Information technology — Future Network — Problem statement and requirements — Part 2: Naming and addressing

ISO/IEC TR 29181-2:2014 describes the general characteristics of Future Network naming and addressing schemes, including problem statements, requirements, design objectives, gap analysis, and development directions. Problem Statements: The characteristics and problems of existing NAS in existing network will be discussed. Technical Challenges: A list of major technical challenges to assure that the FN-NAS will be able to provide solid Requirements: The general characteristics of Future Network are discussed and their impact on NAS design. Gap analysis: Examines the gap between existing network NAS and future network performance expectations. FN-NAS Standardization Plan, design objectives, gap analysis, development guidance, chronological scenarios for future network naming, and addressing guidance are described in detail. Though ISO/IEC TR 29181-2:2014 mainly presents a list of up-to-date surveyed problems, requirements, and plausible techniques for Future Network, it does not mean that all of those would be applied to a single Future Network in common, since the naming and addressing scheme can be applied to the various networks, such as global networks, local networks, access networks, mobile networks, etc. If a specific Future Network is designed and implemented, some appropriate parts of ISO/IEC TR 29181 would be considered depending on its network usage and its characteristics.

Technologies de l'information — Réseaux du futur — Énoncé du problème et exigences — Partie 2: Dénomination et adressage

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TECHNICAL ISO/IEC TR
REPORT 29181-2
First edition
2014-12-15
Information technology — Future
Network — Problem statement and
requirements —
Part 2:
Naming and addressing
Technologies de l’information — Réseaux du futur — Énoncé du
problème et exigences —
Partie 2: Dénomination et adressage
Reference number
ISO/IEC TR 29181-2:2014(E)
ISO/IEC 2014
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC TR 29181-2:2014(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2014

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2014 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC TR 29181-2:2014(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Terms and Definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Abbreviations........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4 Problem statements .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.1 Naming and Addressing in Network Operation ......................................................................................................... 4

4.2 NAS Types .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2.1 Telecom Network Naming and Addressing Schemes — addressing mode ................... 4

4.2.2 Telecom Network Naming and Addressing Schemes — naming mode ............................ 5

4.2.3 Computer Network Naming and Addressing Schemes — dual mode ............................... 5

4.2.4 .Computer Network Naming and Addressing Schemes — naming mode ...................... 6

4.2.5 Hybrid Network Naming and Addressing Schemes — Addressing mode ...................... 6

4.3 Problems in Network Integration ........................................................................................................................................... 7

4.4 NAS and Network Performance ................................................................................................................................................ 7

4.5 Technical Limitations of Existing Naming and Addressing System ........................................................... 8

4.5.1 Central Registration Authority ............................................................................................................................ 8

4.5.2 Address Space exhaustion ....................................................................................................................................... 8

4.5.3 Name and Address Costs........................................................................................................................................... 8

4.5.4 Identifier-Locator Separation ............................................................................................................................... 8

4.5.5 Routing Table ...................................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.5.6 Vertical Addressing Structure ............................................................................................................................... 8

4.5.7 DNS Translation ................................................................................................................................................................ 8

4.5.8 Data Encryption ................................................................................................................................................................ 8

4.5.9 Address Category ............................................................................................................................................................ 8

4.5.10 Policy .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.5.11 No Address in Native Language .......................................................................................................................... 9

4.5.12 No Decimal Naming System ................................................................................................................................... 9

4.5.13 IPv6 Limitations ............................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.6 FN-NAS Development Challenges ........................................................................................................................................... 9

4.6.1 Scalability ............................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.6.2 Security .................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.6.3 Mobility: .................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

4.6.4 Quality of Service ............................................................................................................................................................. 9

4.6.5 Heterogeneity ..................................................................................................................................................................10

4.6.6 Robustness: .......................................................................................................................................................................10

4.6.7 Customizability ..............................................................................................................................................................10

4.6.8 Economic incentives ..................................................................................................................................................10

5 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.1 Content Description .........................................................................................................................................................................10

5.2 System Technical Requirements ...........................................................................................................................................11

5.2.1 System Integrity Requirement ..........................................................................................................................11

5.2.2 Intersystem Coherence Requirement .........................................................................................................11

5.2.3 Structural Requirement ..........................................................................................................................................11

5.2.4 Specific Technical Requirements ....................................................................................................................12

5.2.5 Complementary Technical Requirements ...............................................................................................16

5.2.6 Extension Technical Requirement .................................................................................................................16

5.2.7 Evaluation and Test Requirement ..................................................................................................................17

5.2.8 Infrastructure Requirement ................................................................................................................................17

Annex A (informative) FN-NAS Standardization Plan ......................................................................................................................18

Annex B (informative) Current Internet technology .........................................................................................................................21

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ISO/IEC TR 29181-2:2014(E)

Annex C (informative) Current Internet Views .......................................................................................................................................24

Annex D (informative) Packet Transferring using Geographical addressing scheme ...................................27

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................33

iv © ISO/IEC 2014 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC TR 29181-2:2014(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work. In the field of information technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee,

ISO/IEC JTC 1.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction

and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology, SC 6,

Telecommunication and information exchange between systems.

ISO/IEC TR 29181 consists of the following parts, under the general title Information technology — Future

Network — Problem statement and requirements:
— Part 1: Overall aspects
— Part 2: Naming and addressing
— Part 3: Switching and routing
— Part 4: Mobility
— Part 5: Security
— Part 6: Media transport
— Part 7: Service composition
© ISO/IEC 2014 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/IEC TR 29181-2:2014(E)
Introduction

This part of ISO/IEC TR 29181 is the second part of this Technical Report on Future Network — Problem

statement and requirements developed by ISO/IEC JTC1 SC6. As ISO/IEC TR 29181-1 provides an overall

perspective of the missions and requirements of the FN project, this part of ISO/IEC TR 29181 focuses

on the issue of naming and addressing. The objective of this part of ISO/IEC TR 29181 is to discuss how

to develop a clean slate designed new naming and addressing schemes (NAS) to help FN project achieve

its lofty ambitions.

Naming and addressing schemes are the cornerstones of telecommunication networks and information

systems. NAS designs not only provide fundamental building blocks for network designs, but can also

influence network characteristics, performance, and capabilities. Therefore, NAS needs to be among the

top priorities of network design projects.

NAS plays an even more important role in FN. As a project aimed at designing a totally new network with

a clean slate design approach, FN has to produce a clean slate designed naming and addressing scheme.

The need for new naming and addressing systems were based from the gaps between the existing NAS

systems and the rising future demands of new applications which produces many technical challenges

the existing NAS systems cannot provide satisfactory solutions. This Technical Report summarizes

some of the challenges and also offers some new directions for future research on NAS standardization.

However, as the new network has to produce a network structure which would allow information to

flow more smoothly, fast, and securely among various networks with various kinds of naming and

addressing structures, designing a new NAS which would not only function within the new system, but

also interoperate with other naming and addressing systems (such as old systems like DNS or telecom

networks and new systems such as RFID and sensor networks) is a very challenging task.

Considering evolutionary approaches which seek to engage gradual improvement with available

technologies while protecting the integrity of overall structure of old networks, a new scheme will

produce a totally new naming and addressing scheme. A clean slate design needs thorough analysis, full

understanding of the demand, careful planning, and collective work. In order to achieve the maximum

benefits and find the best solution, a strategic planning document is needed before specific schemes are

standardized.
vi © ISO/IEC 2014 – All rights reserved
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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/IEC TR 29181-2:2014(E)
Information technology — Future Network — Problem
statement and requirements —
Part 2:
Naming and addressing
1 Scope

This part of ISO/IEC TR 29181 describes the general characteristics of Future Network naming and

addressing schemes, including problem statements, requirements, design objectives, gap analysis, and

development directions.

— Problem Statements: The characteristics and problems of existing NAS in existing network will

be discussed.

— Technical Challenges: A list of major technical challenges to assure that the FN-NAS will be able to

provide solid technical support from the base level to meet the objectives of FN.

— Requirements: The general characteristics of Future Network are discussed and their impact on

NAS design.

— Gap analysis: Examines the gap between existing network NAS and future network performance

expectations.

In Annex A, FN-NAS Standardization Plan, design objectives, gap analysis, development guidance,

chronological scenarios for future network naming, and addressing guidance are described in detail.

Though this part of ISO/IEC TR 29181 mainly presents a list of up-to-date surveyed problems,

requirements, and plausible techniques for Future Network, it does not mean that all of those would be

applied to a single Future Network in common, since the naming and addressing scheme can be applied

to the various networks, such as global networks, local networks, access networks, mobile networks, etc.

If a specific Future Network is designed and implemented, some appropriate parts of ISO/IEC TR 29181

would be considered depending on its network usage and its characteristics.
2 Terms and Definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
2.1
Future Network naming and addressing schemes

system of mechanisms to provide identify and locate for information exchange in Future Network

Note 1 to entry: The system may design new naming schemes, new addressing schemes or an integrated scheme

that combines identification and location.
2.2
naming

scheme which gives identity to every computer or object connected with the network or the party who

is going to send or receive information from the network
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ISO/IEC TR 29181-2:2014(E)
2.3
addressing

scheme which provides information on the point, where sender or receiver is located in the networks

Note 1 to entry: It contains two mechanisms, one is to define the location (address format) and another is to

specify how to find the addresses.
2.4
naming authority pointer
NAPTR

type of DNS resource record, used in particular (but not only) which is used for E.164 telephone number

to URI resolution
[SOURCE: IETF RFC 3403(NAPTR)]
2.5
routing locator
RLOC
sddress of an ETR

Note 1 to entry: Typically, RLOCs are numbered from topologically- aggregatable blocks that are assigned to a site

at each point to which it attaches to the global Internet.
[SOURCE: IETF RFC 6830 (LISP)]
2.6
end point identification
EID

address used in the source and destination fields of the most inner LISP header of a packet

Note 1 to entry: The host obtains a destination EID the same way it obtains a destination address today. The

source EID is obtained via existing mechanisms used to set a host’s “local” IP address.

[SOURCE: IETF RFC 6830 (LISP)]
2.7
ingress tunnel router
ITR
router that resides in a LISP site

Note 1 to entry: Packets sent by sources inside of the LISP site to destinations outside of the site are candidates

for encapsulation by the ITR. The ITR treats the IP destination address as an EID and performs an EID-to-RLOC

mapping lookup.
[SOURCE: IETF RFC 6830 (LISP)]
2.8
egress tunnel router
ETR

router that accepts an IP packet where the destination address in the “outer” IP header is one of its own

RLOCs

Note 1 to entry: In general, an ETR receives LISP-encapsulated IP packets from the Internet on one side and sends

de-capsulated IP packets to site end-systems on the other side. ETR functionality does not have to be limited to a

router device. A server host can be the endpoint of a LISP tunnel as well.
[SOURCE: IETF RFC 6830 (LISP)]
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ISO/IEC TR 29181-2:2014(E)
2.9
EID-to-RLOC database
global distributed database that contains all known EID-prefix to RLOC mappings

Note 1 to entry: Each potential ETR typically contains a small piece of the database: the EID-to-RLOC mappings

for the EID prefixes “behind” the router.
[SOURCE: IETF RFC 6830 (LISP)]
2.10
locator
LOC
network layer topological name for an interface or a set of interfaces

Note 1 to entry: LOCs are carried in the IP address fields as packets that traverse the network

[SOURCE: ITU-T Y.2015 (2011)]
2.11
node ID

identifier used at the transport and higher layers to identify the node as well as the endpoint of a

communication session

Note 1 to entry: A node ID is independent of the node location as well as the network to which the node is attached

so that the node ID is not required to change even when the node changes its network connectivity by physically

moving or simply activating another interface.
[SOURCE: ITU-T Y.2015 (2011)]
2.12
ID/LOC mapping storage function
stores the mapping of NGN identifiers, node IDs, and LOCs
[SOURCE: ITU-T Y.2015 (2011)]
2.13
address

identifier for a specific termination point and is used for routing to this termination point

[SOURCE: ITU-T Y.2091 (2011)]
2.14
identifier

series of digits, characters, and symbols or any other form of data used to identify subscriber(s), user(s),

network element(s), function(s), network entity(ies) providing services/applications, or other entities

(e.g. physical or logical objects)
[SOURCE: ITU-T Y.2091 (2011)]
2.15
name

identifier of any entity (e.g. subscriber, network element) that may be resolved/translated into an address

[SOURCE: ITU-T Y.2091 (2011)]
3 Abbreviations
DNS Domain Name Service
EID Endpoint ID
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ISO/IEC TR 29181-2:2014(E)
ENUM E.164 NUmber Mapping
ID Identifier
LER Locator Edge Router
LOC Locator
NAPTR Naming Authority Pointer
NAS Naming and Addressing Scheme
NID Node ID
RLOR Routing Locator
4 Problem statements
4.1 Naming and Addressing in Network Operation

Naming and addressing are an engineering approach to computer networking, and are two closely

related core schemes in any network designs. Both names and addresses uniquely identify a host (or an

interface on the host) Naming is a scheme which gives identity to every computer or object connected

with the network or the party who is going to send or receive information from the network. -.

Addressing is a scheme which provides information on the point where receiver node is located in the

networks. It contains two mechanisms in a single address field; one is to define the location and another

is to specify how to find the addresses

At present, due the explosive growth of devices (especially mobile devices) and sites, scalability and

mobility become hot issues to the future network.

Communication networks (composed of telecom networks and computer networks) are designed to

deliver information from one point to another remote point or from one person to another person. In

order to conduct the delivery, the sender must know the other party’s name and where the other party

is located. Therefore, a network system must contain the naming and addressing schemes as the most

fundamental protocols so that the telecommunication networks and information systems know whom

and where to send the information effectively and efficiently.
4.2 NAS Types
4.2.1 Telecom Network Naming and Addressing Schemes — addressing mode

The first generation of network is the traditional telecom network which is typically known for telephone

system sending analogue signals through circuit switches and copper lines (or modernized fiber optical

lines). The phone network connects people at two ends of the communication line. Typically, E.164

numbering system has been being used. The phone numbers have two different characteristics. One is a

pure object identifier (a name), the other is function as an address.

For fixed line communication in first generation telecom networks, the fixed line telephone number is a

simply address mode. A phone number actually contains information about the location and path. Fixed

line telephone number is a system that mostly relies on addressing schemes. Furthermore, the E.164 is

regarded as an easy-to-remember well organized addressing scheme.

Note: For example, when people dial number 861088888888,the telecom switch instantly know the

identification of the party been called, but also knows which country (86) which city (10) and which

location (88888888) the party is located. The telephone address is fixed, but the person who was called

is unsure or not a requirement for communication.
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ISO/IEC TR 29181-2:2014(E)
Figure 1 — Addressing Mode NAS (Telecom network)
4.2.2 Telecom Network Naming and Addressing Schemes — naming mode

Other than the fixed line telecom networks, there is another type of network which sends communication

signals not through wire but through the air, mobile telecom network, in which E.164 numbering system

is also being used. In these kinds of networks, the same E.164 addressing does not provide the location

(or device name) and path at the same time. The address is just a device name only, while mobile telecom

network provides the path to the point where the device name is located using location management.

Name : 1088888888 (cell number)
Communication
Requester
Location Management
Figure 2 — Naming Mode NAS (Mobile Telecom network)
4.2.3 Computer Network Naming and Addressing Schemes — dual mode

Another generation of network is represented by Internet which mostly sending digital signals through

routers and fibre optical backbones to connect computer hosts. In computer networks (Internet), there

is also an address only communication mode. Internet address is composed of subnet prefix and host

Identification, where host identification is to locate the host, while subnet prefix is advertised to the

routers for routing path.

Since the internet address itself identifies a host or subnet, it faces some serious problems: (1) it does not

scale well due to the finite address size limitation, (2) due to the renumbering, occurring whenever the

network topologies change, more addresses are required, (3) the increased size of address field comes

to be heavy especially in the short data payload packet, and (4) the size-increased address is worse

human understandable.

Since even though the size of IPv4 address is 32 bits (relatively shorter than that of IPv6), it is not still

human friendly, the name is used and translated via DNS server. It means two or more names can be

assigned to the same host or site.

There is a dual mode NAS in telecommunication and information networks, in which both name and

address are required for information exchange. IP based computer networks are typical dual mode NAS.

IP network communication relies on domain name and IP addresses which are two different structures.

Most of the computer communication involves a process inputting a domain name, finding matches

involving a DNS server and converting into registered IP address.
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ISO/IEC TR 29181-2:2014(E)
Figure 3 — Dual Mode NAS (IP network)
4.2.4 .Computer Network Naming and Addressing Schemes — naming mode

While the current internet address identifies a subnet and a host in a same address field, the other

alternative is to separate host identification and subnet routing path. A same address format is separated

into two new numbering spaces: an host identifier (or name) and routing locator. Each host has a globally

unique ID(or EID) or name. Packet with EID is sent to the default locator router( Routing Locator, or ITR)

which then map EID to destination RLOC using EID-to-RLOC database. The packet will be traversed

from sending ITR to destination ETR using conventional routing mechanism. Finally the destination

ETR will deliver the packet to the destination host.

While Tunnel Routers manage and maintain the routing path among them using the conventional

routing mechanisms, the user only keeps the unique EID’s for communication. From user’s perspective,

the internet access network behaves like telecom network, while the internet core itself performs in a

conventional way.
Name: EID
(DNS Server)
Name : EID
Information
(ITR)
Requester
IP address: RLOC
Figure 4 — Naming Mode NAS (IP network)
4.2.5 Hybrid Network Naming and Addressing Schemes — Addressing mode

Even though internet is widely deployed network and popular to users, (mobile) telecom network is

another powerful and popular network as well. As long as two types of networks exist, it is natural to

combine them. There are two ways to implement combined networks: Access network can be either

telecom network or internet.

Since E.164 numbering is more user friendly and telecom network is more widely deployed up to date, a

telephone number can be used to identify a host, while the telephone number is translated to the IP address,

Note that the use of any/multicasting changes the one-to-one association of an address with a

physical endpoint
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ISO/IEC TR 29181-2:2014(E)
Name : ENUM
(DNS Server)
NAPTR
Name:(phone number)
Information
(PABX)
Requester
Name : (DNS Server)
Figure 5 — Addressing Mode NAS (Telecom network + IP network)
4.3 Problems in Network In
...

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