Information technology — JPEG 2000 image coding system — Part 2: Extensions

This document defines a set of lossless (bit-preserving) and lossy compression methods for coding continuous-tone, bi-level, grey-scale, colour digital still images, or multi-component images. This document: – specifies extended decoding processes for converting compressed image data to reconstructed image data; – specifies an extended codestream syntax containing information for interpreting the compressed image data; – specifies an extended file format; – specifies a container to store image metadata; – defines a standard set of image metadata; – provides guidance on extended encoding processes for converting source image data to compressed image data; – provides guidance on how to implement these processes in practice.

Technologies de l'information — Système de codage d'images JPEG 2000 — Partie 2: Extensions

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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 15444-2
Second edition
2021-11
Information technology — JPEG 2000
image coding system —
Part 2:
Extensions
Technologies de l'information — Système de codage d'images JPEG
2000 —
Partie 2: Extensions
Reference number
ISO/IEC 15444-2:2021(E)
© ISO/IEC 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 15444-2:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 15444-2:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical activity.

ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of document should be noted.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details

of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents) or the IEC list of patent

declarations received (see https://patents.iec.ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the World

Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT)

see www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html. In the IEC, see www.iec.ch/understanding-standards.

This document was prepared by ITU-T (as ITU-T REC. T.803) and drafted in accordance with its editorial

rules, in collaboration with Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 29, Coding of audio, picture, multimedia and hypermedia information.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO/IEC 15444-2:2004), which has been

technically revised. It also incorporates the Amendments ISO/IEC 15444-2:2004/Amd 2:2006,

ISO/IEC 15444-2:2004/Amd 3:2015 and ISO/IEC 15444-2:2004/Amd 4:2015 and the Technical

Corrigenda ISO/IEC 15444-2:2004/Cor 3:2005 and ISO/IEC 15444-2:2004/Cor 4:2007.
The main changes are as follows:

— Annex N ("JPX file format extended metadata definition and syntax") is deprecated;

— the Registration Authority specified in M.7, which was never created or used, is cancelled;

— signalling for HTJ2K codestreams, as specified in Rec. ITU-T T.814 | ISO/IEC 15444-15, is added;

— the RLT marker segment is added;
— references have been revised to their currently in-force editions;
— signalling for codestreams that conform to ISO/IEC 21122-1 is added;
— parameterized colourspace is added to the Colour Specification box;
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 15444-2:2021(E)
— outstanding amendments and corrigenda are consolidated; and

— the definition of the CAP marker segment was moved to Rec. ITU-T T.800 (2019) |

ISO/IEC 15444-1:2019.

A list of all parts in the ISO/IEC 15444 series can be found on the ISO and IEC websites.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html and www.iec.ch/national-

committees.
iv © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 15444-2:2021(E)
CONTENTS
Page

1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................. 1

2.1 Identical Recommendations | International Standards....................................................................... 1

2.2 Paired Recommendations | International Standards .......................................................................... 1

2.3 Additional references ....................................................................................................................... 2

3 Definitions.................................................................................................................................................. 2

4 Abbreviations ............................................................................................................................................. 4

5 Conventions ............................................................................................................................................... 4

6 General description ..................................................................................................................................... 4

6.1 Extensions specified by this Recommendation | International Standard ............................................ 5

6.2 Relation between extensions ............................................................................................................ 6

Annex A – Compressed data syntax, extension ...................................................................................................... 8

A.1 Extended capabilities ....................................................................................................................... 8

A.2 Extensions to Rec. ITU-T T.800 | ISO/IEC 15444-1 marker segment parameters ............................. 8

A.3 Extended marker segments .............................................................................................................. 14

Annex B – Variable DC offset, extension .............................................................................................................. 34

B.1 Variable DC offset flow ................................................................................................................... 34

B.2 Inverse DC offset ............................................................................................................................. 34

B.3 Forward DC offset (informative) ..................................................................................................... 34

Annex C – Variable scalar quantization, extension ................................................................................................ 36

C.1 Variable scalar quantization ............................................................................................................. 36

C.2 Variable scalar dequantization for irreversible filters ....................................................................... 36

C.3 Variable scalar quantization for irreversible filters (informative)...................................................... 36

Annex D – Trellis coded quantization extensions................................................................................................... 38

D.1 Introduction to TCQ ........................................................................................................................ 38

D.2 Sequence definition ......................................................................................................................... 39

D.3 Forward TCQ quantization (informative) ......................................................................................... 40

D.4 Inverse quantization (normative) ...................................................................................................... 41

D.5 Lagrangian rate allocation (informative) .......................................................................................... 44

Annex E – Visual masking, extensions .................................................................................................................. 49

E.1 Introduction to visual masking (informative) ................................................................................... 49

E.2 Point-wise extended non-linearity (informative) .............................................................................. 49

E.3 Decoding with visual masking ......................................................................................................... 51

E.4 Encoding with visual masking (informative) .................................................................................... 52

E.5 Setting parameters (informative) ...................................................................................................... 52

E.6 Compatibility with other technologies (informative) ........................................................................ 52

Annex F – Arbitrary decomposition of tile-components, extensions....................................................................... 53

F.1 Wavelet sub-bands ........................................................................................................................... 53

F.2 Equation, text and decomposition updates ........................................................................................ 54

F.3 Inverse discrete wavelet transformation for general decompositions ................................................ 63

F.4 Forward discrete wavelet transformation for general decompositions (informative) ......................... 70

Annex G – Whole-sample symmetric transformation of images, extensions........................................................... 77

G.1 Wavelet transformation parameters, definitions and normalizations ................................................. 77

G.2 Whole-sample symmetric (WS) wavelet transformations reconstruction .......................................... 77

G.3 Whole-sample symmetric (WS) wavelet transformation decomposition (informative) ..................... 80

G.4 Examples of WS wavelet transformations (informative) .................................................................. 82

Annex H – Transformation of images using arbitrary wavelet transformations ...................................................... 85

H.1 Wavelet transformation parameters and normalizations ................................................................... 85

H.2 Arbitrary (ARB) wavelet transformation reconstruction procedures ................................................. 86

H.3 Arbitrary (ARB) wavelet transformation decomposition procedures (informative) ........................... 91

H.4 Examples of ARB wavelet transformations (informative) ................................................................ 94

© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 15444-2:2021(E)
Page

Annex I – Single sample overlap discrete wavelet transform, extensions ............................................................... 98

I.1 Introduction to single sample overlapping ........................................................................................ 98

I.2 The code-block anchor points (CBAP) extension ............................................................................. 98

I.3 The SSO extension .......................................................................................................................... 101

I.4 The TSSO extension ........................................................................................................................ 109

I.5 Combining the SSO and TSSO extensions (informative) ................................................................. 111

Annex J – Multiple component transformations, extension .................................................................................... 112

J.1 Introduction to multiple component transformation concepts ........................................................... 112

J.2 Overview of inverse processing ....................................................................................................... 112

J.3 Transformations ............................................................................................................................... 118

Annex K – Non-linear transformation .................................................................................................................... 128

K.1 Signalling the use of the non-linear transformations ......................................................................... 128

K.2 Non-linear transformation specifications .......................................................................................... 129

Annex L – Region of interest coding and extraction, extensions ............................................................................ 133

L.1 Decoding of ROI ............................................................................................................................. 133

L.2 Description of the Scaling based method.......................................................................................... 133

L.3 Region of interest mask generation .................................................................................................. 134

L.4 Remarks on region of interest coding ............................................................................................... 138

Annex M – JPX extended file format syntax .......................................................................................................... 139

M.1 File format scope ............................................................................................................................. 139

M.2 Introduction to JPX .......................................................................................................................... 139

M.3 Greyscale/Colour/Palette/multi-component specification architecture .............................................. 142

M.4 Fragmenting the codestream between one or more files ................................................................... 143

M.5 Combining multiple codestreams ..................................................................................................... 145

M.6 Using reader requirements masks to determine how a file can be used ............................................. 149

M.7 Extensions to the JPX file format ..................................................................................................... 156

M.8 Differences from the JP2 binary definition ....................................................................................... 157

M.9 Conformance ................................................................................................................................... 157

M.10 Key to graphical descriptions (informative) ..................................................................................... 161

M.11 Defined boxes .................................................................................................................................. 161

M.12 Dealing with unknown boxes ........................................................................................................... 210

M.13 Using the JPX file format in conjunction with other multi-media standards (informative) ................ 211

M.14 Decomposing an XML document into multiple boxes ...................................................................... 211

Annex N – JPX file format extended metadata definition and syntax ..................................................................... 213

N.1 Introduction to extended metadata ................................................................................................... 213

N.2 Additional references for extended metadata .................................................................................... 213

N.3 Scope of metadata definitions .......................................................................................................... 213

N.4 Metadata syntax ............................................................................................................................... 214

N.5 Defined boxes .................................................................................................................................. 215

N.6 Metadata definitions ........................................................................................................................ 217

N.7 Fundamental type and element definitions ....................................................................................... 246

N.8 JPX extended metadata document type definition ............................................................................ 264

N.9 JPX extended metadata XML Schema ............................................................................................. 275

Annex O – Examples and guidelines, extensions ................................................................................................... 293

O.1 Arbitrary decomposition examples ................................................................................................... 293

O.2 Odd Tile Low Pass First (OTLPF) convention ................................................................................. 314

O.3 Multiple component collection example ........................................................................................... 315

O.4 Background to enhancement of quantization .................................................................................... 325

O.5 Wrapping JPEG XR (Rec. ITU-T T.832 | ISO/IEC 29199-2) Codestreams by the JPX file format ... 326

O.6 Representing floating point numbers within JPEG 2000................................................................... 328

O.7 Working with ROI Description boxes .............................................................................................. 329

© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
vi Rec. ITU-T T.801 (06/2021)
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ISO/IEC 15444-2:2021(E)
Page

Annex P – Block coder extensions ......................................................................................................................... 331

P.1 Selective arithmetic coding bypass (lazy mode) ............................................................................... 331

P.2 Enhancement of selective arithmetic coding bypass (fast mode) ...................................................... 331

Bibliography ......................................................................................................................................................... 333

List of Tables

Table A.1 – Syntax support for extensions ............................................................................................................. 8

Table A.2 – Capability Rsiz parameter, extended ................................................................................................... 9

Table A.3 – Start of tile-part parameter values, extended ....................................................................................... 9

Table A.4 – Number of tile-parts, TNsot, parameter value, extended ..................................................................... 9

Table A.5 – Coding style parameter values for the Scod parameter ........................................................................ 10

Table A.6 – Coding style parameter values of the SGcod parameter ...................................................................... 10

Table A.7 – Coding style parameter values of the SPcod and SPcoc parameters, extended..................................... 11

Table A.8 – Multiple component transformation for the SGcod parameters ........................................................... 11

Table A.9 – Decomposition for the SPcod and SPcoc parameters, extended .......................................................... 11

Table A.10 – Transformation for the SPcod and SPcoc parameters, extended ........................................................ 11

Table A.11 – SSO parameters, extended ................................................................................................................ 12

Table A.11bis – SXcod parameter ......................................................................................................................... 12

Table A.12 – Quantization default values for the Sqcd, Sqcc, Sqpd, and Sqpc parameters, extended ...................... 13

Table A.13 – Quantization values (irreversible transformation only), extended ...................................................... 13

Table A.14 – SPqcd, SPqcc, SPqpd, and SPqpc parameters (irreversible transformation only), extended ............... 13

Table A.15 – SPqcd, SPqcc, SPqpd, and SPqpc parameters (irreversible transformation only), extended ............... 14

Table A.16 – Region-of-interest parameter values for the Srgn parameter .............................................................. 14

Table A.17 – Component index parameter value for the Crgn parameter ............................................................... 14

Table A.18 – Region-of-interest values from SPrgn parameter (Srgn = 1 or Srgn = 2) ........................................... 14

Table A.19 – List of markers and marker segments ............................................................................................... 15

Table A.20 – Variable DC offset parameter values ................................................................................................ 16

Table A.21 – Variable DC offset parameter values for the Sdco parameter ............................................................ 16

Table A.22 – Visual masking parameter values ..................................................................................................... 17

Table A.23 – Component parameter value for the Cvms parameter ........................................................................ 17

Table A.24 – Visual masking for the Svms parameters .......................................................................................... 17

Table A.25 – Downsampling factor styles parameter values .................................................................................. 18

Table A.26 – Arbitrary decomposition styles parameter values .............................................................................. 19

Table A.27 – Arbitrary transformation parameter values........................................................................................ 20

Table A.28 – Arbitrary transformation values for the Satk parameter ..................................................................... 21

Table A.29 –Component bit depth definition parameter values .............................................................................. 22

Table A.30 – Component bit depth definition values for the Ncbd parameter ......................................................... 22

Table A.31 – Component bit depth definition values for the BDcbd parameter ..................................................... 22

Table A.32 – Multiple component transformation definition parameter values ....................................................... 23

Table A.33 – Multiple component transformation definition values for the Imct parameter.................................... 23

Table A.34 – Multiple component collection parameter values .............................................................................. 25

Table A.35 – Multiple component collection values for the Xmcc parameter ........................................................ 25

Table A.36 – Multiple component collection values for the Nmcc parameter ........................................................ 25

Table A.37 – Multiple component collection values for the Mmcc parameter ....................................................... 25

© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
Rec. ITU-T T.801 (06/2021) vii
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 15444-2:2021(E)
Page

Table A.38 – Multiple component collection values for the Tmcc parameter (array-based) ................................... 26

Table A.39 – Multiple component collection values for the Tmcc parameter (wavelet-based) ............................... 26

Table A.40 – Multiple component intermediate collection parameter values .......................................................... 27

Table A.41 – Non-linearity transformation parameter values ................................................................................. 28

Table A.42 – Non-linearity transformation parameter values for the Cnlt parameter .............................................. 28

Table A.43 – Decoded image component bit depth parameter values for the BDnlt parameter ............................... 28

Table A.44 – Non-linearity transformation parameter values of the Tnlt parameter ................................................ 28

Table A.45 – Non-linearity transformation parameter values of the STnlt parameter (Tnlt = 1).............................. 29

Table A.46 – Non-linearity transformation parameter values of the STnlt parameter (Tnlt = 2).............................. 29

Table A.47 – Quantization default, precinct parameter values ................................................................................ 30

Table A.48 – Quantization precinct component parameter values .......................................................................... 32

Table A.49 – Ccap syntax and semantics .............................................................................................................. 32

Table A.50 – Precinct length, tile-part header parameter values ............................................................................. 33

Table A.51 – Srlt values and semantics .................................................................................................................. 33

i 31

Table A.52 – Semantics of Jrlt values when Srlt is in the range [0, 2 – 1] ........................................................... 33

Table D.1 – Parent LUTs for k > 0 in the trellis of Figure D.3................................................................................ 41

Table D.2 – Description of functional blocks in Figure D.4 ................................................................................... 41

Table D.3 – Description of functional blocks in Figure D.5 ................................................................................... 42

Table D.4 – Look-up table for A(s) ........................................................................................................................ 43

Table D.5 – Look-up table for S(s,q ) .................................................................................................................... 43

Table D.6 – Description of functional blocks for Figure D.6 .................................................................................. 44

Table D.7 – Sub-band statistics required for LRA .................................................................................................. 45

Table D.8 –  parameters for TCQ ....................................................................................................................... 45

Table D.9 –  parameters for TCQ ...................................................................................................................... 45

Table D.10 –  parameters for SQ ....................................................................................................................... 46

Table D.11 –  parameters for SQ ....................................................................................................................... 46

Table D.12 – Description of functional blocks in Figure D.7 ................................................................................. 48

Table F.1 – Updates to contexts for significance propagation and cleanup coding passes ....................................... 55

Table F.2 – Quantities for sub-band info calculation .............................................................................................. 59

Table F.3 – S(a
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
DRAFT
STANDARD FDIS
15444-2
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29
Information technology — JPEG 2000
Secretariat: JISC
image coding system —
Voting begins on:
2021-07-22
Part 2:
Voting terminates on:
Extensions
2021-09-16
Technologies de l'information — Système de codage d'images JPEG
2000 —
Partie 2: Extensions
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/IEC FDIS 15444-2:2021(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO/IEC 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC FDIS 15444-2:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC FDIS 15444-2:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical activity.

ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of document should be noted (see www.iso.org/directives or
www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details

of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents) or the IEC list of patent

declarations received (see patents.iec.ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the World

Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT)

see www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html. In the IEC, see www.iec.ch/understanding-standards.

This document was prepared by ITU-T as Rec. ITU-T T.801 and drafted in accordance with its editorial

rules, in collaboration with Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 29, Coding of audio, picture, multimedia and hypermedia information.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO/IEC 15444-2:2004), which has been

technically revised. It also incorporates the Amendments ISO/IEC 15444-2:2004/Amd 2:2006,

ISO/IEC 15444-2:2004/Amd 3:2015 and ISO/IEC 15444-2:2004/Amd 4:2015 and the Technical

Corrigenda ISO/IEC 15444-2:2004/Cor 3:2005 and ISO/IEC 15444-2:2004/Cor 4:2007.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— signalling for HTJ2K codestreams, as specified in Rec. ITU-T T.814 | ISO/IEC 15444-15, is added;

— the RLT marker segment is added;
— signalling for codestreams that conform to ISO/IEC 21122-1 is added;
— parameterized colourspace is added to the Colour Specification box;
— outstanding amendments and corrigenda are consolidated; and

— the definition of the CAP marker segment is removed, having been moved to Rec. ITU-T T.800

(2019) | ISO/IEC 15444-1:2019.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/IEC FDIS 15444-2:2021(E)

A list of all parts in the ISO/IEC 15444 series can be found on the ISO and IEC websites.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html and www.iec.ch/national-

committees.
iv © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/IEC FDIS 15444-2:2021(E)
CONTENTS

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................................................ 1

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 1

2.1 Identical Recommendations | International Standards ....................................................................... 1

2.2 Additional references ......................................................................................................................... 2

3 Definitions .................................................................................................................................................... 3

4 Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................................ 5

5 Symbols ........................................................................................................................................................ 5

6 General description ....................................................................................................................................... 6

6.1 Extensions specified by this Recommendation | International Standard ........................................... 6

6.1.1 Syntax .................................................................................................................................. 6

6.1.2 Variable DC offset ............................................................................................................... 6

6.1.3 Variable scalar quantization ................................................................................................ 6

6.1.4 Trellis coded quantization ................................................................................................... 7

6.1.5 Visual masking .................................................................................................................... 7

6.1.6 Arbitrary decomposition ...................................................................................................... 7

6.1.7 Arbitrary wavelet transformation ........................................................................................ 7

6.1.8 Single sample overlap discrete wavelet transformations ..................................................... 7

6.1.9 Multiple component transformations ................................................................................... 7

6.1.10 Non-linear transformation ................................................................................................... 7

6.1.11 Region of interest ................................................................................................................ 8

6.1.12 File format ........................................................................................................................... 8

6.1.13 Metadata definitions ............................................................................................................ 8

6.2 Relation between extensions ............................................................................................................. 8

A.1 Extended capabilities ....................................................................................................................... 10

A.2 Extensions to Rec. ITU-T T.800 | ISO/IEC 15444-1 marker segment parameters .......................... 11

A.2.1 Image and tile size (SIZ), extended ................................................................................... 11

A.2.2 Start of tile-part (SOT) extended ....................................................................................... 11

A.2.3 Coding style (COD, COC), extended ................................................................................ 12

A.2.4 Quantization (QCD, QCC), extended ................................................................................ 15

A.2.5 Region of interest marker (RGN), extended ...................................................................... 17

A.3 Extended marker segments .............................................................................................................. 18

A.3.1 Variable DC offset (DCO) ................................................................................................. 18

A.3.2 Visual masking (VMS) ...................................................................................................... 20

A.3.3 Downsampling factor styles (DFS) ................................................................................... 21

A.3.4 Arbitrary decomposition styles (ADS) .............................................................................. 21

A.3.5 Arbitrary transformation kernels (ATK) ........................................................................... 22

A.3.6 Component bit depth definition (CBD) ............................................................................. 25

A.3.7 Multiple component transformation definition (MCT)...................................................... 26

A.3.8 Multiple component transform collection (MCC) ............................................................. 27

A.3.9 Multiple component transform ordering (MCO) ............................................................... 30

A.3.10 Non-linearity point transformation (NLT) ......................................................................... 31

A.3.11 Quantization default, precinct (QPD) ................................................................................ 33

A.3.12 Quantization precinct component (QPC) ........................................................................... 35

A.3.13 Extended capabilities (CAP) ............................................................................................. 36

A.3.14 Precinct length, tile-part header (RLT) .............................................................................. 36

B.1 Variable DC offset flow .................................................................................................................. 39

B.2 Inverse DC offset ............................................................................................................................. 39

B.3 Forward DC offset (informative) ..................................................................................................... 39

C.1 Variable scalar quantization ............................................................................................................ 41

C.2 Variable scalar dequantization for irreversible filters ...................................................................... 41

C.3 Variable scalar quantization for irreversible filters (informative) ................................................... 42

D.1 Introduction to TCQ ........................................................................................................................ 43

D.2 Sequence definition ......................................................................................................................... 45

D.3 Forward TCQ quantization (informative) ........................................................................................ 45

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/IEC FDIS 15444-2:2021(E)

D.4 Inverse quantization (normative) .................................................................................................... 47

D.4.1 Full TCQ dequantization ................................................................................................... 47

D.4.2 Approximate dequantization ............................................................................................. 49

D.5 Lagrangian rate allocation (informative) ......................................................................................... 50

E.1 Introduction to visual masking (informative) .................................................................................. 55

E.2 Point-wise extended non-linearity (informative) ............................................................................ 55

E.3 Decoding with visual masking ........................................................................................................ 57

E.4 Encoding with visual masking (informative) .................................................................................. 58

E.5 Setting parameters (informative) ..................................................................................................... 58

E.6 Compatibility with other technologies (informative) ...................................................................... 59

F.1 Wavelet sub-bands .......................................................................................................................... 60

F.1.1 Tier 1: Number of decomposition levels ........................................................................... 60

F.1.2 Tier 2: Resolution formation ............................................................................................. 60

F.1.3 Tier 3: Sub-level decompositions...................................................................................... 60

F.1.4 Tier 4: Horizontal and vertical splits to variable sub-level depths .................................... 60

F.1.5 Complete sub-band notation ............................................................................................. 61

F.1.6 HorOrient, VerOrient and PrimeOrient sub-band operators ............................................. 61

F.2 Equation, text and decomposition updates ...................................................................................... 62

F.2.1 Updates to N LL references ............................................................................................. 62

F.2.2 Context updates ................................................................................................................. 62

F.2.3 Extension to Rec. ITU-T T.800 (2019/06) | ISO/IEC 15444-1:2019, Equation B-14 ....... 62

F.2.4 Remaining updates ............................................................................................................ 63

F.2.5 Updates to decomposition structure .................................................................................. 67

F.3 Inverse discrete wavelet transformation for general decompositions .............................................. 72

F.3.1 Modified IDWT procedure ............................................................................................... 73

F.3.2 Modified 2D_SR procedure .............................................................................................. 74

F.3.3 Modified 2D_INTERLEAVE procedure .......................................................................... 75

F.4 Forward discrete wavelet transformation for general decompositions (informative) ...................... 79

F.4.1 Modified FDWT procedure .............................................................................................. 79

F.4.2 Modified 2D_SD procedure .............................................................................................. 80

F.4.3 Modified 2D_DEINTERLEAVE procedure ..................................................................... 81

G.1 Wavelet transformation parameters, definitions and normalizations .............................................. 86

G.2 Whole-sample symmetric (WS) wavelet transformations reconstruction ....................................... 86

G.2.1 Normalization of WS wavelet transformations ................................................................. 86

G.2.2 One-dimensional sub-band reconstruction procedure for WS wavelet transformations ... 87

G.3 Whole-sample symmetric (WS) wavelet transformation decomposition (informative) .................. 89

G.3.1 The 1D_SD_WS procedure (informative) ........................................................................ 90

G.3.2 The 1D_FILTD_WS one-dimensional decomposition procedure (informative) .............. 90

G.4 Examples of WS wavelet transformations (informative) ................................................................ 92

G.4.1 Reversible WS wavelet transformations (WT_Typ = REV) (informative) ........................ 92

G.4.2 Irreversible WS wavelet transformations (WT_Typ = IRR) (informative) ........................ 93

H.1 Wavelet transformation parameters and normalizations ................................................................. 95

H.1.1 Normalization of ARB wavelet transformations ............................................................... 95

H.1.2 Compatibility of ARB and WS wavelet transformations .................................................. 95

H.2 Arbitrary (ARB) wavelet transformation reconstruction procedures .............................................. 96

H.2.1 The extended 1D_SR_ARB procedure ............................................................................. 96

H.2.2 The 1D_SCALER procedure ............................................................................................ 97

H.2.3 The 1D_STEPR procedure ................................................................................................ 98

H.2.4 Extension procedures ........................................................................................................ 98

H.2.5 One-dimensional reconstruction update filtering procedures .......................................... 100

H.3 Arbitrary (ARB) wavelet transformation decomposition procedures (informative) ..................... 101

H.3.1 Extended 1D_SD_ARB procedure (informative) ........................................................... 101

H.3.2 The 1D_STEPD procedure (informative) ....................................................................... 102

H.3.3 Extension procedures (informative) ................................................................................ 103

H.3.4 One-dimensional decomposition update procedures (informative)................................. 103

H.3.5 1D_SCALED procedure (informative) ........................................................................... 104

H.4 Examples of ARB wavelet transformations (informative) ............................................................ 104

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H.4.1 Examples of arbitrary wavelet transformations (Filt_Cat = ARB) (informative) ............ 105

H.4.2 Example of a structure for lifting implementation of half-sample symmetric wavelet

transformations (informative) .......................................................................................... 107

I.1 Introduction to single sample overlapping ..................................................................................... 109

I.2 The code-block anchor points (CBAP) extension ......................................................................... 109

I.2.1 Division of resolution levels in precincts ........................................................................ 109

I.2.2 Division of the sub-bands into codeblocks ...................................................................... 111

I.2.3 Resolution level-position-component-layer progression ................................................. 112

I.2.4 Position-component-resolution level-layer progression .................................................. 112

I.2.5 Component-position-resolution level-layer progression.................................................. 112

I.3 The SSO extension ........................................................................................................................ 113

I.3.1 Single sample overlap inverse discrete wavelet transformation (SSO-IDWT)................ 113

I.3.2 Single sample overlap forward discrete wavelet transformation (informative) ............... 117

I.3.3 Selection of single sample overlap parameters (informative) .......................................... 119

I.3.4 SSO examples (informative) ........................................................................................... 120

I.4 The TSSO extension ...................................................................................................................... 122

I.4.1 Signalling for the TSSO .................................................................................................. 122

I.4.2 Partitioning of the image into single-sample overlapping tiles ....................................... 122

I.4.3 Reconstruction of images samples from reconstructed tiles ............................................ 123

I.5 Combining the SSO and TSSO extensions (informative) .............................................................. 123

J.1 Introduction to multiple component transformation concepts ....................................................... 124

J.2 Overview of inverse processing..................................................................................................... 125

J.2.1 Inverse multiple component transformation (MCO_TRANSFORM) ............................. 125

J.2.2 Multiple component transformation stage (MCC_TRANS) ............................................ 127

J.2.3 Transformation component collection (CC_TRANS) ..................................................... 128

J.3 Transformations ............................................................................................................................. 131

J.3.1 Array-based transforms ................................................................................................... 131

J.3.2 Wavelet-based transformation ......................................................................................... 139

K.1 Signalling the use of the non-linear transformations ..................................................................... 141

K.1.1 Decoded component reconstruction ................................................................................ 141

K.1.2 Bit depth and interaction with the multiple component transformation .......................... 141

K.1.3 Marker interpretation ....................................................................................................... 142

K.2 Non-linear transformation specifications....................................................................................... 142

K.2.1 Gamma-style non-linearity .............................................................................................. 142

K.2.2 LUT-style reverse non-linearity transformation .............................................................. 144

K.2.3 Binary complement to sign-magnitude conversion transformation ................................. 145

L.1 Decoding of ROI ........................................................................................................................... 146

L.2 Description of the Scaling based method ...................................................................................... 146

L.2.1 Encoding with ROI (informative) .................................................................................... 146

L.3 Region of interest mask generation ............................................................................................... 147

L.3.1 Rectangular mask generation on the reference grid ......................................................... 148

L.3.2 Elliptic mask generation on the reference grid ................................................................ 148

L.3.3 Region of Interest mask generation of whole-sample symmetric filter banks ................. 149

L.3.4 Region of Interest mask generation of arbitrary optional filter banks ............................. 149

L.3.5 Fast generation of a rectangular mask (informative) ....................................................... 150

L.4 Remarks on region of interest coding ............................................................................................ 152

L.4.1 Usage together with Maxshift method described in ITU-T T.800 | ISO/IEC 15444-1 .... 152

L.4.2 Multi-component remark (informative) ........................................................................... 152

L.4.3 Implementation Precision remark (informative) .............................................................. 152

M.1 File format scope ........................................................................................................................... 153

M.2 Introduction to JPX ........................................................................................................................ 153

M.2.1 File identification ............................................................................................................ 153

M.2.2 File organization .............................................................................................................. 154

M.2.3 Greyscale/Colour/multi-component specification ........................................................... 154

M.2.4 Specification of opacity information ............................................................................... 154

M.2.5 Metadata .......................................................................................................................... 154

M.2.6 Storage of a codestream within JPX ................................................................................ 154

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M.2.7 Combining multiple codestreams .................................................................................... 155

M.2.8 Support for various pixel formats ................................................................................... 155

M.2.9 Support for JPEG XR codestreams ................................................................................. 155

M.3 Greyscale/Colour/Palette/multi-component specification architecture ......................................... 156

M.3.1 Extensions to the Colour Specification box header......................................................... 156

M.3.2 Extensions to the Enumerated method ............................................................................ 156

M.3.3 Any ICC method ............................................................................................................. 157

M.3.4 Vendor Colour method.................................................................................................... 157

M.3.5 Palettized colour .............................................................................................................. 157

M.3.6 Using multiple methods .................................................................................................. 157

M.3.7 Interactions with the decorrelating multiple component transformation ......................... 157

M.4 Fragmenting the codestream between one or more files ............................................................... 157

M.5 Combining multiple codestreams .................................................................................................. 159

M.5.1 Mapping codestreams to compositing layers .................................................................. 160

M.5.2 Sharing header and metadata information between codestreams and compositing layers161

M.5.3 Composition .................................................................................................................... 162

M.6 Using reader requirements masks to determine how a file can be used ........................................ 164

M.6.1 Types of expressions ....................................................................................................... 164

M.6.2 Expression representation ............................................................................................... 165

M.6.3 Testing an Implementation against requirements expressions ........................................ 170

M.7 Extensions to the JPX file format ..................................................................................................

...

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