................................................................... 7

10 Evidence produced by a delivery authority .............................................................................................................................. 8

10.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

10.2 Non-repudiation of submission ................................................................................................................................................ 8

10.2.1 Non-repudiation of submission token .......................................................................................................... 8

10.2.2 Mechanism for non-repudiation of submission .................................................................................... 9

10.3 Non-repudiation of transport..................................................................................................................................................... 9

10.3.1 Non-repudiation of transport token ............................................................................................................... 9

10.3.2 Mechanism for non-repudiation of transport ......................................................................................10

11 Mechanisms to ensure that an NRT was signed before a time t ........................................................................11

11.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

11.2 Mechanism using a time-stamping service .................................................................................................................11

11.3 Mechanism using a time-marking service ....................................................................................................................11

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

© ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/IEC 13888-3:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that

are members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through

technical committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of

technical activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other

international organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also

take part in the work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see http:// patents .iec .ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 27, Information security, cybersecurity and privacy protection.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO/IEC 13888-3:2009), which has been

technically revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— Clause 3 has been clarified;
— the terminology and notation issues have been fixed;
— a requirement has been changed into a recommendation in Clause 7; and
— a new requirement has been introduced in Clause 5.
A list of all parts in the ISO/IEC 13888 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 13888-3:2020(E)
Introduction

The goal of the non-repudiation service is to generate, collect, maintain, make available and validate

evidence concerning a claimed event or action in order to resolve disputes about the occurrence or non-

occurrence of the event or action.

Such evidence can be produced either directly by an end entity or by a trusted third party.

This document only addresses the following non-repudiation services:
— non-repudiation of origin;
— non-repudiation of delivery;
— non-repudiation of submission;
— non-repudiation of transport.

Non-repudiation mechanisms involve the exchange of non-repudiation tokens specific for each non-

repudiation service. The non-repudiation mechanisms defined in this document consist of digital

signatures and additional data. Non-repudiation tokens are stored as non-repudiation information and

are used subsequently in the event of disputes.

Additional information is required to complete the non-repudiation token. Depending on the non-

repudiation policy in effect for a specific application and the legal environment within which the

application operates, that additional information takes one of the following two forms:

— information provided by a time-stamping authority which provides assurance that the signature of

the non-repudiation token was created before a given time;

— information provided by a time-marking service which provides assurance that the signature of the

non-repudiation token was recorded before a given time.

Non-repudiation can only be provided within the context of a clearly defined security policy for

a particular application and its legal environment. Non-repudiation policies are described in

ISO/IEC 10181-4.
© ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 13888-3:2020(E)
Information security — Non-repudiation —
Part 3:
Mechanisms using asymmetric techniques
1 Scope

This document specifies mechanisms for the provision of specific, communication-related,

non-repudiation services using asymmetric cryptographic techniques.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 9796 (all parts), Information technology — Security techniques — Digital signature schemes

giving message recovery

ISO/IEC 13888-1, Information technology — Security techniques — Non-repudiation — Part 1: General

ISO/IEC 14888 (all parts), IT Security techniques — Digital signatures with appendix

ISO/IEC 18014-1, Information technology — Security techniques — Time-stamping services — Part 1:

Framework

ISO/IEC 29192-4, Information technology — Security techniques — Lightweight cryptography — Part 4:

Mechanisms using asymmetric techniques
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 13888-1 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
time-marking service

service providing evidence that a hash code together with an identifier of a hash-function have been

recorded before a certain point in time
3.2
time-stamping service

service providing evidence that a data item existed before a certain point in time

© ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/IEC 13888-3:2020(E)
4 Symbols
A claimed message originator
B message recipient or the intended message recipient
C Trusted third party
D ith delivery authority, a trusted third party (1≤i≤n, where n is the number of
delivery authorities in the system)

f data term (flag) indicating the type of non-repudiation service in effect (i ∊{ori-

gin, delivery, submission, transport})
ID , ID , ID , ID distinguishing identifiers of the entities A, B, C and D
A B C D i

Imp(y) imprint of data y, consisting of either y or the hash-code of y together with an

identifier of the hash-function being used

m message which is sent from entity A to entity B in respect of which non-repudia-

tion services are provided
NRDT non-repudiation of delivery token
NROT non-repudiation of origin token
NRST non-repudiation of submission token
NRTT non-repudiation of transport token

Pol distinguishing identifier of the non-repudiation policy (or policies) which applies

(apply) to the evidence
Q optional data item that may contain additional information, e.g., the
distinguishing identifiers of the message m, signature mechanism, or
hash-function
SIG (m) signed message generated on data m by entity X using its private key

T date and time that the i th type of event or action took place (i is the index of

events or actions, i ∊{1, 2, 3, 4})
NOTE The date and time can be represented according to ISO 8601 (all parts). The
date and time can be obtained by using a time source, as specified in ISO 14641.
T date and time when the evidence was generated

text optional data item that may contain additional information, e.g., a key identifier

and/or the message identifier (i ∊{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6})
X, Y variables used to indicate entity names
(y, z) result of the concatenation of y and z in that order.
When concatenating data items, an appropriate encoding shall be used so that
the individual data items can be unambiguously recovered from the concatenat-
ed string
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ISO/IEC 13888-3:2020(E)
5 Requirements

Depending on the basic mechanism used for generating non-repudiation tokens, and independent of the

non-repudiation service supported by the non-repudiation mechanisms, the following requirements

hold for the entities involved in a non-repudiation exchange in this document.

— The entities of a non-repudiation exchange shall trust any TTP involved in the exchange.

— The signature key belonging to an entity shall be kept secret by that entity.

— An agreed way of obtaining an imprint of data shall be supported by all entities in the non-

repudiation service. The identity function or a collision-resistant hash-function as defined in

ISO/IEC 10118 (all parts) shall be used for this purpose.

— The digital signature mechanism used shall satisfy the security requirements specified by the non-

repudiation policy.

— Prior to the generation of evidence, the evidence generator shall know which non-repudiation policy

is acceptable to the verifier(s), the kind of evidence that is required and the set of mechanisms that

are acceptable to the verifier(s).

— Either the mechanisms for generating or verifying evidence shall be available to the entities of

the particular non-repudiation exchange, or a trusted authority shall be available to provide the

mechanisms and perform the necessary functions on behalf of the evidence requester.

— Either the evidence generator or the evidence verifier needs to use a time-stamping service or a

time-marking service.

— The mechanisms in this document require that the digital signatures are certificate-based digital

signatures. Identity-based digital signatures are not permitted.
6 Trusted third party involvement

Trusted third parties are involved in the provision of non-repudiation services, their precise role

depending on the mechanisms used and the non-repudiation policy in effect. A TTP may act in one or

more of the following roles.

— A delivery authority is trusted to deliver the message to the intended recipient and to provide the

non-repudiation of submission or non-repudiation of transport token.

— The use of asymmetric cryptographic techniques may require the involvement of a TTP to guarantee

the authenticity of the public verification keys, as described, for example, in ISO/IEC 9594-8.

— The non-repudiation policy in effect may require that the evidence is generated partly or totally

by a TTP.

— A time-stamping token issued by a time-stamping authority may also be used to ensure that a non-

repudiation token remains valid.

— A time-marking authority may be involved to provide assurance that the signature of a given non-

repudiation token was recorded before a given time.

— An evidence recording authority may be involved to record evidence that can later be retrieved if

there is a dispute.

Trusted third parties may be involved to differing degrees in the various phases of the provision of

a non-repudiation service. When exchanging evidence, the parties shall know, or agree, which non-

repudiation policy is to be applicable to the evidence.
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ISO/IEC 13888-3:2020(E)
7 Digital signatures

For the mechanisms specified in this document, non-repudiation tokens are created using SIGs. The

digital signature technique used to generate these SIGs shall conform to ISO/IEC 9796 (all parts),

ISO/IEC 14888 (all parts) or ISO/IEC 29192-4.

The public key to be used to verify a signature shall be included in a public key certificate. This

certificate shall include a time period indicating the period during which the CA handles the revocation

status of the certificate.

A signature from an NR token shall be verifiable at least during the validity period of the certificates

to be used to validate the public verification key used to verify the signature, and also once the validity

period of these certificates has expired. In order to achieve this goal, the use of either a time-stamping

service or a time-marking service is necessary (see Clause 11). The mechanisms described in Clause

11 should be used to guarantee that the non-repudiation token remains valid once the certificate to be

used to verify the signature of the NR token has expired, or if that certificate is revoked.

8 Use of non-repudiation tokens with and without delivery authorities

The use of non-repudiation tokens in the case where delivery authorities are not used is shown in

Figure 1. Mechanisms adhering to this model are spec
...

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