Personal flotation devices

This document specifies the minimum requirements for the construction and performance of materials and components of personal flotation devices, as well as the relevant test methods.

Équipements individuels de flottabilité

Le présent document spécifie les exigences minimales de construction et de performances des matériaux et composants des équipements individuels de flottabilité, ainsi que les méthodes d'essai correspondantes.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
30-Jul-2020
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
31-Jul-2020
Ref Project

RELATIONS

Effective Date
22-May-2010

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 12402-7
Second edition
2020-07
Personal flotation devices —
Part 7:
Materials and components — Safety
requirements and test methods
Équipements individuels de flottabilité —
Partie 7: Matériaux et composants — Exigences de sécurité et
méthodes d'essai
Reference number
ISO 12402-7:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 12402-7:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 12402-7:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4 Materials and components ......................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.1.1 Principles ................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

4.1.2 Sampling.................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.1.3 Pass or fail criteria .......................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.1.4 Units of measurement ................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.1.5 Material .................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.1.6 Sample conditioning ..................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.2 Sewing thread .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.2.1 Construction ........................................................................................................................................................................ 6

4.2.2 Performance ........................................................................................................................................................................ 7

4.2.3 Loop breaking strength .............................................................................................................................................. 7

4.3 Fabric ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.3.2 Performance ........................................................................................................................................................................ 7

4.3.3 Colour .....................................................................................................................................................................................11

4.4 Structural webbing and tie tape ............................................................................................................................................12

4.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................12

4.4.2 Torsional stiffness ........................................................................................................................................................12

4.5 Structural lacing ..................................................................................................................................................................................13

4.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................13

4.5.2 Construction .....................................................................................................................................................................13

4.5.3 Performance .....................................................................................................................................................................14

4.6 Structural zippers ..............................................................................................................................................................................14

4.6.1 Construction .....................................................................................................................................................................14

4.6.2 Performance .....................................................................................................................................................................14

4.7 Hardware ..................................................................................................................................................................................................17

4.7.1 Webbing closures and adjusters .................. ....................................................................................................17

4.7.2 Lacing closures and adjusters ...........................................................................................................................21

4.7.3 Multi-eyelet guides ........................................................................................................................................... ...........24

4.8 Foam flotation material ................................................................................................................................................................25

4.8.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................25

4.8.2 Performance .....................................................................................................................................................................26

4.8.3 Knitted fabric laminated to foam flotation material ......................................................................31

4.9 Inflation chamber materials .....................................................................................................................................................33

4.9.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................33

4.9.2 Performance .....................................................................................................................................................................34

4.10 Polymeric foam coatings..............................................................................................................................................................36

4.10.1 Construction .....................................................................................................................................................................36

4.10.2 Performance .....................................................................................................................................................................37

4.11 Inflation systems for hybrid and solely inflatable lifejackets ......................................................................39

4.11.1 Construction .....................................................................................................................................................................39

4.11.2 Performance .....................................................................................................................................................................42

4.11.3 Performance tests using human subjects ................................................................................................49

4.11.4 Operability test of automatic inflation systems .................................................................................50

4.11.5 Operability test of manual inflation systems ........................................................................................51

4.11.6 Operability test of oral systems .......................................................................................................................51

4.11.7 Discharge test of automatic and manual inflation systems .....................................................52

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 12402-7:2020(E)

4.11.8 Humid atmosphere test of automatic inflation systems .............................................................53

4.11.9 System durability test of automatic and manual inflation systems ..................................54

4.11.10 Operability test of over-pressure relief valves ....................................................................................54

4.11.11 Pull test of automatic and manual inflation systems, and cylinder-seal-

indicating cylinders ....................................................................................................................................................54

4.11.12 Window material ..........................................................................................................................................................55

4.12 Gas-filled cylinders ...........................................................................................................................................................................56

4.12.1 Construction .....................................................................................................................................................................56

4.12.2 Tests and acceptance criteria .............................................................................................................................58

4.12.3 Marking .................................................................................................................................................................................70

Annex A (informative) Mildew resistance of materials: Soil burial method ............................................................71

Annex B (informative) Abrasion resistance of cloth: Oscillatory method (Wyzenbeek method) ......73

Annex C (informative) Example of a design drawing ........................................................................................................................76

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................77

iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 12402-7:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 188, Small craft, Subcommittee SC 1,

Personal safety equipment.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 12402-7:2006), which has been technically

revised. It also incorporates the Amendment ISO 12402-7:2006/Amd. 1:2011.
The main changes with respect to the previous edition are as follows:

a) temperature of temperature cycling (4.1.6.3) was changed from (65 ± 2) °C into (60 ± 2) °C;

b) compliance criteria in Table 1, Sewing thread, were changed;
c) requirements for fabrics performance were changed (see 4.3.2 and Table 2);

d) new chromaticity coordinates x and y and luminance factor β for yellow, orange and red non-

fluorescent colours of lifejacket material were added (see Table 3);

e) new chromaticity coordinates x and y and luminance factor β for yellow, yellow-orange, orange and

orange-red fluorescent colours of lifejacket material were added (see Table 4);
f) compliance criteria of structural webbing (see Table 5) were modified;
g) compliance criteria of structural tie tape (see Table 6) were modified;
h) new subclause “General” to structural lacing was added (see 4.5.1);

i) immersion of zippers, automatic and manual inflation systems in IRM 902 oil was deleted and

ambient temperature replaced by (20 ± 2) °C (see Tables 8, 17 and 18);

j) compliance criteria of webbing closures and adjusters were modified (see Table 9);

k) compliance criteria of lacing closures and adjusters were modified (see Table 10);

l) number of samples reduced for density test on foam flotation material (see Table 12);

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 12402-7:2020(E)
m) dimensional test for foam flotation material deleted;

n) test method for the compressibility of inherently buoyant material was modified (see 4.8.2.4);

o) compliance criteria of inflation chamber materials were modified (see Table 15).

A list of all parts in the ISO 12402 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
vi © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 12402-7:2020(E)
Introduction

ISO 12402 (all parts):2020 deals with personal floatation devices (PFDs) for persons engaged in

activities, whether in relation to their work or their leisure, in or near water. PFDs manufactured,

selected, and maintained to this International Standard give a reasonable assurance of safety from

drowning to a person who is immersed in water. ISO 12402 (all parts):2020 does not include the

following:

— requirements for lifejackets on seagoing ships, which are regulated by the International Maritime

Organization (IMO) under the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS);

— throwable devices and flotation cushions.

ISO 12402 (all parts):2020 allows for the buoyancy of a PFD to be provided by a variety of materials or

designs, some of which can require preparation before entering the water (e.g. inflation of chambers by

gas from a cylinder or blown in orally). PFDs can be divided into the following two main classes:

— those which provide face up in-water support to the user regardless of physical conditions

(lifejackets); and

— those which require the user to make swimming and other postural movements to position the user

with the face out of the water (buoyancy aids).

Within these main two classes there are a number of levels of support, types of buoyancy, activation

methods for inflatable devices, and auxiliary items (such as location aids), which all affect the user‘s

probability of survival. Within the different types of buoyancy allowed, inflatable PFDs either provide

full buoyancy without any user intervention other than arming (i.e. PFDs inflated by a fully automatic

method) or require the user to initiate the inflation. Hybrid PFDs always provide some buoyancy but

rely on the same methods as inflatable PFDs to achieve full buoyancy. With inherently buoyant PFDs,

the user only needs to put the PFD on to achieve the performance of its class.

PFDs that do not require intervention (automatically operating PFDs) are suited to activities where

persons are likely to enter the water unexpectedly; whereas PFDs requiring intervention (e.g. manually

inflated PFDs) are only suitable for use if the user believes there will be sufficient time to produce

full buoyancy, if automatic operation would result in entrapment, or if help is close at hand. In every

circumstance, the user should ensure that the operation of the PFD is suited to the specific application.

The conformity of a PFD to this part of the ISO 12402 series: 2020 does not imply that it is suitable for

all circumstances. The relative amount of required inspection and maintenance is another factor of

paramount importance in the choice and application of specific PFDs.

ISO 12402 (all parts):2020 is intended to serve as a guide to manufacturers, purchasers, and users of

such safety equipment in ensuring that the equipment provides an effective standard of performance in

use. Equally essential is the need for the designer to encourage the wearing of the equipment by making

it comfortable and attractive for continuous wear on or near water, rather than for it to be stored in

a locker for emergency use. The primary function of a PFD is to support the user in reasonable safety

in the water. Within the two classes, alternative attributes make some PFDs better suited to some

circumstances than others or make them easier to use and care for than others. Important alternatives

provided by ISO 12402 (all parts):2020 are the following:

— to provide higher levels of support (levels 100, 150, or 275) that generally float the user with greater

water clearance, when required for increasingly severe conditions; or to provide lighter or less

bulky PFDs (levels 50 or 100);

— to provide the kinds of flotation (inherently buoyant foam, hybrid, and inflatable) that

accommodate the sometimes conflicting needs of reliability and durability, in-water performance,

and continuous wear;

1) The International Maritime Organization (IMO) is an institution with domicile in London issuing regulations

which are then published as laws by its Member States.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved vii
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ISO 12402-7:2020(E)

— to provide automatically operating (inherently buoyant or automatically inflated) PFDs that float

users without any intervention on their part, except in initially donning the PFD (and regular

inspection and rearming of inflatable types), or to provide user control of the inflatable PFDs

buoyancy by manual and oral operation; and
— to assist in detection (location aids) and recovery of the user.

PFDs provide various degrees of buoyancy in garments that are light in weight and only as bulky and

restrictive as needed for their intended use. They need to be secure when worn, in order to provide

positive support in the water and to allow users to swim or actively assist themselves or others. The

PFD selected ensures that the user is supported with the mouth and nose clear of the water under the

expected conditions of use and the user’s ability to assist.

Under certain conditions (such as rough water and waves), the use of watertight and multilayer clothing,

which provide (intentionally or otherwise) additional buoyancy, or the use of equipment with additional

weight (such as tool belts) can alter the performance of the PFD. Users, owners and employers need to

ensure that this is taken into account when selecting a PFD. Similarly, it is possible that PFDs do not

perform as well in extremes of temperature, although meeting ISO 12402 (all parts):2020 requirements.

PFDs can also be affected by other conditions of use, such as chemical exposure and welding, and can

require additional protection to meet the specific requirements of use. Taking a PFD into such conditions

necessitates the assurance that the PFD will not be adversely affected. ISO 12402 (all parts):2020 also

allows a PFD to be an integral part of a safety harness designed to conform to ISO 12401:2009, or an

integral part of a garment with other uses, for example to provide thermal protection during immersion,

in which case the complete assembly as used is expected to conform to ISO 12402 (all parts):2020.

In compiling the attributes required of a PFD, consideration has also been given to the potential length

of service that the user might expect. Whilst a PFD needs to be of substantial construction and material,

its potential length of service often depends on the conditions of use and storage, which are the

responsibility of the owner, user and/or employer. Furthermore, whilst the performance tests included

are believed to assess relevant aspects of performance in real-life use, they do not accurately simulate

all conditions of use. For example, the fact that a device passes the self-righting tests in swimming attire,

as described herein, does not guarantee that it will self-right an unconscious user wearing clothing;

neither can it be expected to completely protect the airway of an unconscious person in rough water.

Waterproof clothing can trap air and further impair the self-righting action of a lifejacket.

It is essential that owners, users and employers choose those PFDs that meet the correct standards for

the circumstances in which they will be used.

The characteristics of the product properties, alternative choices and the limitations to normal use are

to be explained to potential buyers by manufacturers and distributors of PFDs prior to purchase.

Similarly, it is advised that regulators regarding the use of these garments consider carefully which

class and performance levels are most appropriate for the foreseeable conditions of use, allowing

for the higher risk circumstances. These higher risk circumstances should account for the highest

probabilities of occurrence of accidental immersion and expected consequences. Requirements and

recommendations for the correct selection and application of PFDs are given in ISO 12402-10:2020.

viii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 12402-7:2020(E)
Personal flotation devices —
Part 7:
Materials and components — Safety requirements and
test methods
1 Scope

This document specifies the minimum requirements for the construction and performance of materials

and components of personal flotation devices, as well as the relevant test methods.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 105-A02: 1993, Textiles — Tests for colour fastness — Part A02: Grey scale for assessing change in colour

ISO 105-E02: 2013, Textiles — Tests for colour fastness — Part E02: Colour fastness to sea water

ISO 105-X12: 2016, Textiles — Tests for colour fastness — Part X12: Colour fastness to rubbing

ISO 139:2005/Amd 1:2011, Textiles — Standard atmospheres for conditioning and testing

ISO 188:2011, Rubber, vulcanized or thermoplastic — Accelerated ageing and heat resistance tests

ISO 846:2019, Plastics — Evaluation of the action of microorganisms

ISO 1302:2002, Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) — Indication of surface texture in technical

product documentation
ISO 13688:2013, Protective clothing — General requirements

ISO 1421:2016, Rubber- or plastics-coated fabrics — Determination of tensile strength and elongation

at break
ISO 1926:2009, Rigid cellular plastics — Determination of tensile properties

ISO 2062:2009, Textiles — Yarns from packages — Determination of single-end breaking force and

elongation at break using constant rate of extension (CRE) tester

ISO 2411:2017, Rubber- or plastics-coated fabrics — Determination of coating adhesion

ISO 3696:1987, Water for analytical laboratory use — Specification and test methods

ISO 4674-1:2016, Rubber- or plastics-coated fabrics — Determination of tear resistance — Part 1: Constant

rate of tear methods

ISO 4892-1:2016, Plastics — Methods of exposure to laboratory light sources — Part 1: General guidance

ISO 4892-2:2013, Plastics — Methods of exposure to laboratory light sources — Part 2: Xenon-arc lamps

ISO 5470-2:2003, Rubber- or plastics-coated fabrics — Determination of abrasion resistance — Part 2:

Martindale abrader
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 12402-7:2020(E)

ISO 6330:2012, Textiles — Domestic washing and drying procedures for textile testing

ISO 7229:2015, Rubber- or plastics-coated fabrics — Measurement of gas permeability

ISO 7854:1995, Rubber- or plastics-coated fabrics — Determination of resistance to damage by flexing

ISO 9073-4:1997, Textiles — Test methods for nonwovens — Part 4: Determination of tear resistance

ISO 9227:2017, Corrosion tests in artificial atmospheres — Salt spray tests

ISO 12402-2:2020, Personal flotation devices — Part 2: Lifejackets, performance level 275 — Safety

requirements

ISO 12402-3:2020, Personal flotation devices — Part 3: Lifejackets, performance level 150 — Safety

requirements

ISO 12402-4:2020, Personal flotation devices — Part 4: Lifejackets, performance level 100 — Safety

requirements

ISO 12402-5:2020, Personal flotation devices — Part 5: Buoyancy aids (level 50) — Safety requirements

ISO 12402-6:2020, Personal flotation devices — Part 6: Special purpose lifejackets and buoyancy aids —

Safety requirements and additional test methods

ISO 13934-1:2013, Textiles — Tensile properties of fabrics — Part 1: Determination of maximum force and

elongation at maximum force using the strip method

ISO 13934-2:2014, Textiles — Tensile properties of fabrics — Part 2: Determination of maximum force

using the grab method

ISO 13937-2:2000, Textiles — Tear properties of fabrics — Part 2: Determination of tear force of trouser-

shaped test specimens (Single tear method)

ISO 13938-1:2019, Textiles — Bursting properties of fabrics — Part 1: Hydraulic method for determination

of bursting strength and bursting distension
ISO 13938
...

DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 12402-7
ISO/TC 188/SC 1 Secretariat: DIN
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2015-06-11 2015-09-11
Personal flotation devices —
Part 7:
Materials and components — Safety requirements and test
methods
Équipements individuels de flottabilité —
Partie 7: Matériaux et composants — Exigences de sécurité et méthodes d’essai
ICS: 13.340.70
ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING
This draft has been developed within the International Organization for
Standardization (ISO), and processed under the ISO lead mode of collaboration
as defined in the Vienna Agreement.
This draft is hereby submitted to the ISO member bodies and to the CEN member
bodies for a parallel five month enquiry.

Should this draft be accepted, a final draft, established on the basis of comments

received, will be submitted to a parallel two-month approval vote in ISO and
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
formal vote in CEN.
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
To expedite distribution, this document is circulated as received from the
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
committee secretariat. ISO Central Secretariat work of editing and text
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
composition will be undertaken at publication stage.
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 12402-7:2015(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2015
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 12402-7:2015(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2015

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 12402-7
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ vi

1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................ 1

3 Terms and definitions ........................................................................................................................... 3

4 Materials and components ................................................................................................................... 4

4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Sewing thread ........................................................................................................................................ 7

4.3 Fabric ...................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.4 Structural webbing and tie tape ......................................................................................................... 13

4.5 Structural lacing .................................................................................................................................. 14

4.6 Structural zippers ................................................................................................................................ 15

4.7 Hardware .............................................................................................................................................. 18

4.8 Foam flotation material ....................................................................................................................... 25

4.9 Inflation chamber materials ................................................................................................................ 35

4.10 Polymeric foam coatings .................................................................................................................... 37

4.11 Inflation systems for hybrid and fully inflatable PFDs .................................................................... 40

4.12 Gas-filled cylinders ............................................................................................................................. 57

Annex A (informative) Mildew resistance of materials: Soil burial method ................................................ 73

Annex B (informative) Abrasion resistance of cloth: Oscillatory method (Wyzenbeek method) ............. 75

Annex C (informative) Example of a design drawing .................................................................................... 78

Annex D (informative) ........................................................................................................................................ 79

Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................................... 81

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 12402-7
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 12402-7 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 188, Small craft, Subcommittee SC 1, Personal

safety Equipment.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 12402-7:2006, ISO 12402-7:2006/A.1:2010), of

which have been technically revised. The main changes with respect to the previous edition are listed below:

a) Temperature of temperature cycling (4.1.6.3) was changed from (65 ± 2)°C into (60 ± 2)°C ;

b) Compliance criteria in Table 1 Sewing thread were changed;
c) Requirements for fabrics performance were changed (see 4.3.2 and Table 2);

d) New chromaticity coordinates x and y and luminance factor β for yellow, orange and red non-fluorescent

colours of lifejacket material were added (see Table 3);

e) New chromaticity coordinates x and y and luminance factor β for yellow, yellow-orange, orange and

orange-red fluorescent colours of lifejacket material were added (see Table 4);
f) Compliance criteria of structural webbing (see Table 5) were modified;
g) Compliance criteria of structural tie tape (see Table 6) were modified;
h) New subclause "General" to structural lacing was added (see 4.5.1);

i) Immersion of zippers, automatic and manual inflation systems in IRM 902 oil was deleted and ambient

temperature replaced by (20 ± 2)°C (see Tables 8, 17 and 18);

j) Compliance criteria of webbing closures and adjusters were modified (see Table 9);

k) Compliance criteria of lacing closures and adjusters were modified (see Table 10);

l) Number of samples reduced for density test on foam flotation material deleted (see Table 12);

m) Dimensional test for foam flotation material deleted;

n) Test method for the compressibility of inherently buoyant material was modified (see 4.8.2.4);

iv © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 12402-7

o) Compliance criteria of inflation chamber materials were modified (see Table 15).

ISO 12402 consists of the following parts, under the general title Personal flotation devices:

⎯ Part 2: Lifejackets, performance level 275 - Safety requirements;
⎯ Part 3: Lifejackets, performance level 150 - Safety requirements;
⎯ Part 4: Lifejackets, performance level 100 - Safety requirements;
⎯ Part 5: Buoyancy aids (level 50) - Safety requirements;

⎯ Part 6: Special purpose lifejackets and buoyancy aids - Safety requirements and additional test methods;

⎯ Part 7: Materials and components - Safety requirements and test methods;
⎯ Part 8: Safety requirements and test methods;
⎯ Part 9: Test methods;

⎯ Part 10: Selection and application of personal flotation devices and other relevant devices.

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 12402-7
Introduction

ISO 12402 has been prepared to give guidance on the design and application of personal flotation devices

(hereafter referred to as PFDs) for persons engaged in activities, whether in relation to their work or their

leisure, in or near water. PFDs manufactured, selected, and maintained to this standard should give a

reasonable assurance of safety from drowning to a person who is immersed in water.

Requirements for lifejackets on large, commercial seagoing ships are regulated by the International Maritime

Organization (IMO) under the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS). ISO 12402

allows for the buoyancy of a PFD to be provided by a wide variety of materials or designs, some of which may

require preparation before entering the water (e.g. inflation of chambers by gas from a cylinder or blown in

orally). However, PFDs can be divided into the following two main classes:

⎯ those which provide face up in-water support to the user regardless of physical conditions (lifejackets),

and

⎯ those which require the user to make swimming and other postural movements to position the user with

the face out of the water (buoyancy aids).

Within these main two classes there are a number of levels of support, types of buoyancy, activation methods

for inflatable devices, and auxiliary items (such as location aids), all of which will affect the user’s probability of

survival. Within the different types of buoyancy allowed, inflatable PFDs either provide full buoyancy without

any user intervention other than arming (i.e. PFDs inflated by a fully automatic method) or require the user to

initiate the inflation. Hybrid PFDs always provide some buoyancy but rely on the same methods as inflatable

PFDs to achieve full buoyancy. With inherently buoyant PFDs, the user only needs to put the PFD on to

achieve the performance of its class.

PFDs that do not require intervention (automatically operating PFDs) are suited to activities where persons

are likely to enter the water unexpectedly; whereas PFDs requiring intervention (e.g. manually inflated PFDs)

are only suitable for use if the user believes there will be sufficient time to produce full buoyancy, or help is

close at hand. In every circumstance, the user should ensure that the operation of the PFD is suited to the

specific application. The conformity of a PFD to this part of ISO 12402 does not imply that it is suitable for all

circumstances. The relative amount of required inspection and maintenance is another factor of paramount

importance in the choice and application of specific PFDs.

ISO 12402 is intended to serve as a guide to manufacturers, purchasers, and users of such safety equipment

in ensuring that the equipment provides an effective standard of performance in use. Equally essential is the

need for the designer to encourage the wearing of the equipment by making it comfortable and attractive for

continuous wear on or near water, rather than for it to be stored in a locker for emergency use. Throwable

devices and flotation cushions are not covered by this part of ISO 12402. The primary function of a PFD is to

support the user in reasonable safety in the water. Within the two classes, alternative attributes make some

PFDs better suited to some circumstances than others or make them easier to use and care for than others.

Important alternatives allowed by ISO 12402 are the following:

⎯ to provide higher levels of support (levels 100, 150, or 275) that generally float the user with greater water

clearance, enabling the user’s efforts to be expended in recovery rather than avoiding waves; or to

provide lighter or less bulky PFDs (levels 50 or 100);

⎯ to provide the kinds of flotation (inherently buoyant foam, hybrid, and inflatable) that will accommodate

the sometimes conflicting needs of reliability and durability, in-water performance, and continuous wear;

⎯ to provide automatically operating (inherently buoyant or automatically inflated) PFDs that float users

without any intervention on their part, except in initially donning the PFD (and regular inspection and

rearming of inflatable types), or to provide user control of the inflatable PFD’s buoyancy by manual and

oral operation; and
vi © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO/DIS 12402-7
⎯ to assist in detection (location aids) and recovery of the user.

PFDs provide various degrees of buoyancy in garments that are light in weight and only as bulky and

restrictive as needed for their intended use. They will need to be secure when worn, in order to provide

positive support in the water and to allow the user to swim or actively assist herself/himself or others. The PFD

selected shall ensure that the user is supported with the mouth and nose clear of the water under the

expected conditions of use and the user’s ability to assist.

Under certain conditions (such as rough water and waves), the use of watertight and multilayer clothing, which

provide (intentionally or otherwise) additional buoyancy, or the use of equipment with additional weight (such

as tool belts) will likely alter the performance of the PFD. Users, owners and employers need to ensure that

this is taken into account when selecting a PFD. Similarly, PFDs may not perform as well in extremes of

temperature, although fully approved under this part of ISO 12402. PFDs may also be affected by other

conditions of use, such as chemical exposure and welding, and may require additional protection to meet the

specific requirements of use. If the user intends taking a PFD into such conditions, she/he has to be assured

that the PFD will not be adversely affected. This part of ISO 12402 also allows a PFD to be an integral part of

a safety harness designed to conform to ISO 12401, or an integral part of a garment with other uses, for

example to provide thermal protection during immersion, in which case the complete assembly as used is

required to conform to this part of ISO 12402.

In compiling the attributes required of a PFD, consideration has also been given to the potential length of

service that the user might expect. Whilst a PFD needs to be of substantial construction and material, its

potential length of service often depends on the conditions of use and storage, which are the responsibility of

the owner, user and/or employer. Furthermore, whilst the performance tests included are believed to assess

relevant aspects of performance in real-life use, they do not accurately simulate all conditions of use. For

example, the fact that a device passes the self-righting tests in swimming attire, as described herein, does not

guarantee that it will self-right an unconscious user wearing clothing; neither can it be expected to completely

protect the airway of an unconscious person in rough water. Waterproof clothing can trap air and further

impair the self-righting action of a lifejacket.

It is essential that owners, users and employers choose those PFDs that meet the correct standards for the

circumstances in which they will be used. Manufacturers and those selling PFDs have to make clear to

prospective purchasers the product properties, alternative choices and the limitations to normal use, prior to

the purchase.

Similarly, those framing legislation regarding the use of these garments should consider carefully which class

and performance levels are most appropriate for the foreseeable conditions of use, allowing for the higher risk

circumstances. These higher risk circumstances should account for the highest probabilities of occurrence of

accidental immersion and the expected consequences in such emergencies. More information on the

selection and application is given in ISO 12402-10.
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved vii
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DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 12402-7
Personal flotation devices — Part 7: Materials and components
- Safety requirements and test methods
1 Scope

This part of ISO/DIS 12402 specifies the minimum requirements for construction and performance of materials

and components of personal flotation devices as well as relevant test methods.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 105-A02, Textiles — Tests for colour fastness — Part A02: Grey scale for assessing change in colour

ISO 105-E02, Textiles — Tests for colour fastness — Part E02: Colour fastness to sea water

ISO 105-X12, Textiles — Tests for colour fastness — Part X12: Colour fastness to rubbing

ISO 139, Textiles — Standard atmospheres for conditioning and testing

ISO 188:2011, Rubber, vulcanized or thermoplastic — Accelerated ageing and heat resistance tests

ISO 1302, Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) — Indication of surface texture in technical product

documentation

ISO 1421:1998, Rubber- or plastics-coated fabrics — Determination of tensile strength and elongation at

break
ISO 1926, Rigid cellular plastics — Determination of tensile properties

ISO 2062, Textiles — Yarns from packages — Determination or single-end breaking force and elongation at

break

ISO 2411:2000, Rubber- or plastics-coated fabrics — Determination of coating adhesion

ISO 3696:1987, Water for analytical laboratory use — Specification and test methods

ISO 4674-1:2003, Rubber- or plastics-coated fabrics — Determination of tear resistance — Part 1: Constant

rate of tear methods

ISO 4892-1:1999, Plastics — Methods of exposure to laboratory light sources — Part 1: General guidance

ISO 4892-2:2013, Plastics — Methods of exposure to laboratory light sources — Part 2: Xenon-arc lamps

ISO 5470-2:2003, Rubber- or plastics-coated fabrics — Determination of abrasion resistance —

Part 2: Martindale abrader
ISO 6330, Textiles — Domestic washing and drying procedures for textile testing

ISO 7229:1997, Rubber- or plastics-coated fabrics — Measurement of gas permeability

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/DIS 12402-7

ISO 7854:1995, Rubber- or plastics-coated fabrics — Determination of resistance to damage by flexing

ISO 9073-4, Textiles — Test methods for nonwovens — Part 4: Determination of tear resistance

ISO 9227:2012, Corrosion tests in artificial atmospheres — Salt spray tests

ISO/DIS 12402-2:2015, Personal flotation devices — Part 2: Lifejackets, performance level 275 — Safety

requirements

ISO/DIS 12402-3:2015, Personal flotation devices — Part 3: Lifejackets, performance level 150 — Safety

requirements

ISO/DIS 12402-4:2015, Personal flotation devices — Part 4: Lifejackets, performance level 100 — Safety

requirements

ISO/DIS 12402-5:2015, Personal flotation devices — Part 5: Buoyancy aids (level 50) — Safety requirements

ISO/DIS 12402-6:2015, Personal flotation devices — Part 6: Special purpose lifejackets and buoyancy aids —

Safety requirements and additional test methods

ISO 13934-1, Textiles — Tensile properties of fabrics — Part 1: Determination of maximum force and

elongation at maximum force using the strip method

ISO 13934-2, Textiles — Tensile properties of fabrics — Part 2: Determination of maximum force using the

grab method

ISO 13937-2, Textiles — Tear properties of fabrics — Part 2: Determination of tear force of trouser-shaped

test specimens (Single tear method)

ISO 13938-1, Textiles — Bursting properties of fabrics — Part 1: Hydraulic method for determination of

bursting strength and bursting distension

ISO 13938-2, Textiles — Bursting properties of fabrics — Part 2: Pneumatic method for determination of

bursting strength and bursting distension
EN 590, Automotive fuels — Diesel — Requirements and test methods
EN 10088-1, Stainless steels — Part 1: List of stainless steels
CIE publication No. 15.2, Colorimetry

ASTM D 412-98, Standard Test Methods for Vulcanized Rubber and Thermoplastic Elastomers —Tension

ASTM D 471-98, Standard Test Method for Rubber Property-Effect of Liquids

ASTM D 882-02, Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Thin Plastic Sheeting

ASTM D 1683, Standard Test Method for Failure in Sewn Seams of Woven Apparel Fabrics

ASTM D 2061, Standard Test Methods for Strength Tests for Zippers
ASTM D 2062, Standard Test Methods for Operability of Zippers

ASTM D 5034-95, Standard Test Method for Breaking Strength and Elongation of Textile Fabrics (Grab Test)

FTMS 191A, Federal Test Method Standard
2 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO/DIS 12402-7
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 12402-1 2 to ISO 12402-5 and the

following apply.
3.1
coated fabric

flexible material composed of a textile fabric and an adherent polymeric material

3.2
design inflation range

range of buoyancy and pressure, as specified by the manufacturer, to which a chamber is capable of being

inflated to provide the intended in-water performance
3.3
filling density

mass of the gas charge for gas-filled cylinders or other inflation-medium containers, in kilograms, divided by

the volume of the inflation-medium container, in litres
3.4
foam flotation material
closed-cell (cells not interconnecting) foamed polymeric material
3.5
full inflation
chamber or chambers inflated to any value within the design inflation range
3.6
inflation system

means of inflating one or more chambers to make the PFD buoyant or more buoyant on demand, either

actively or passively with respect to the user’s action
3.7
initial jaw separation

distance between the bottom of the top clamp and the top of the bottom clamp of a tensile test machine prior

to testing
3.8
multi-eyelet guide

polymeric part designed to be sewn into a PFD and having a series of holes to insert lacing for adjustment of

the fit of a PFD
3.9
status indicator

part or parts of an inflation system which provide user feedback to assist in keeping an inflaTable PFD in an

armed and ready condition

EXAMPLES single-point status indicator, multi-point status indicator, cylinder seal indicator

3.10
polymeric foam coating

coating applied to flotation foam in place of a fabric covering to protect and strengthen the finished PFD

3.11
selvage
uncut edge portion of a fabric
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ISO/DIS 12402-7
3.12
serviceability
ease with which the inflation system mechanism is properly rearmed
3.13
serviceable

capable of continued use, i.e. exhibits no signs of functional deterioration, broken or deformed hardware, non-

functional indicators, blocked or detached oral inflation tube, or detached manual inflator trigger

3.14
adult PFD
PFD intended for users with a mass greater than (or equal to) 40 kg
3.15
child lifejacket

lifejacket intended for users with a mass greater than (or equal to) 15 kg and less than 40 kg

3.16
child buoyancy aid

buoyancy aid intended for users with a mass greater than (or equal to) 25 kg and less than 40 kg

3.17
structural parts, materials and components

parts, materials, or components that are integral to the device and that are essential for its correct function

and performance
3.18
ride-up prevention system

system that helps to secure the PFD in its functional position on the body and prevent the PFD from riding up

the body towards the head.
4 Materials and components
4.1 General
4.1.1 Principles

All structural materials and components of personal flotation devices shall meet the requirements specified in

this part of ISO/DIS 12402:2015.

The human subject performance tests shall be witnessed by a test panel of at least 2 experts familiar with

testing and the products specified in the relevant parts of ISO/DIS 12402:2015.

The human subject performance tests shall be carried out under the direction of a test house’s test panel that

is experienced in these specific test procedures. These tests shall be observed by at least 2 experienced

observers from the panel and repeated with 3 experienced observers from the panel if there is any question

about the performance observed. An observer is to be qualified by having experience of observing (or

conducting under the supervision of a qualified observer) the specific test on at least 3 occasions.

NOTE 1 It is recommended that the test panel have at least one member of the test house regularly

participating in experience exchanges and round robin tests.
4.1.2 Sampling

Two samples (one from each end of the range) of materials and components common to a range of products

may be presented and the results used to cover the full range of products.
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ISO/DIS 12402-7
4.1.3 Pass or fail criteria

All required samples shall pass all objective tests for the component or material to meet the requirements of

this part of ISO/DIS 12402. For any test identified as subjective or which uses human test subjects, because

of the high variability between subjects and the difficulty in assessing some subjective measures, a

component may be accepted on the basis of the following additional testing. If a component does not

completely meet the requirements of a test for a particular measurement or does so but with only one test

subject, another two samples or subjects (within similar physical characteristics, if applicable) shall be

subjected to the same test and before the same test personnel. Such subjective tests shall be witnessed by a

test panel of at least two experts familiar with testing the products specified in the series of

ISO/DIS 12402:2015 and repeated with three experts if there is any question about the performance

observed. If this additional test is still not clearly passed in accordance with this part of ISO/DIS 12402:2015,

then the component or material shall be deemed to have failed. The test panel should deem that the

component or material has passed the test only if it has now fulfilled the test requirements completely.

4.1.4 Units of measurement
Units of measurement shall be in accordance with ISO 31.
4.1.5 Material
4.1.5.1 Non-metallic components and fabrics

Non-metallic components and fabrics shall not be damaged when tested in accordance with the relevant

Tables of this standard.
4.1.5.2 Corrosion of metal components

When tested in accordance with ISO 9227 for a minimum of 160 h, metal components shall not be significantly

affected by corrosion when tested in accordance with the relevant Tables of this standard.

No metallic component shall affect a magnetic compass of a type commonly used in small boats by more than

1° when placed 500 mm from the compass.
4.1.5.3 Innocuousness
The foam flotation material shall not contain CFC or HCFC.
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO/DIS 12402-7
4.1.6 Sample conditioning
4.1.6.1 General

Materials and components common to a range of products may be presented as one sample of each item.

Prior to testing, materials and components shall be conditioned.
4.1.6.2 Standard conditioning

a) Except for textile products (i.e., fabric, webbing, thread, tie tape), the applicable number of samples

specified in each section shall be conditioned at (23 ± 2) °C and (50 ± 5) % relative humidity for not less

than 24 h prio
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 12402-7
Deuxième édition
2020-07
Équipements individuels de
flottabilité —
Partie 7:
Matériaux et composants — Exigences
de sécurité et méthodes d'essai
Personal flotation devices —
Part 7: Materials and components — Safety requirements and test
methods
Numéro de référence
ISO 12402-7:2020(F)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 12402-7:2020(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
© ISO 2020

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publication ne peut être reproduite ni utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique,

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être demandée à l’ISO à l’adresse ci-après ou au comité membre de l’ISO dans le pays du demandeur.

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Publié en Suisse
ii © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 12402-7:2020(F)
Sommaire  Page

Avant-propos ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

1  Domaine d'application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2  Références normatives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3  Termes et définitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4  Matériaux et composants ............................................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.1 Généralités .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.1.1 Principe .................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.1.2 Échantillonnage ................................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.1.3 Critères de réussite ou d'échec ............................................................................................................................ 5

4.1.4 Unités de mesure ............................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.1.5 Matériau .................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

4.1.6 Conditionnement de l'échantillon .................................................................................................................... 6

4.2 Fils de couture ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.2.1 Construction ........................................................................................................................................................................ 7

4.2.2 Performances ...................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.2.3 Résistance à la rupture d'une boucle ............................................................................................................. 7

4.3 Tissu ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

4.3.1 Généralités ............................................................................................................................................................................ 8

4.3.2 Performances ...................................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.3.3 Couleur ..................................................................................................................................................................................12

4.4 Sangles et rubans structurels ..................................................................................................................................................13

4.4.1 Généralités .........................................................................................................................................................................13

4.4.2 Rigidité de torsion .......................................................................................................................................................13

4.5 Attache structurelle .........................................................................................................................................................................15

4.5.1 Généralités .........................................................................................................................................................................15

4.5.2 Construction .....................................................................................................................................................................15

4.5.3 Performances ...................................................................................................................................................................15

4.6 Fermetures à glissière structurelles ..................................................................................................................................16

4.6.1 Construction .....................................................................................................................................................................16

4.6.2 Performances ...................................................................................................................................................................16

4.7 Ferrures éclair structurelles .....................................................................................................................................................20

4.7.1 Dispositifs de fermeture et de réglage des sangles .........................................................................20

4.7.2 Dispositifs de fermeture et de réglage des bandes d'attache .................................................24

4.7.3 Guides à œillets multiples .....................................................................................................................................27

4.8 Matériau de flottabilité en mousse .....................................................................................................................................28

4.8.1 Généralités .........................................................................................................................................................................28

4.8.2 Performances ...................................................................................................................................................................30

4.8.3 Tricot enduisant le matériau de flottabilité de type mousse ..................................................35

4.9 Matériaux des chambres de gonflage ...............................................................................................................................38

4.9.1 Généralités .........................................................................................................................................................................38

4.9.2 Performances ...................................................................................................................................................................38

4.10 Revêtements en mousse polymère .....................................................................................................................................42

4.10.1 Construction .....................................................................................................................................................................42

4.10.2 Performances ...................................................................................................................................................................42

4.11 Systèmes de gonflage pour gilets de sauvetage hybrides et entièrement gonflables .............45

4.11.1 Construction .....................................................................................................................................................................45

4.11.2 Performances ...................................................................................................................................................................48

4.11.3 Essais de performances utilisant des sujets humains ..................................................................56

4.11.4 Essai d'opérabilité des systèmes de gonflage automatiques ..................................................57

4.11.5 Opérabilité des systèmes de gonflage manuels ..................................................................................58

4.11.6 Essai d'opérabilité des systèmes de gonflage buccal.....................................................................59

4.11.7 Essais de décharge des systèmes de gonflage automatiques et manuels ....................59

© ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés iii
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ISO 12402-7:2020(F)
4.11.8 Essai d'exposition à une atmosphère humide pour les systèmes de

gonflage automatiques ............................................................................................................................................61

4.11.9 Essais de durabilité des systèmes de gonflage automatiques et manuels ..................62

4.11.10 Essai d'opérabilité des valves de surpression .....................................................................................62

4.11.11 Essai de traction des systèmes de gonflage automatiques et manuels et

des indicateurs d'étanchéité de la cartouche .......................................................................................62

4.11.12 Matériau des fenêtres ...............................................................................................................................................62

4.12 Cartouches de gaz pleines ..........................................................................................................................................................64

4.12.1 Construction .....................................................................................................................................................................64

4.12.2 Essais et critères d'acceptation ........................................................................................................................66

4.12.3 Marquage .............................................................................................................................................................................78

Annexe A (informative) Résistance à la moisissure des matériaux : méthode

d'enfouissement dans le sol ...................................................................................................................................................................79

Annexe B (informative) Résistance du tissu à l'abrasion : méthode oscillatoire (Méthode de

Wyzenbeek) ............................................................................................................................................................................................................82

Annexe C (informative) Exemple de dessin de conception .........................................................................................................85

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................86

iv © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 12402-7:2020(F)
Avant-propos

L'ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d'organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l'ISO). L'élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l'ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l'ISO participent également aux travaux.

L'ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui

concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier, de prendre note des différents

critères d'approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a été

rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2 (voir www

.iso .org/ directives).

L'attention est attirée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l'objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L'ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant

les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de

l'élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l'Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de

brevets reçues par l'ISO (voir www .iso .org/ brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un

engagement.

Pour une explication de la nature volontaire des normes, la signification des termes et expressions

spécifiques de l'ISO liés à l'évaluation de la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l'adhésion

de l'ISO aux principes de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) concernant les obstacles

techniques au commerce (OTC), voir www .iso .org/ avant -propos.

Le présent document a été élaboré par le comité technique ISO/TC 188, Petits navires, Sous-comité SC 1,

Équipements de sécurité individuels.

Cette deuxième édition annule et remplace la première édition (ISO 12402-7:2006), qui a fait l'objet

d'une révision technique. Elle incorpore également l'Amendement ISO 12402-7:2006/Amd. 1:2011.

Les principaux changements par rapport à l'édition précédente sont les suivants :

a) la température du cycle de température (4.1.6.3) a été modifiée de (65 ± 2) °C à (60 ± 2) °C ;

b) les critères de conformité du Tableau 1, Fil de couture, ont été modifiés ;

c) les exigences de performance relatives aux tissus ont été modifiées (voir 4.3.2 et Tableau 2) ;

d) de nouvelles coordonnées de chromaticité x et y et de nouvelles valeurs de facteur de luminance β

ont été ajoutées (voir Tableau 3) pour les couleurs jaune, orange et rouge non fluorescentes pour le

matériau de gilet de sauvetage ;

e) de nouvelles coordonnées de chromaticité x et y et de nouvelles valeurs de facteur de luminance

β ont été ajoutées (voir Tableau 4) pour les couleurs jaune, orange et rouge fluorescentes pour le

matériau de gilet de sauvetage ;

f) les critères de conformité pour les sangles structurelle (voir Tableau 5) ont été modifiés ;

g) les critères de conformité de rubans à nouer structurels (voir Tableau 6) ont été modifiés ;

h) un nouveau paragraphe « Généralités » a été ajouté pour les attaches structurelles (voir 4.5.1) ;

© ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés v
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ISO 12402-7:2020(F)

i) l'immersion de fermetures à glissière et des systèmes de gonflage automatiques et manuels

dans l'huile IRM 902 a été supprimée et la température ambiante remplacée par (20 ± 2) °C (voir

Tableaux 8, 17 et 18) ;

j) les critères de conformité des fermetures et ajustements par sangles ont été modifiés (voir

Tableau 9) ;

k) les critères de conformité des fermetures et ajustements par attaches ont été modifiés (voir

Tableau 10) ;

l) le nombre d'échantillons réduit pour l'essai de masse volumique du matériau de flottabilité en

mousse a été supprimé (voir Tableau 12) ;
m) l'essai dimensionnel du matériau de flottabilité en mousse a été supprimé ;

n) la méthode d'essai de la compressibilité des matériaux à flottabilité inhérente a été modifiée

(voir 4.8.2.4) ;

o) les critères de conformité des matériaux de la chambre de flottabilité ont été modifiés (voir

Tableau 15).

Une liste de toutes les parties de la série ISO 12402 se trouve sur le site web de l'ISO.

Il convient que l’utilisateur adresse tout retour d’information ou toute question concernant le présent

document à l’organisme national de normalisation de son pays. Une liste exhaustive desdits organismes

se trouve à l’adresse www .iso .org/ fr/ members .html.
vi © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 12402-7:2020(F)
Introduction

L'ISO 12402:2020 (toutes les parties) traite des équipements individuels de flottabilité (EIF) pour

les personnes prenant part à des activités en relation avec leur travail ou leur loisir, dans l'eau ou à

proximité. Les EIF fabriqués, choisis et entretenus conformément à la présente Norme internationale

donnent à toute personne immergée dans l'eau une assurance raisonnable d'être protégée contre la

noyade. L'ISO 12402:2020 (toutes les parties) ne couvre pas les aspects suivants :

— les exigences relatives aux gilets de sauvetage sur les grands navires de commerce au long cours,

qui sont réglementées par l'Organisation maritime internationale (OMI) conformément à la

Convention internationale pour la sécurité en mer (SOLAS) ;
— les équipements destinés à être lancés et les coussins flottants.

L'ISO 12402:2020 (toutes les parties) permet d'obtenir la flottabilité d'un EIF à l'aide d'une grande

variété de matériaux ou de modèles, dont certains peuvent nécessiter une préparation avant l'immersion

(par exemple, gonflage des chambres soit au moyen de gaz provenant d'une cartouche, soit par gonflage

buccal). Les EIF peuvent être répartis dans les deux principales classes suivantes :

— ceux qui fournissent une position de flottaison de l'utilisateur avec le visage vers le haut, quelles que

soient les conditions physiques (gilets de sauvetage) ; et

— ceux qui nécessitent que l'utilisateur effectue des mouvements de nage ou d'autres mouvements de

posture pour se positionner avec le visage hors de l'eau (aides à la flottabilité).

Dans ces deux principales classes, il existe plusieurs degrés de soutien, de types de flottabilité, de

méthodes de déclenchement pour les équipements gonflables et accessoires (tels que les aides au

repérage). Tous ces éléments influent sur la probabilité de survie de l'utilisateur. Parmi les types de

flottabilité autorisés, les EIF gonflables soit fournissent une flottabilité totale sans autre intervention

de l'utilisateur que l'armement de l'EIF (c'est-à-dire, les EIF à gonflage totalement automatique), soit

nécessitent une action de l'utilisateur. Les EIF hybrides présentent toujours des propriétés de flottabilité

mais nécessitent le même type d'action que les EIF gonflables pour obtenir une flottabilité totale. Dans

le cas des EIF à flottabilité inhérente, il suffit que l’utilisateur porte l'EIF pour que celui-ci atteigne les

performances de sa classe.

Les EIF ne nécessitant pas d'intervention (les EIF à fonctionnement automatique) conviennent aux

activités dans lesquelles les personnes sont susceptibles d'être immergées accidentellement tandis

que les EIF qui nécessitent une intervention (par exemple, les EIF à gonflage manuel) ne conviennent

que si l'utilisateur pense qu'il aura suffisamment de temps pour obtenir une flottabilité totale ou qu'il

disposera d'une aide à proximité. En toutes circonstances, il convient que l’utilisateur s’assure que le

mode de fonctionnement de l’EIF correspond à l’utilisation spécifique qui en est faite. La conformité

d'un EIF à la présente partie de la série ISO 12402:2020 n'implique pas qu'il convienne dans toutes

les circonstances. La quantité relative d'inspections ou de maintenance requise est un autre facteur

d'importance capitale dans le choix et l'utilisation d'un EIF spécifique.

L'ISO 12402:2020 (toutes les parties) a pour but de fournir un guide à l'attention des fabricants, des

acheteurs et des utilisateurs d'équipements de sécurité de ce type en vue d'assurer l'obtention d'un

niveau effectif de performance lors de leur utilisation. Il est également essentiel que le concepteur

encourage le port d'un tel équipement en le rendant confortable et attrayant afin qu'il soit porté en

continu dans l'eau ou à proximité de l'eau, plutôt que stocké dans une armoire pour une utilisation

en cas d'urgence. La principale fonction d'un EIF consiste à soutenir l'utilisateur dans l'eau dans des

conditions de sécurité raisonnables. Dans les deux classes, d'autres caractéristiques rendent certains

1) L'Organisation maritime internationale (OMI) est une institution domiciliée à Londres qui publie des règlements

qui sont ensuite publiés en tant que lois par ses États membres.
© ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés vii
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ISO 12402-7:2020(F)

EIF mieux adaptés à certaines circonstances que d'autres ou facilitent leur utilisation et leur entretien.

Les principales alternatives autorisées par l'ISO 12402:2020 (toutes les parties) sont les suivantes :

— fournir des niveaux de soutien plus importants (niveau 100, 150 ou 275) permettant généralement

à l'utilisateur de flotter avec un franc-bord plus important, lorsque des conditions de plus en plus

sévères l'exigent ; ou fournir des EIF plus légers ou moins volumineux (niveau 50 ou 100) ;

— fournir les types de flottabilité (mousse à flottabilité inhérente, hybride et gonflable) qui s'adaptent

aux besoins parfois contradictoires en matière de fiabilité et de durabilité, de performances dans

l'eau et de port en continu ;

— fournir des EIF à fonctionnement automatique (à flottabilité inhérente ou à gonflage automatique)

soutenant l'utilisateur sans aucune intervention de celui-ci, si ce n'est d'avoir préalablement enfilé

l'EIF (ainsi qu'une inspection régulière et le réarmement des EIF gonflables), ou fournir à l'utilisateur

un moyen de contrôler la flottabilité des EIF gonflables par activation manuelle et buccale ; et

— fournir une aide au repérage (aides à la localisation) et au sauvetage de l'utilisateur.

Les EIF fournissent différents degrés de flottabilité dans des vêtements légers, dont le volume

et l'entrave à la liberté de mouvement ne dépassent pas ce qui est requis par l'usage auquel ils sont

destinés. Ils doivent être fermés lorsqu'ils sont portés afin de fournir un soutien positif dans l'eau et

permettre à l'utilisateur de nager ou d'agir pour son propre sauvetage ou celui des autres. L'EIF choisi

assure à l'utilisateur un soutien avec la bouche et le nez hors de l'eau dans les conditions d'utilisation

attendues et la capacité d'assister les autres.

Dans certaines conditions (telles qu'une eau agitée et des vagues), l'utilisation de vêtements étanches

et multicouches qui fournissent (intentionnellement ou non) une flottabilité supplémentaire, ou

l'utilisation d'équipements plus lourds (tels que des ceintures porte-outils), peut altérer l'efficacité

de l'EIF. Les utilisateurs, propriétaires et employeurs doivent s'assurer de la prise en compte de ces

paramètres lors du choix d'un EIF. De même, les EIF peuvent s'avérer moins efficaces à des températures

extrêmes, bien qu'en totale conformité avec les exigences de l'ISO 12402:2020 (toutes les parties). Les

EIF peuvent également être affectés par d'autres conditions d'utilisation, telles qu'une exposition à des

produits chimiques ou des travaux de soudage, et peuvent nécessiter une protection supplémentaire

pour satisfaire aux exigences d'utilisation particulières. L'utilisation d'un EIF dans de telles

conditions nécessite d'avoir la garantie que l'équipement n'en sera pas altéré de manière défavorable.

L'ISO 12402:2020 (toutes les parties) permet également qu'un EIF fasse partie intégrante d'un harnais

de sécurité conçu pour être conforme à l'ISO 12401, ou fasse partie intégrante d'un vêtement destiné à

d'autres utilisations, par exemple pour fournir une protection thermique pendant l'immersion ; dans ce

cas, il est attendu que l'ensemble complet soit conforme à l'ISO 12402:2020 (toutes les parties).

En compilant les qualités requises d'un EIF, la durée de vie potentielle que l'utilisateur peut en attendre

a également été prise en compte. Tandis qu'un EIF conforme aux spécifications doit être solide de par sa

fabrication et le matériau employé, sa durée de vie potentielle dépend essentiellement de ses conditions

d'utilisation et de stockage, qui sont de la responsabilité du propriétaire, de l'utilisateur et/ou de

l'employeur. De plus, bien que les essais de performance soient censés évaluer son efficacité en situation

réelle, ils ne simulent pas exactement toutes les conditions d'utilisation. Par exemple, le fait qu'un

équipement satisfasse aux essais de retournement en maillot de bain ne garantit pas qu'il assurera le

retournement d'une personne inconsciente portant des vêtements, ni qu'il protégera totalement les

voies respiratoires d'une personne inconsciente dans une eau agitée. Un vêtement imperméable peut

piéger de l'air et donc réduire encore plus la possibilité de retournement du gilet de sauvetage.

Il est essentiel que les propriétaires, utilisateurs et employeurs choisissent des EIF conformes aux

normes adaptées aux circonstances dans lesquelles ils seront utilisés.

Les fabricants et les vendeurs d'EIF doivent indiquer clairement aux acheteurs potentiels, avant l'achat,

les caractéristiques du produit, les différents choix possibles et les limites d'utilisation.

De même, il est recommandé que les personnes établissant la réglementation relative au port de ces

vêtements considèrent avec soin la classe et le niveau de performance les plus appropriés aux conditions

d'utilisation prévisibles, en prenant en compte les circonstances les plus sévères. Il convient que ces

viii © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 12402-7:2020(F)

circonstances à haut risque tiennent compte des probabilités les plus élevées de survenance d'une

immersion accidentelle et des conséquences attendues. Les exigences et recommandations relatives au

choix et à l'application corrects des EIF sont données dans l'ISO 12402-10:2020.
© ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés ix
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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 12402-7:2020(F)
Équipements individuels de flottabilité —
Partie 7:
Matériaux et composants — Exigences de sécurité et
méthodes d'essai
1  Domaine d'application

Le présent document spécifie les exigences minimales de construction et de performances des

matériaux et composants des équipements individuels de flottabilité, ainsi que les méthodes d'essai

correspondantes.
2  Références normatives

Les documents suivants sont cités dans le texte de sorte qu’ils constituent, pour tout ou partie de leur

contenu, des exigences du présent document. Pour les références datées, seule l’édition citée s’applique.

Pour les références non datées, la dernière édition du document de référence s'applique (y compris les

éventuels amendements).

I S O 105 -A02: 19 93, Textiles — Essais de solidité des teintures — Partie A02: Échelle de gris pour l'évaluation

des dégradations

I S O 105 -E02: 2013, Textiles — Essais de solidité des coloris — Partie E02: Solidité des coloris à l'eau de mer

I S O 105 -X 12: 2016 , Textiles — Essais de solidité des coloris — Partie X12: Solidité des coloris au frottement

ISO 139:2005/Amd 1:2011, Textiles — Atmosphères normales de conditionnement et d’essai

ISO 188:2011, Caoutchouc vulcanisé ou thermoplastique — Essais de résistance au vieillissement accéléré

et à la chaleur
ISO 846:2019, Plastiques — Évaluation de l'action des micro-organismes
ISO 1302:2002, Spécification géométrique des produits (GPS) — Indication de
...

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