Systems and software engineering -- Guidelines for the utilization of ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288 in the context of system of systems (SoS)

This document provides guidance on the application of processes in ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288 to systems of systems (SoS). The scope of this document is the same as ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288, which addresses more than systems engineering activities. NOTE 1 Throughout the document, there is mixed use of "system of systems" and "systems of systems". "SoS" could refer to a system of systems or systems of systems. Similarly, "CS" could refer to a constituent system or constituent systems. This document provides general guidance for each ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288 process and process outcome in the context of SoS, but it does not address specific activities, tasks, methods, or procedures. Additional processes and process outcomes unique to SoS can still be needed and are not covered by this document. This document explores the similarities and differences between systems and SoS and, by extension, the similarities and differences between engineering of systems and SoS. The guidance contained in this document is expected to evolve as the discipline matures. NOTE 2 In many cases, this document notes that ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288 processes or process outcomes "? applies as stated to SoS." Some interpretation within the context of SoS can still be needed.

Ingénierie des systèmes et du logiciel -- Lignes directrices pour l'utilisation de l'ISO/IEC/IECC 15288 dans le contexte d'un système de systèmes (SdS)

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Publication Date
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6060 - International Standard published
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC/
STANDARD IEEE
21840
First edition
2019-12
Systems and software engineering —
Guidelines for the utilization of ISO/
IEC/IEEE 15288 in the context of
system of systems (SoS)
Ingénierie des systèmes et du logiciel — Lignes directrices pour
l'utilisation de l'ISO/IEC/IECC 15288 dans le contexte d'un système de
systèmes (SdS)
Reference number
ISO/IEC/IEEE 21840:2019(E)
ISO/IEC 2019
IEEE 2019
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ISO/IEC/IEEE 21840:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2019
© IEEE 2019

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© ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved
ii © IEEE 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC/IEEE 21840:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative References ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions, and abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4 Relationship to other standards .......................................................................................................................................................... 3

5 Key concepts and application ................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.1 Differences between systems and SoS ................................................................................................................................ 4

5.2 Managerial and operational independence.................................................................................................................... 7

6 Application of system life cycle processes to SoS ............................................................................................................10

6.1 Agreement processes .....................................................................................................................................................................10

6.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................10

6.1.2 Acquisition process ....................................................................................................................................................12

6.1.3 Supply process ................................................................................................................................................................13

6.2 Organizational project-enabling processes .................................................................................................................15

6.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................15

6.2.2 Life cycle model management process ......................................................................................................16

6.2.3 Infrastructure management process ...........................................................................................................17

6.2.4 Portfolio management process .........................................................................................................................18

6.2.5 Human resource management process .....................................................................................................20

6.2.6 Quality management process.............................................................................................................................21

6.2.7 Knowledge management process ..................................................................................................................22

6.3 Technical management processes .......................................................................................................................................23

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................23

6.3.2 Project planning process ........................................................................................................................................24

6.3.3 Project assessment and control process ..................................................................................................25

6.3.4 Decision management process .........................................................................................................................27

6.3.5 Risk management process ....................................................................................................................................28

6.3.6 Configuration management process ............................................................................................................29

6.3.7 Information management process ................................................................................................................30

6.3.8 Measurement process ..............................................................................................................................................31

6.3.9 Quality assurance process ....................................................................................................................................32

6.4 Technical processes .........................................................................................................................................................................33

6.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................33

6.4.2 Business or mission analysis process .........................................................................................................36

6.4.3 Stakeholder needs and requirements definition process ..........................................................37

6.4.4 System requirements definition process .................................................................................................39

6.4.5 Architecture definition process .......................................................................................................................41

6.4.6 Design definition process ......................................................................................................................................44

6.4.7 System analysis process..........................................................................................................................................46

6.4.8 Implementation process ........................................................................................................................................47

6.4.9 Integration process .....................................................................................................................................................48

6.4.10 Verification process ....................................................................................................................................................49

6.4.11 Transition process .......................................................................................................................................................51

6.4.12 Validation process .................. .................................................... ..................................................................................52

6.4.13 Operation process ........................................................................................................................................................54

6.4.14 Maintenance process .................................................................................................................................................55

6.4.15 Disposal process ............................................................................................................................................................56

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................58

© ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved
© IEEE 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/IEC/IEEE 21840:2019(E)

IEEE notices and abstract ............................................................................................................................................................................................59

© ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved
iv © IEEE 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC/IEEE 21840:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that

are members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through

technical committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of

technical activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other

international organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also

take part in the work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

IEEE Standards documents are developed within the IEEE Societies and the Standards Coordinating

Committees of the IEEE Standards Association (IEEE-SA) Standards Board. The IEEE develops its

standards through a consensus development process, approved by the American National Standards

Institute, which brings together volunteers representing varied viewpoints and interests to achieve the

final product. Volunteers are not necessarily members of the Institute and serve without compensation.

While the IEEE administers the process and establishes rules to promote fairness in the consensus

development process, the IEEE does not independently evaluate, test, or verify the accuracy of any of

the information contained in its standards.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see http:// patents .iec .ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 7, Systems and software engineering, in cooperation with the Systems and Software

Engineering Standards Committee of the IEEE Computer Society, under the Partner Standards

Development Organization cooperation agreement between ISO and IEEE.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved
© IEEE 2019 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/IEC/IEEE 21840:2019(E)
Introduction

Application of systems engineering to systems of systems has become increasingly important for the

realization and sustainability of large and persistent sociotechnical systems in domains as varied

as healthcare, transportation, energy, and defense, and contexts such as corporations, cities, and

government. This has been intensified in the last fifteen years by the pervasiveness of information

technology (IT), illustrated by new technologies and paradigms such as Sensor Networks, Cloud

Computing, the Internet of Things, Big Data, Smart Devices and Ambient Intelligence. It is, for instance,

the application of these technologies to cities that transform them into smarter cities.

This document provides guidance for the utilization of ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288 in the context of

SoS. While ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288 applies to systems in general (including constituent systems),

this document provides guidance on the application of these processes to the special case of SoS.

However, ISO/IEC/IEEE 21840 is not a self-contained SoS replacement for ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288. This

document is intended to be used in conjunction with ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288, ISO/IEC/IEEE 21839 and

ISO/IEC/IEEE 21841 and is not intended to be used without them.

For example, ISO/IEC/IEEE 21841 provides a taxonomy for SoS, providing specific viewpoints that

align with stakeholder concerns. Using a taxonomy in conjunction with this document facilitates

better communications among the various stakeholders that are involved in activities like governance,

engineering, operation, and management of these SoS. However, this document does not require the use

of any specific taxa in ISO/IEC/IEEE 21841.
© ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved
vi © IEEE 2019 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC/IEEE 21840:2019(E)
Systems and software engineering — Guidelines for the
utilization of ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288 in the context of system
of systems (SoS)
1 Scope

This document provides guidance on the application of processes in ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288 to systems of

systems (SoS). The scope of this document is the same as ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288, which addresses more

than systems engineering activities.

NOTE 1 Throughout the document, there is mixed use of "system of systems" and "systems of systems". "SoS"

could refer to a system of systems or systems of systems. Similarly, "CS" could refer to a constituent system or

constituent systems.

This document provides general guidance for each ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288 process and process outcome in

the context of SoS, but it does not address specific activities, tasks, methods, or procedures. Additional

processes and process outcomes unique to SoS can still be needed and are not covered by this document.

This document explores the similarities and differences between systems and SoS and, by extension,

the similarities and differences between engineering of systems and SoS. The guidance contained in

this document is expected to evolve as the discipline matures.

NOTE 2 In many cases, this document notes that ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288 processes or process outcomes “…

applies as stated to SoS.” Some interpretation within the context of SoS can still be needed.

2 Normative References
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms, definitions, and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

NOTE For additional terms and definitions in the field of systems and software engineering, see

ISO/IEC/IEEE 24765, which is published periodically as a “snapshot” of the SEVOCAB (Systems and software

Engineering Vocabulary) database and which is publicly accessible at www .computer .org/ sevocab.

ISO, IEC, and IEEE maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
— IEEE Standards Dictionary Online: available at: http:// dictionary .ieee .org
3.1.1
capability

measure of capacity and the ability of an entity (system (3.1.8), person or organization) to achieve its

objectives

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 19770-1:2017, 3.10, modified — Note 1 to entry has been removed.]

© ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved
© IEEE 2019 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/IEC/IEEE 21840:2019(E)
3.1.2
constituent system
independent system (3.1.8) that forms part of a system of systems (SoS) (3.1.10)

Note 1 to entry: Constituent systems can be part of one or more SoS. Each constituent system is a useful system

by itself, having its own development, management (3.1.5), utilization, goals, and resources, but interacts within

the SoS to provide the unique capability (3.1.1) of the SoS.
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC/IEEE 21839:2019, 3.1.1]
3.1.3
emergence

principle that entities exhibit properties which are meaningful only when attributed to the whole, not

to its parts

Note 1 to entry: These properties cannot be reduced or decomposed back down to the those of any individual

constituent system (3.1.2).
Note 2 to entry: The definition is adapted from Reference [9].
3.1.4
governance

process of establishing and enforcing strategic goals and objectives, organizational policies, and

performance parameters

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 24765:2017, 3.1757, modified — The article "the" at the beginning of the definition

has been removed.]
3.1.5
management

system (3.1.8) of controls and processes required to achieve the strategic objectives set by the

organization's governing body

Note 1 to entry: Management is subject to the policy guidance and monitoring set through corporate governance

(3.1.4).
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC/IEEE 24765:2017, 3.2338]
3.1.6
satisficing

decision technique that discards any alternative with an attribute value outside an acceptable range

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC/IEEE 24765:2017, 3.3601]
3.1.7
stage

period within the life cycle of an entity that relates to the state of its description or realization

Note 1 to entry: As used in this document, stages relate to major progress and achievement milestones of the

entity through its life cycle.
Note 2 to entry: Stages often overlap.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288:2015, 4.1.43, modified — The expression "this International Standard"

has been replaced with "this document".]
3.1.8
system

combination of interacting elements organized to achieve one or more stated purposes

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288:2015, 4.1.46, modified — Note 1, 2, and 3 to entry have been removed.]

© ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved
2 © IEEE 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC/IEEE 21840:2019(E)
3.1.9
system-of-interest
system (3.1.8) whose life cycle is under consideration

Note 1 to entry: In this document, the system-of-interest is a system of systems (3.1.10).

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288:2015, 4.1.48, modified — The words "in the context of this International

Standard" have been removed; Note 1 to entry has been added.]
3.1.10
system of systems

set of systems (3.1.8) and system elements that interact to provide a unique capability (3.1.1) that none

of the constituent systems (3.1.2) can accomplish on its own

Note 1 to entry: System elements can be necessary to facilitate interaction of the constituent systems in the

system of systems.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC/IEEE 21839:2019, 3.1.4, modified — The abbreviated term "SoS" has been removed.]

3.1.11
system life cycle

period that begins when a system (3.1.8) is conceived and ends when the system is no longer

available for use
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC/IEEE 24765:2017, 3.4108]
3.1.12
taxonomy

scheme that partitions a body of knowledge and defines the relationships among the pieces

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC/IEEE 24765:2017, 3.4167, modified — Note 1 to entry has been removed.]

3.2 Abbreviated terms
CS constituent system, constituent systems
SE systems engineering
SOI system of interest
SoS system of systems, systems of systems
SoSE system of systems engineering
4 Relationship to other standards

This document is part of a set of documents that are intended to be used together:

ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288 provides the fundamental basis for this document by establishing a model set of

system life cycle processes.

ISO/IEC/IEEE 21839 addresses SoS considerations in life cycle stages of a system.

This document provides guidance on the use of ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288 in the context of SoS, including

considerations for how CS relate to each other within the SoS. However, the use of any specific taxa in

ISO/IEC/IEEE 21841 is not required.

ISO/IEC/IEEE 21841 provides a taxonomy for SoS, providing specific viewpoints that align with

management and governance concerns. Using a taxonomy in conjunction with this document facilitates

better communications among the various stakeholders that are involved in activities like governance,

engineering, operation, and management of these SoS.
© ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved
© IEEE 2019 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO/IEC/IEEE 21840:2019(E)
Figure 1 highlights these relationships.
Figure 1 — Relationship between the standards
5 Key concepts and application
5.1 Differences between systems and SoS

To apply the guidance in the document, it is necessary to understand the differences between systems

[11]

and SoS in which the CS are managerially and operationally independent . Figure 2 shows that an SOI

consists of system elements, some of which could be systems themselves. These systems also consist of

system elements, some of which could be systems and so on. ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288 can be applied to any

of these systems. If SoS were the same as systems, but just on a bigger scale, there would be little need

for additional guidance.

It is important to note that a collection of systems may not be an SoS. For example, Figure 2 shows a

collection of systems and system elements, but is this an SoS?
© ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC/IEEE 21840:2019(E)
NOTE This figure is reproduced from ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288:2015, Figure 2.
Figure 2 — Overview of a system

It is not possible to determine from a hierarchy diagram if a collection of systems is an SoS. Rather

than being described in terms of hierarchies, SoS are often described as general networks as shown in

Figure 3.
Figure 3 — Overview of an SoS

Within an SoS, each CS is an independent system that forms part of an SoS. CS can be part of one or

more SoS. Each CS is a useful system by itself, having its own development, management, utilization,

goals, and resources, but interacts within the SoS to provide the unique capability of the SoS. These

additional attributes are what distinguish SoS from a collection of systems.

The differences between a system and an SoS are not in the physical or hierarchical structure of the

component parts, but rather in the behavioral and managerial characteristics of those parts. The

differences between systems and SoS (and between SE and SoSE) are complex. Table 1 describes

examples of drivers of SE compared with SoSE, while Table 2 and Table 3 describe some of the

differences between systems and SoS. These differences reflect the attributes or characteristics around

which the guidance on the application of ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288 to SoS are framed.
© ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC/IEEE 21840:2019(E)

However, it is important to understand that characteristics differ between system and SoS, and are not

mutually exclusive.
Table 1 — Example drivers of SE and SoSE
SE SoSE
Focus Single complex system Multiple integrated complex systems
Objective Optimization Satisficing, sustainment
Boundaries Static Dynamic
Problem Defined Emergent
Structure Hierarchical Network
Goals Unitary Pluralistic
Timeframe System life cycle Continuous
Centricity Platform Network
Tools Many Few
Management framework Established Various
NOTE This table is adapted from Reference [10].
Table 2 — Examples of differences between systems and SoS
Systems tend to have SoS tend to have
Multiple levels of stakeholders with mixed and possibly
A clear set of stakeholders
competing interests

Clear objectives and purpose Multiple and possibly contradictory objectives and purpose

Clear management structure and clear Disparate management structures with no clear

accountabilities accountability

Clear operational priorities, with escalation to Multiple, and sometimes different, operational priorities

resolve priorities with no clear escalation routes
Multiple lifecycles with elements being implemented
A single life cycle
asynchronously
Clear ownership with the ability to move re-
Multiple owners making individual resourcing decisions
sources between elements
NOTE This table is adapted from Reference [11].
Table 3 — Examples of differences between systems and SoS
Attribute System SoS

Autonomy is ceded by parts to grant Autonomy is retained and exercised by CS while

Autonomy
autonomy to the system. contributing to fulfilling the purpose of the SoS.
While some CS are directed or coerced to belong
to SoS, some CS could be unaware of the SoS.
Parts are akin to family members; they did
Some CS choose to belong on a cost/benefits
Belonging not choose themselves but came from
basis; also, to cause greater fulfillment of their
parents. Belonging of parts is in their nature.
own purposes, and because of belief in the
overarching SoS purpose.

Prescient design, along with parts, with high Dynamically supplied by CS with every

connectivity hidden in elements, and possibility of myriad connections between CS,

Connectivity
minimum connectivity among major possibly via a net-centric architecture, to en-
subsystems. hance SoS capability.
NOTE This table is adapted from Reference [8].
© ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC/IEEE 21840:2019(E)
Table 3 (continued)
Attribute System SoS

Managed i.e. reduced or minimized by Increased diversity in SoS capability achieved by

modular hierarchy; parts’ diversity released autonomy, committed belonging, and
Diversity encapsulated to create a known discrete open connectivity.
module whose nature is to project simplicity
into the next level of the hierarchy.

Foreseen, both good and bad behavior, and Enhanced by deliberately not being foreseen,

designed in or tested out as appropriate. though its crucial importance is, and by

Emergence creating an emergence capability climate, that
will support early detection and elimination of
bad behaviors.
NOTE This table is adapted from Reference [8].
5.2 Managerial and operational independence

ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288:2015, Annex G contains general information on SoS. Details of SoS characteristics

and types in ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288:2015, G.2 are shown in the box.

SoS are characterized by managerial and operational independence of the constituent systems, which

in many cases were developed and continue to support originally identified users concurrently with

users of the SoS. In other contexts, each constituent system itself is a SOI; its existence often predates

the SoS, while its characteristics were originally engineered to meet
...

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