Information technology — JPEG 2000 image coding system — Part 4: Conformance Testing

This Recommendation | International Standard specifies the framework, concepts, methodology for testing, and criteria to be achieved to claim compliance to Rec. ITU-T T.800 | ISO/IEC 15444-1 or Rec. ITU-T T.814 | ISO/IEC 15444-15. It provides a framework for specifying abstract test suites (ATSs) and for defining the procedures to be followed during compliance testing. This Recommendation | International Standard: ‒ specifies compliance testing procedures for encoding and decoding using Rec. ITU-T T.800 | ISO/IEC 15444-1 and Rec. ITU-T T.814 | ISO/IEC 15444-15; ‒ specifies codestreams, decoded images, and error metrics to be used with the testing procedures; ‒ specifies ATSs; ‒ provides guidance for creating an encoder compliance test This Recommendation | International Standard does not include the following tests: Acceptance testing: the process of determining whether an implementation satisfies acceptance criteria and enables the user to determine whether or not to accept the implementation. This includes the planning and execution of several kinds of tests (e.g., functionality, quality, and speed performance testing) that demonstrate that the implementation satisfies the user requirements. Performance testing: measures the performance characteristics of an implementation under test (IUT) such as its throughput and responsiveness, under various conditions. Robustness testing: the process of determining how well an implementation processes data which contains errors.

Technologies de l'information — Système de codage d'images JPEG 2000 — Partie 4: Tests de conformité

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6060 - International Standard published
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 15444-4
Third edition
2021-10
Information technology — JPEG 2000
image coding system —
Part 4:
Conformance Testing
Technologies de l'information — Système de codage d'images JPEG
2000 —
Partie 4: Tests de conformité
Reference number
ISO/IEC 15444-4:2021(E)
© ISO/IEC 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 15444-4:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 15444-4:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical activity.

ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of document should be noted.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details

of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents) or the IEC list of patent

declarations received (see https://patents.iec.ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the World

Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT)

see www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html. In the IEC, see www.iec.ch/understanding-standards.

This document was prepared by ITU-T (as ITU-T REC. T.803) and drafted in accordance with its editorial

rules, in collaboration with Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 29, Coding of audio, picture, multimedia and hypermedia information.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO/IEC 15444-4:2004), which has been

technically revised.
The main changes are as follows:

— addition of the criteria to be achieved to claim compliance with Rec. ITU-T 814 | ISO/IEC 15444-15.

A list of all parts in the ISO/IEC 15444 series can be found on the ISO and IEC websites.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html and www.iec.ch/national-

committees.
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/IEC 15444-4:2021(E)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................................................ 1

2 References .................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Definitions .................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviations and symbols .......................................................................................................................... 4

4.1 Abbreviations .................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Symbols ............................................................................................................................................. 5

5 Conventions .................................................................................................................................................. 6

6 General description ....................................................................................................................................... 6

6.1 Profiles, derived sets and compliance classes ................................................................................... 7

6.2 Decoders ............................................................................................................................................ 8

6.3 Encoders and codestreams ................................................................................................................ 8

6.4 Implementation compliance statement .............................................................................................. 8

6.5 Abstract test suites ............................................................................................................................. 9

6.6 Encoder compliance testing procedure .............................................................................................. 9

6.7 Decoder compliance testing procedure ............................................................................................. 9

7 Copyright ...................................................................................................................................................... 9

8 Compliance files availability and updates .................................................................................................... 9

Annex A Decoder compliance classes .................................................................................................................. 10

A.1 Compliance class parameter definitions .......................................................................................... 10

A.1.1 Profile: codestream guarantees.......................................................................................... 10

A.1.2 H, W, C: Image size guarantees ......................................................................................... 10

A.1.3 N : Code-block parsing guarantee .................................................................................... 11

A.1.4 N : Component parsing guarantee ................................................................................ 11

comp

A.1.5 L : Coded data buffering guarantee ............................................................................... 11

body

A.1.6 M: Decoded bit-plane guarantee ....................................................................................... 12

A.1.7 P: 9-7I precision guarantee ............................................................................................... 12

A.1.8 B: 5-3R precision guarantee .............................................................................................. 12

A.1.9 T : Transform level guarantee ........................................................................................... 12

A.1.10 L: Layer guarantee ............................................................................................................ 12

A.1.11 Progressions ...................................................................................................................... 12

A.1.12 Tile-parts ........................................................................................................................... 13

A.1.13 Precincts ............................................................................................................................ 13

A.1.14 M : Magnitude bound guarantee ................................................................................. 13

MAGB

A.2 Compliance class definitions ........................................................................................................... 13

A.3 Lossless encoding and decoding ..................................................................................................... 14

Annex B Decoder compliance testing procedures ................................................................................................ 15

B.1 General ............................................................................................................................................ 15

B.2 Decoder test procedure .................................................................................................................... 15

B.2.1 Files for testing .................................................................................................................. 16

B.2.2 Decoder settings ................................................................................................................ 16

B.2.3 Output file format conversion ........................................................................................... 16

B.2.4 Compare decoded and formatted components with reference components ...................... 18

B.2.5 Compare error metrics with specification ......................................................................... 18

B.2.6 Reference components file format .................................................................................... 19

Annex C Compliance tests .................................................................................................................................... 20

C.1 Abstract test suite (informative) ...................................................................................................... 20

C.1.1 Syntax and compressed data order .................................................................................... 20

C.1.2 Arithmetic entropy encoding ............................................................................................. 20

C.1.3 Coefficient bit modelling .................................................................................................. 21

C.1.4 Quantization ...................................................................................................................... 21

C.1.5 Discrete wavelet transform ............................................................................................... 21

C.1.6 DC level shift and multiple component transform ............................................................ 21

C.1.7 Region of interest .............................................................................................................. 21

C.1.8 JP2 file format ................................................................................................................... 22

Rec. ITU-T T.803 (06/2021) v
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ISO/IEC 15444-4:2021(E)

C.1.9 High throughput cleanup pass coding ............................................................................... 22

C.1.10 HT refinement pass coding ............................................................................................... 22

C.1.11 Placeholder passes ............................................................................................................. 22

C.1.12 Mixing of HT and J2K code-blocks within HTJ2K codestreams ..................................... 22

C.1.13 JPH File format ................................................................................................................. 22

C.2 Executable test suite ........................................................................................................................ 23

C.2.1 Class 0 Profile-0 ................................................................................................................ 23

C.2.2 Class 0 Profile-1 ................................................................................................................ 27

C.2.3 Class 1 Profile-0 ................................................................................................................ 28

C.2.4 Class 1 Profile-1 ................................................................................................................ 29

Annex D Encoder compliance test procedure ....................................................................................................... 31

D.1 General ............................................................................................................................................ 31

D.2 Reference decoder ........................................................................................................................... 31

D.3 Compliance requirement and acceptance ........................................................................................ 31

D.4 Encoding compliance test procedure ............................................................................................... 31

Annex E Decoder implementation compliance statement .................................................................................... 33

E.1 General ............................................................................................................................................ 33

E.2 Decoder implementation compliance statement .............................................................................. 33

E.3 Extended support ............................................................................................................................. 33

Annex F Encoder implementation compliance statement ..................................................................................... 36

F.1 General ............................................................................................................................................ 36

F.2 Encoder description ......................................................................................................................... 36

Annex G JP2 and JPH file format reader compliance testing procedures ............................................................. 38

G.1 General ............................................................................................................................................ 38

G.2 JP2 file compliance requirement and acceptance ............................................................................ 38

G.3 Reading a JP2 file compliance test procedure ................................................................................. 38

G.4 JP2 file format test codestreams and images ................................................................................... 39

G.4.1 Test files ............................................................................................................................ 39

G.4.2 Reference decoded images ................................................................................................ 39

G.4.3 Tolerances ......................................................................................................................... 39

G.4.4 Additional information regarding the JP2 test files ........................................................... 40

G.5 JPH file format test codestreams and images .................................................................................. 41

G.5.1 Test files ............................................................................................................................ 41

G.5.2 Relationship between the JP2 and JPH test files ............................................................... 41

vi Rec. ITU-T T.803 (06/2021)
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ISO/IEC 15444-4:2021 (E)
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ITU-T RECOMMENDATION
Information technology –
JPEG 2000 image coding system: Conformance testing
1 Scope

This Recommendation | International Standard specifies the framework, concepts, methodology for testing, and criteria

to be achieved to claim compliance to Rec. ITU-T T.800 | ISO/IEC 15444-1 or Rec. ITU-T T.814 | ISO/IEC 15444-15.

It provides a framework for specifying abstract test suites (ATSs) and for defining the procedures to be followed during

compliance testing.
This Recommendation | International Standard:

‒ specifies compliance testing procedures for encoding and decoding using Rec. ITU-T T.800 |

ISO/IEC 15444-1 and Rec. ITU-T T.814 | ISO/IEC 15444-15;

‒ specifies codestreams, decoded images, and error metrics to be used with the testing procedures;

‒ specifies ATSs;
‒ provides guidance for creating an encoder compliance test

This Recommendation | International Standard does not include the following tests:

Acceptance testing: the process of determining whether an implementation satisfies acceptance criteria and enables the

user to determine whether or not to accept the implementation. This includes the planning and execution of several

kinds of tests (e.g., functionality, quality, and speed performance testing) that demonstrate that the implementation

satisfies the user requirements.

Performance testing: measures the performance characteristics of an implementation under test (IUT) such as its

throughput and responsiveness, under various conditions.

Robustness testing: the process of determining how well an implementation processes data which contains errors.

2 References

The following Recommendations and International Standards contain provisions which, through reference in this text,

constitute provisions of this Recommendation | International Standard. At the time of publication, the editions indicated

were valid. All Recommendations and Standards are subject to revision, and parties to agreements based on this

Recommendation | International Standard are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent

edition of the Recommendations and Standards listed below. Members of IEC and ISO maintain registers of currently

valid International Standards. The Telecommunication Standardization Bureau of the ITU maintains a list of currently

valid ITU-T Recommendations.

– Recommendation ITU-T T.800 (2019) | ISO/IEC 15444-1:2019, Information technology – JPEG 2000

image coding system: Core coding system.

– Recommendation ITU-T T.814 (2019) | ISO/IEC 15444-15:2019, Information technology – JPEG 2000

image coding system: High-throughput JPEG 2000.
3 Definitions

For the purposes of this Recommendation | International Standard, the terms and definitions given in

Rec. ITU-T T.800 | ISO/IEC 15444-1, Rec. ITU-T T.814 | ISO/IEC 15444-15 and the following apply.

3.1 abstract test suite (ATS): Generic compliance testing concepts and procedures for a given requirement.

3.2 arithmetic coder: An entropy coder that converts variable length strings to variable length codes (encoding)

and vice versa (decoding).
3.3 big endian: An order of bytes with the most significant byte first.

3.4 bit: A contraction of the term "binary digit"; a unit of information represented by a 0 or a 1.

3.5 bit-depth: The number of bits required to represent an original component of an image.

Rec. ITU-T T.803 (06/2021) 1
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ISO/IEC 15444-4:2021 (E)

3.6 bit-plane: A two-dimensional array of bits. In this Recommendation | International Standard, a bit-plane

refers to all the bits of the same magnitude in all coefficients or samples. This could refer to a bit-plane in a component,

tile- component, code-block, region of interest, or other.

3.7 bitstream: The actual sequence of bits resulting from the coding of a sequence of symbols. It does not include

the markers or marker segments in the main and tile-part headers or the end of codestream marker. It does include any

packet headers and in stream markers and marker segments not found within the main or tile-part headers.

3.8 box: A portion of the file format defined by a length and unique box type. Boxes of some types may contain

other boxes.
3.9 byte: Eight bits.

3.10 Cclass: Defines a level of performance for a decoder. Also provides guidance for encoders to produce

codestreams that are easily decodable by compliant decoders.

3.11 code-block: A rectangular grouping of coefficients from the same sub-band of a tile-component.

3.12 coder: An embodiment of either an encoding or decoding process.

3.13 codestream: A collection of one or more bitstreams and the main header, tile-part headers, and the end of

codestream required for their decoding and expansion into image data. This is the image data in a compressed form with

all of the signalling needed to decode. This does not include the file format.

3.14 coding pass: A procedure accessing coefficients in a code-block where the context and bit are determined.

Typically, there are three different coding passes for each bit-plane, each coefficient will be represented in exactly one

of the three passes. For an encoder a coding pass examines coefficients and augments a bitstream. For a decoder a

coding pass reads a bitstream and updates coefficients.
3.15 coefficient: The values that are the result of a transformation.

3.16 component: A two-dimensional array of samples. An image typically consists of several components (e.g.,

red, green, and blue).

3.17 compressed image data: Part or all of a codestream. Can also refer to a collection of bitstreams in part or all

of a codestream.

3.18 compliance: Fulfilment of the specified requirements, as defined in this Recommendation | International

Standard, for a given Profile and Cclass.
3.19 compliance test procedure: The process of assessing compliance.

3.20 context: Function of coefficients previously decoded and used to condition the decoding of the present

coefficient.

3.21 decoder: An embodiment of a decoding process, and optionally a colour transformation process.

3.22 decoding process: A process that takes as its input all or part of a codestream and outputs all or part of a

reconstructed image.

3.23 decomposition level: A collection of wavelet sub-bands where each coefficient has the same spatial impact or

span with respect to the source component samples. These include all sub-bands of the same two-dimensional sub-band

decomposition. For the last decomposition level, the LL sub-band is also included.

3.24 discrete wavelet transformation (DWT): A transformation that iteratively transforms one signal into two or

more filtered and decimated signals corresponding to different frequency bands. This transformation operates on

spatially discrete samples.

3.25 encoder: An embodiment of an encoding process, and optionally a colour transformation process.

3.26 encoding process: A process that takes as its input all or part of a source image data and outputs a

codestream.

3.27 executable test suite (ETS): Set of executable test cases that support the abstract test cases.

3.28 file format: A codestream and additional support data and information not explicitly required for the

decoding of the codestream. Examples of such support data include text fields providing titling, security and historical

information, data to support placement of multiple codestreams within a given data file, and data to support exchange

between platforms or conversion to other file formats.

3.29 fully decode: Applying Rec. ITU-T T.800 | ISO/IEC 15444-1 to produce an image from a codestream where

all coded data in the codestream has been used to produce the image.
2 Rec. ITU-T T.803 (06/2021)
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ISO/IEC 15444-4:2021 (E)

3.30 guard bits: Additional most significant bits that have been added to sample data.

3.31 header: Either a part of the codestream that contains only markers and marker segments (main header and tile

part header) or the signalling part of a packet (packet header).
3.32 image: The set of all components.

3.33 image data: The component samples making up an image. Image data can refer to either the source image

data or the reconstructed image data.
3.34 implementation: A realization of a specification.

3.35 implementation compliance statement (ICS): Statement of specification options and the extent to which

they have been implemented by an implementation under test.

3.36 implementation under test (IUT): An implementation that is being evaluated for compliance.

3.37 irreversible: A transformation, progression, system, quantization, or other process that, due to systemic or

quantization error, prevents lossless recovery.

3.38 JP2 file: The name of a file in the file format described in this Recommendation | International Standard.

Structurally, a JP2 file is a contiguous sequence of boxes.

3.39 JPEG: Joint Photographic Experts Group – The joint ISO/ITU committee responsible for developing

standards for continuous-tone still picture coding. It also refers to the standards produced by this committee:

Rec. ITU-T T.81 | ISO/IEC 10918-1, Rec. ITU-T T.83 | ISO/IEC 10918-2, Rec. ITU-T T.84 | ISO/IEC 10918-3 and

Rec. ITU-T T.87 | ISO/IEC 14495-1.

3.40 LL sub-band: The sub-band obtained by forward horizontal low-pass filtering and vertical low-pass filtering.

This sub-band contributes to reconstruction with inverse vertical low-pass filtering and horizontal low-pass filtering.

3.41 layer: A collection of compressed image data from coding passes of one, or more, code-blocks of a tile-

component. Layers have an order for encoding and decoding that has to be preserved.

3.42 lossless: A descriptive term for the effect of the overall encoding and decoding processes in which the output

of the decoding process is identical to the input to the encoding process. Distortion-free restoration can be assured. All

of the coding processes or steps used for encoding and decoding are reversible.

3.43 lossy: A descriptive term for the effect of the overall encoding and decoding processes in which the output of

the decoding process is not identical to the input to the encoding process. There is distortion (measured

mathematically). At least one of the coding processes or steps used for encoding and decoding is irreversible.

3.44 main header: A group of markers and marker segments at the beginning of the codestream that describe the

image parameters and coding parameters that can apply to every tile and tile-component.

3.45 marker: A two-byte code in which the first byte is hexadecimal FF (0xFF) and the second byte is a value

between 1 (0x01) and hexadecimal FE (0xFE).
3.46 marker segment: A marker and associated (not empty) set of parameters.

3.47 packet: A part of the codestream comprising a packet header and the compressed image data from one layer

of one precinct of one resolution level of one tile-component.

3.48 packet header: Portion of the packet that contains signalling necessary for decoding that packet.

3.49 parser: Reads and identifies components of the codestream down to the code-block level.

3.50 partial decoding: Producing an image from a subset of an entire codestream.

3.51 precinct: A rectangular region of a transformed tile-component, within each resolution level, used for limiting

the size of packets.

3.52 precision: Number of bits allocated to a particular sample, coefficient, or other binary numerical

representation.

3.53 progression: The order of a codestream where the decoding of each successive bit contributes to a "better"

reconstruction of the image. What metrics make the reconstruction "better" is a function of the application. Some

examples of progression are increasing resolution or improved sample fidelity.

3.54 profile: A subset of technology, from Rec. ITU-T T.800 | ISO/IEC 15444-1, that meets the needs of a given

application with limits on parameters within a selected technology. This is a codestream limitation.

Rec. ITU-T T.803 (06/2021) 3
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ISO/IEC 15444-4:2021 (E)

3.55 quantization: A method of reducing the precision of the individual coefficients to reduce the number of bits

used to represent them. This is equivalent to division while compressing and multiplying while decompressing.

Quantization can be achieved by an explicit operation with a given quantization value (scalar quantization) or by

dropping (truncating) coding passes from the codestream.
3.56 reconstructed image: An image that is the output of a decoder.

3.57 reference grid: A regular rectangular array of points used to define other rectangular arrays of data. The

reference grid is used to determine the number of samples in tile-components for example.

3.58 region of interest (ROI): A collection of coefficients that are considered of particular relevance by some

user-defined measure.

3.59 reversible: A transformation, progression, system, or other process that does not suff

...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
DRAFT
STANDARD FDIS
15444-4
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29
Information technology — JPEG 2000
Secretariat: JISC
image coding system —
Voting begins on:
2021-03-11
Part 4:
Voting terminates on:
Conformance Testing
2021-05-06
Technologies de l'information — Système de codage d'images JPEG
2000 —
Partie 4: Tests de conformité
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/IEC FDIS 15444-4:2021(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO/IEC 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC FDIS 15444-4:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC FDIS 15444-4:2021
Contents

Foreword ................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................... v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ................................................................................................................................. 1

3 Definitions ...................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................................ 9

5 Symbols......................................................................................................................................................... 10

6 General description .................................................................................................................................. 11

6.1 Profiles, derived sets and compliance classes ................................................................................ 12

6.2 Decoders....................................................................................................................................................... 13

6.3 Encoders and codestreams .................................................................................................................... 14

6.4 Implementation compliance statement ............................................................................................ 14

6.5 Abstract test suites ................................................................................................................................... 14

6.6 Encoder compliance testing procedure ............................................................................................ 14

6.7 Decoder compliance testing procedure ............................................................................................ 14

7 Conventions ................................................................................................................................................ 15

8 Copyright ...................................................................................................................................................... 15

9 Compliance files availability and updates ....................................................................................... 15

Annex A (informative) Decoder compliance classes ........................................................................... 16

Annex B (normative) Decoder compliance testing procedures ...................................................... 22

Annex C (normative) Compliance tests .................................................................................................... 28

Annex D (informative) Encoder compliance test procedure ........................................................... 44

Annex E (informative) Decoder Implementation Compliance Statement ................................... 47

Annex F (informative) Encoder Implementation Compliance Statement ................................... 50

Annex G (informative) JP2 and JPH File Format Reader Compliance Testing Procedures ... 52

© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/IEC FDIS 15444-4:2021
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO

collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the World

Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 29, Coding of audio, picture, multimedia and hypermedia information, in collaboration

with ITU-T. The technically identical text is published as Recommendation ITU-T T.803.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO/IEC 15444-4:2004) which has been

technically revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— the criteria to be achieved to claim compliance with Rec. ITU-T 814 | ISO/IEC 15444-15 have been

added.
A list of all parts in the ISO/IEC 15444 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
iv © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/IEC FDIS 15444-4:2021
Introduction

Rec. ITU-T T.800 | ISO/IEC 15444-1 describes an image compression system that allows great flexibility,

not only for the compression of images but also for access into the codestream. The codestream provides

a number of mechanisms for locating and extracting portions of the compressed image data for the

purpose of retransmission, storage, display, or editing. This access allows storage and retrieval of

compressed image data appropriate for a given application without decoding.

This Recommendation | International Standard provides the framework, concepts, and methodology for

testing and the criteria to be achieved to claim compliance to Rec. ITU-T T.800 | ISO/IEC 15444-1 or Rec.

ITU-T T.814 | ISO/IEC 15444-15. The objective of standardization in this field is to promote

interoperability between JPEG 2000 encoders and decoders and to test these systems for compliance to

this Recommendation | International Standard. Compliance testing is the testing of a candidate product

for the existence of specific characteristics required by a standard. It involves testing the capabilities of

an implementation against both the compliance requirements in the relevant standard and the statement

of the implementation's capability.

The purpose of this Recommendation | International Standard is to define a common test methodology,

to provide a framework for specifying abstract test suites (ATS), and to define the procedures to be

followed during compliance testing.

Any organization contemplating the use of test methods defined in this Recommendation | International

Standard should carefully consider the constraints on their applicability. Compliance testing does not

include robustness testing, acceptance testing, and performance testing.
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FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC FDIS 15444-4:2021(E)
Information technology – JPEG 2000 image coding
system —
Part 4:
Conformance testing
1 Scope

This Recommendation | International Standard specifies the framework, concepts, methodology for

testing, and criteria to be achieved to claim compliance to Rec. ITU-T T.800 | ISO/IEC 15444-1 or Rec.

ITU-T T.814 | ISO/IEC 15444-15. It provides a framework for specifying abstract test suites and for

defining the procedures to be followed during compliance testing.
This Recommendation | International Standard:

— specifies compliance testing procedures for encoding and decoding using Rec. ITU-T T.800 | ISO/IEC

15444-1 and Rec. ITU-T T.814 | ISO/IEC 15444-15;

— specifies codestreams, decoded images, and error metrics to be used with the testing procedures;

— specifies abstract test suites;
— provides guidance for creating an encoder compliance test

This Recommendation | International Standard does not include the following tests:

Acceptance testing: the process of determining whether an implementation satisfies acceptance criteria

and enables the user to determine whether or not to accept the implementation. This includes the

planning and execution of several kinds of tests (e.g., functionality, quality, and speed performance

testing) that demonstrate that the implementation satisfies the user requirements.

Performance testing: measures the performance characteristics of an Implementation Under Test (IUT)

such as its throughput, responsiveness, etc., under various conditions.

Robustness testing: the process of determining how well an implementation processes data which

contains errors.
2 Normative references

The following Recommendations and International Standards contain provisions which, through

reference in this text, constitute provisions of this Recommendation | International Standard. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies. At the time of publication, the editions indicated in dated

references were valid. All Recommendations and Standards are subject to revision, and parties to

agreements based on this Recommendation | International Standard are encouraged to investigate the

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possibility of applying the most recent edition of the Recommendations and Standards listed below.

Members of IEC and ISO maintain registers of currently valid International Standards. The

Telecommunication Standardization Bureau of the ITU maintains a list of currently valid ITU-T

Recommendations.

Recommendation ITU-T T.800 | ISO/IEC 15444-1:2019, Information technology – JPEG 2000 image

coding system: Core coding system.

Recommendation ITU-T T.814 | ISO/IEC 15444-15:2019, Information technology – JPEG 2000 image

coding system: High-throughput JPEG 2000.
3 Definitions

For the purposes of this Recommendation | International Standard, the terms and definitions given in

Rec. ITU-T T.800 | ISO/IEC 15444-1, Rec. ITU-T T.814 | ISO/IEC 15444-15 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
3.1
abstract test suite
Generic compliance testing concepts and procedures for a given requirement.
3.2
arithmetic coder

An entropy coder that converts variable length strings to variable length codes (encoding) and vice versa

(decoding).
3.3
big endian
An order of bytes with the most significant byte first.
3.4
bit

A contraction of the term "binary digit"; a unit of information represented by a zero or a one.

3.5
bit-depth
The number of bits required to represent an original component of an image.
3.6
bit-plane

A two-dimensional array of bits. In this Recommendation | International Standard, a bit-plane refers to

all the bits of the same magnitude in all coefficients or samples. This could refer to a bit-plane in a

component, tile- component, code-block, region of interest, or other.
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3.7
bitstream

The actual sequence of bits resulting from the coding of a sequence of symbols. It does not include the

markers or marker segments in the main and tile-part headers or the EOC marker. It does include any

packet headers and in stream markers and marker segments not found within the main or tile-part

headers.
3.8
box

A portion of the file format defined by a length and unique box type. Boxes of some types may contain

other boxes.
3.9
byte
Eight bits.
3.10
Cclass

Defines a level of performance for a decoder. Also provides guidance for encoders to produce

codestreams that are easily decodable by compliant decoders.
3.11
code-block

A rectangular grouping of coefficients from the same sub-band of a tile-component.

3.12
coder
An embodiment of either an encoding or decoding process.
3.13
codestream

A collection of one or more bitstreams and the main header, tile-part headers, and the EOC required for

their decoding and expansion into image data. This is the image data in a compressed form with all of the

signalling needed to decode. This does not include the file format.
3.14
coding pass

A procedure accessing coefficients in a code-block where the context and bit are determined. Typically

there are three different coding passes for each bitplane, each coefficient will be represented in exactly

one of the three passes. For an encoder a coding pass examines coefficients and augments a bitstream.

For a decoder a coding pass reads a bitstream and updates coefficients.
3.15
coefficient
The values that are the result of a transformation.
3.16
component

A two-dimensional array of samples. An image typically consists of several components (e.g., red, green,

and blue).
3.17
compressed image data

Part or all of a codestream. Can also refer to a collection of bitstreams in part or all of a codestream.

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3.18
compliance

Fulfilment of the specified requirements, as defined in this Recommendation | International Standard, for

a given Profile and Cclass.
3.19
compliance test procedure
The process of assessing compliance.
3.20
context

Function of coefficients previously decoded and used to condition the decoding of the present coefficient.

3.21
decoder

An embodiment of a decoding process, and optionally a colour transformation process.

3.22
decoding process

A process that takes as its input all or part of a codestream and outputs all or part of a reconstructed

image.
3.23
decomposition level

A collection of wavelet sub-bands where each coefficient has the same spatial impact or span with respect

to the source component samples. These include all sub-bands of the same two-dimensional sub-band

decomposition. For the last decomposition level, the LL sub-band is also included.

3.24
Discrete Wavelet Transformation (DWT)

A transformation that iteratively transforms one signal into two or more filtered and decimated signals

corresponding to different frequency bands. This transformation operates on spatially discrete samples.

3.25
encoder

An embodiment of an encoding process, and optionally a colour transformation process.

3.26
encoding process

A process that takes as its input all or part of a source image data and outputs a codestream.

3.27
executable test suite
Set of executable test cases that support the abstract test cases.
3.28
file format

A codestream and additional support data and information not explicitly required for the decoding of the

codestream. Examples of such support data include text fields providing titling, security and historical

information, data to support placement of multiple codestreams within a given data file, and data to

support exchange between platforms or conversion to other file formats.
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3.29
fully decode

Applying Rec. ITU-T T.800 | ISO/IEC 15444-1 to produce an image from a codestream where all coded

data in the codestream has been used to produce the image.
3.30
guard bits
Additional most significant bits that have been added to sample data.
3.31
header

Either a part of the codestream that contains only markers and marker segments (main header and tile

part header) or the signalling part of a packet (packet header).
3.32
image
The set of all components.
3.33
image data

The component samples making up an image. Image data can refer to either the source image data or the

reconstructed image data.
3.34
implementation
A realization of a specification.
3.35
Implementation Compliance Statement (ICS)

Statement of specification options and the extent to which they have been implemented by an

implementation under test.
3.36
Implementation Under Test (IUT)
An implementation that is being evaluated for compliance.
3.37
irreversible

A transformation, progression, system, quantization, or other process that, due to systemic or

quantization error, prevents lossless recovery.
3.38
JP2 file

The name of a file in the file format described in this Recommendation | International Standard.

Structurally, a JP2 file is a contiguous sequence of boxes.
3.39
JPEG

Joint Photographic Experts Group – The joint ISO/ITU committee responsible for developing standards

for continuous-tone still picture coding. It also refers to the standards produced by this committee: Rec.

ITU-T T.81 | ISO/IEC 10918-1, Rec. ITU-T T.83 | ISO/IEC 10918-2, Rec. ITU-T T.84 | ISO/IEC 10918-3 and

Rec. ITU-T T.87 | ISO/IEC 14495-1.
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3.40
LL sub-band

The sub-band obtained by forward horizontal low-pass filtering and vertical low-pass filtering. This sub-

band contributes to reconstruction with inverse vertical low-pass filtering and horizontal low-pass

filtering.
3.41
layer

A collection of compressed image data from coding passes of one, or more, code-blocks of a tile-

component. Layers have an order for encoding and decoding that has to be preserved.

3.42
lossless

A descriptive term for the effect of the overall encoding and decoding processes in which the output of

the decoding process is identical to the input to the encoding process. Distortion-free restoration can be

assured. All of the coding processes or steps used for encoding and decoding are reversible.

3.43
lossy

A descriptive term for the effect of the overall encoding and decoding processes in which the output of

the decoding process is not identical to the input to the encoding process. There is distortion (measured

mathematically). At least one of the coding processes or steps used for encoding and decoding is

irreversible.
3.44
main header

A group of markers and marker segments at the beginning of the codestream that describe the image

parameters and coding parameters that can apply to every tile and tile-component.

3.45
marker

A two-byte code in which the first byte is hexadecimal FF (0xFF) and the second byte is a value between

1 (0x01) and hexadecimal FE (0xFE).
3.46
marker segment
A marker and associated (not empty) set of parameters.
3.47
packet

A part of the codestream comprising a packet header and the compressed image data from one layer of

one precinct of one resolution level of one tile-component.
3.48
packet header

Portion of the packet that contains signalling necessary for decoding that packet.

3.49
parser
Reads and identifies components of the codestream down to the code-block level.
3.50
partial decoding
Producing an image from a subset of an entire codestream.
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3.51
precinct

A rectangular region of a transformed tile-component, within each resolution level, used for limiting the

size of packets.
3.52
precision

Number of bits allocated to a particular sample, coefficient, or other binary numerical representation.

3.53
progression

The order of a codestream where the decoding of each successive bit contributes to a "better"

reconstruction of the image. What metrics make the reconstruction "better" is a function of the

application. Some examples of progression are increasing resolution or improved sample fidelity.

3.54
profile

A subset of technology, from Rec. ITU-T T.800 | ISO/IEC 15444-1, that meets the needs of a given

application with limits on parameters within a selected technology. This is a codestream limitation.

3.55
quantization

A method of reducing the precision of the individual coefficients to reduce the number of bits used to

represent them. This is equivalent to division while compressing and multiplying while decompressing.

Quantization can be achieved by an explicit operation with a given quantization value (scalar

quantization) or by dropping (truncating) coding passes from the codestream.
3.56
reconstructed image
An image that is the output of a decoder.
3.57
reference grid

A regular rectangular array of points used to define other rectangular arrays of data. The reference grid

is used to determine the number of samples in tile-components for example.
3.58
Region Of Interest (ROI)

A collection of coefficients that are considered of particular relevance by some user-defined measure.

3.59
reversible

A transformation, progression, system, or other process that does not suffer systemic or quantization

error and therefore allows for lossless signal recovery.
3.60
reversible filter

A particular filter pair used in the wavelet transformation which allows lossless compression.

3.61
sample
One element in the two-dimensional array that comprises a component.
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3.62
selective arithmetic coding bypass

A coding style where some of the code-block passes are not coded by the arithmetic coder. Instead, the

bits to be coded are appended directly to the bitstream without coding.
3.63
shift

Multiplication or division of a number by powers of two. Division of an integer via shift implies truncation

toward minus infinity of the non-integer portion.
3.64
sign bit

A bit that indicates whether a number is positive (zero value) or negative (one value).

3.65
sign-magnitude notation

A binary representation of an integer where the distance from the origin is expressed with a positive

number and the direction from the origin (positive or negative) is expressed with a separate single sign

bit.
3.66
source image
An image used as input to an encoder.
3.67
sub-band

A group of transform coefficients resulting from the same sequence of low-pass and high-pass filtering

operations, both vertically and horizontally.
3.68
testing
The process of evaluating compliance.
3.69
tile

A rectangular array of points on the reference grid, registered with an offset from the reference grid origin

and defined by a width and height.
3.70
tile-component
All the samples of a given component in a tile.
3.71
tile-part

A portion of the codestream with compressed image data for some, or all, of a tile. The tile-part may

include one or more packets that make up the coded tile.
3.72
tile-part header

A group of markers and marker segments at the beginning of each tile-part in the codestream that

describe the tile-part coding parameters.
3.73
transformation
A mathematical mapping from one signal space to another.
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3.74
transform coefficient
A value that is the result of a transformation.
4 Abbreviations

For the purposes of this Recommendation | International Standard, the terms and definitions given in

Rec. ITU-T T.800 | ISO/IEC 15444-1, Rec. ITU-T T.814 | ISO/IEC 15444-15 and the following apply.

ATS Abstract Test Suite

BSET Subset of the ETS consisting of HTJ2K Test Codestreams that differ only by BMAGB value

CCITT International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee, now ITU-T
ETS Executable Test Suite
HTJ2K High Throughput JPEG 2000
ICC International Colour Consortium
ICT Irreversible Component Transform
ICS Implementation Compliance Statement
IEC International Electrotechnical Commission
ISO International Organization for Standardization
ITU International Telecommunication Union

ITU-T International Telecommunication Union – Telecommunication Standardization Sector (formerly

the CCITT)
IUT Implementation Under Test
J2K JPEG 2000, as defined in Rec. ITU-T T.800 | ISO/IEC 15444-1
JPEG Joint Photographic Experts Group
MAGB Magnitude bound.
MSE Mean Squared Error
RCT Reversible Component Transform
ROI Region of Interest
TCS Test Codestream
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5 Symbols

For the purposes of this Recommendation | International Standard, the following symbols apply. The

symbols defined in Rec. ITU-T T.800 | ISO/IEC 15444-1 also apply to this Recommendation | International

Standard.
0x---- Denotes a hexadecimal number
B Bitdepth accuracy for reversible 5-3
B Magnitude bound parameter for an HTJ2K codestream
MAGB
C Components guaranteed to be decoded
CAP Capabilities marker
COC Coding style component marker
COD Coding style default marker
COM Comment marker
CPF Corresponding profile marker
CRG Component registration marker
EPH End of packet header marker
EOC End of codestream marker
H Image height guarantee
L Layer guarantees
L Code data buffering guarantee
body
M Decoded bitplane guarantee
M Magnitude bound decoding guarantee
MAGB
N Code-block parsing guarantee
N Component parsing guarantee
comp
P Irreversible 9-7 precision guarantee
PLM Packet length, main header marker
PLT Packet length, tile-part header marker
POC Progression order change marker
PPM Packed packet headers, main header marker
PPT Packed packet headers, tile-part header marker
QCC Quantization component marker
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QCD Quantization default marker
RGN Region of interest marker
SIZ Image and tile size marker
SOC Start of codestream marker
SOP Start of packet marker
SOD Start of data marker
SOT Start of tile-part marker
T Transform level guarantees
TLM Tile-part lengths marker
W Image width guarantee
6 General description

Perhaps the most distinctive feature of JPEG 2000 is its emphasis on and support for scalability. An

existing codestream may be accessed at a reduced resolution, at a reduced quality (higher compression),

at a reduced number of components, and even over a reduced spatial region. Moreover, this

Recommendation | International Standard supports a rich family of information progression sequences

whereby the information may be reordered withou
...

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