Ships and marine technology -- Gasketed mechanical couplings for use in piping systems -- Performance specification

ISO 15837:2004 provides the performance characteristics and qualification tests required for gasketed mechanical couplings, including grooved-type mechanical couplings for grooved-end pipe, mechanical restraint couplings for plain-end pipe and mechanical compression couplings for plain-end pipe. These couplings are for use at temperatures within the recommended temperature range of their respective gaskets.

Navires et technologie maritime -- Accouplements mécaniques avec joints pour systèmes de tuyauteries -- Spécification des performances

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
24-Mar-2004
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
01-Mar-2004
Completion Date
25-Mar-2004
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 15837
First edition
2004-04-01
Ships and marine technology — Gasketed
mechanical couplings for use in piping
systems — Performance specification
Navires et technologie maritime — Accouplements mécaniques avec
joints pour systèmes de tuyauteries — Spécification des performances
Reference number
ISO 15837:2004(E)
ISO 2004
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ISO 15837:2004(E)
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Published in Switzerland
ii ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
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ISO 15837:2004(E)
Contents Page

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Terms and definitions .......................................................................................................................... 1

3 Classification ....................................................................................................................................... 3

4 Ordering information ........................................................................................................................... 4

5 Materials ............................................................................................................................................... 4

6 Workmanship, finish and appearance ............................................................................................... 4

7 Other requirements ............................................................................................................................. 4

8 Number of tests and retests for qualification testing ....................................................................... 6

9 Specimen preparation and installation .............................................................................................. 6

10 Test methods ........................................................................................................................................ 7

11 Inspection ............................................................................................................................................. 8

12 Product marking .................................................................................................................................. 8

13 Packaging ............................................................................................................................................. 9

Annex A (normative) Tests to be used in the qualification of GMCs ..................................................... 11

ISO 2004 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 15837:2004(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International

Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 15837 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 8, Ships and marine technology, Subcommittee

SC 3, Piping and machinery.
iv ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 15837:2004(E)
Ships and marine technology — Gasketed mechanical couplings
for use in piping systems — Performance specification
1Scope

This International Standard provides the performance characteristics and qualification tests required for

gasketed mechanical couplings, including grooved-type mechanical couplings for grooved-end pipe,

mechanical restraint couplings for plain-end pipe and mechanical compression couplings for plain-end pipe.

These couplings are for use at temperatures within the recommended temperature range of their respective

gaskets.
2 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
2.1
class

differentiates joint characteristics such as rigid, flexible, restrained and unrestrained

2.2
failure

any leakage or joint separation, unless otherwise determined to be due to a pipe or fitting defect

2.3
fitting
a device used to change pipe direction, size or adapt to other joining methods

NOTE This device is used with pipe or other fittings to create a working system. Shapes such as elbows, tees, crosses,

reducers and special shapes are used as needed to fulfil system design specifications.

2.4
flexible

characteristic of a joint wherein there is available limited angular and axial pipe movement

2.5
gasketed mechanical coupling
GMC

a device used to join pipe-to-pipe, pipe-to-fitting, or fitting-to-fitting wherein an elastomeric (gasket) is used to

seal the joint

NOTE A coupling may or may not provide mechanical restraint of the pipe or fitting.

2.6
working pressure grade

joint working pressure as established by tests using representative pipe or tube and the gasketed mechanical

coupling (GMC)
2.7
grooved mechanical coupling (Type 1)

a device which consists of two or more housings, closure members such as sets of bolts and nuts or pins, and

a pressure-responsive gasket
ISO 2004 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 15837:2004(E)

NOTE It is used to mechanically join and seal grooved pipe and/or fittings, forming a joint.

See Figure 1.
2.8
grooved mechanical coupling housing

structural parts of a grooved mechanical coupling which mechanically fit into pipe or fitting grooves providing

mechanical pipe or fitting restraint and enclosure of the gasket
2.9
plain-end mechanical coupling
plain-end GMCs consisting of Type II Classes 1, 2 and 3
2.9.1
Type II Classes 1 and 2

device consisting of gasket(s), housing(s), sleeve(s), end rings, threaded fasteners, pipe or fitting anchoring

(gripping) features and seal retainers as applicable

NOTE These devices are used to create a seal and restrain plain-end pipe or fittings. See Figures 2 and 3.

2.9.2
Type II Class 3

device consisting of gasket(s), housing(s), sleeve, end rings and threaded fasteners as applicable

NOTE Tightening of the fasteners compresses the gasket(s), creating a seal on the outside of the plain-end pipe. See

Figure 4.
2.10
joint

interface formed between pipe and pipe, pipe and fitting, or fitting and fitting where a GMC is used to seal this

interface within a specified working pressure and, where applicable, provide mechanical holding strength

2.11
joint pressure rating

working pressure for the joint on the pipe or fitting material and thickness to be used in the actual piping

application
2.12
leakage
escape of fluid (gaseous or liquid) from any point of the specimen
2.13
penalty run

a penalty run is performed with penalty-run specimens when the original test specimen leaks or separates

during testing as a result of any cause which is not related to the design of the GMC being qualified

2.14
penalty-run specimens
additional specimen(s) which are tested in the place of the original specimen(s)

NOTE These additional specimen(s) are assembled using the same methods, along with additional GMCs of the same

type, working pressure, class and configuration; and additional pipes or fittings with the same sizes, nominal wall thickness,

material and material condition as the original test specimen.
2.15
pressure-responsive gasket

gasket design such that application of a pressure load to the gasket enhances its sealing capabilities; that is,

additional pressure results in additional force between the gasket and the surface which it is sealing

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ISO 15837:2004(E)
2.16
restrained

characteristic of the joint wherein thrust loads generated by internal pressure or external means are absorbed

within the joint
2.17
rigid

characteristic of a joint where there is essentially no available free angular or axial pipe movement

2.18
specimen

a prepared assembly consisting of the test joint including a GMC and pipes or fittings

NOTE The specimen is placed in a controlled environment and tested to determine if the joint performs according to the

standards established by the test.
2.19
type

differentiation of kind of pipe or fitting which gasketed mechanical couplings are used to join (that is, grooved or

plain end)
2.20
unrestrained

characteristic of a joint wherein thrust generated by internal pressure or external means is not absorbed by the

joint
2.21
size

dimensions of the piping system or component, primarily nominal diameter and wall thickness

2.22
life cycle

complete series and stages of events in the development and manufacture of a product, from the initial

conceptualization through to production, modifications and maintenance
3 Classification
3.1 Design types

Gasketed mechanical couplings (GMCs) are classified into the following design types:

— Type I, grooved mechanical couplings;
— Type II, plain-end mechanical couplings.
3.2 Working pressures

Gasketed mechanical couplings (GMCs) are classified into various working pressures, or grades, based on

successful completion of testing defined herein. Working pressures range from approximately 0,7 MPa to

30 MPa and vary by GMC manufacturer. The GMC manufacturer should be consulted for specific working

pressures available.
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ISO 15837:2004(E)
3.3 Joint characteristics

Gasketed mechanical couplings (GMCs) are classified by the following joint characteristics:

— Class 1: rigid and restrained;
— Class 2: flexible and restrained;
— Class 3: flexible and unrestrained.
4 Ordering information

Orders for GMCs (Gasketed Mechanical Couplings) in accordance with this International Standard shall include

the following characteristics:
— quantity (number of gasketed mechanical couplings);
— size;
— type (I, II);
— working pressure (consult GMC manufacturer);
— class (joint characteristic);
— housing material and finish;
— gasket material, including operating temperature limitations;
— bolt (stud) and nut material and finish;
— other requirements agreed to between purchaser and GMC manufacturer.
5Materials

The materials used for construction of GMCs shall be as agreed upon by the manufacturer and the purchaser,

provided that such materials have been used to qualify the joint's performance in accordance with this

International Standard.
6 Workmanship, finish and appearance
6.1 GMC machined surfaces

Machined surfaces shall be free from burrs, cracks, laps and seams which would affect the suitability for the

intended service. Machined surface finishes shall be as specified by the manufacturer.

6.2 Unmachined surfaces

Unmachined surfaces, such as forging or casting surfaces, shall be free from scale, blisters, fins, folds, seams,

laps, segregations and cracks which would affect suitability for the intended service.

7 Other requirements
7.1 Testing requirements

GMCs shall be subjected to the tests described in Annex A for the purpose of qualifying the GMC design. These

tests shall be repeated when changes are made in the design, material, or manufacturing process that degrade

the performance of the GMC. Degradation determination is to be made by the manufacturer or upon agreement

between the manufacturer and purchaser.
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ISO 15837:2004(E)
7.2 Qualification requirements
7.2.1 General

GMCs shall be qualified using specimens of the same type, working pressure and class. Each type, working

pressure, and class shall be tested in order to qualify the design. Qualification of the GMC requires successful

completion of required testing. Each GMC design is only qualified for use on the pipe or fitting material and wall

thickness on which it was tested.
7.2.2 Sizing

All GMCs tested shall be comprised of an equal number of specimens from the smallest, intermediate, and

largest sizes within the size range of the GMC being qualified. Through reasonable interpolations between the

GMC sizes tested, other sizes of GMCs within the same type, working pressure and class will be considered

qualified if the specimens pass the testing requirements. Extrapolation shall not be used for qualification

purposes.
7.3 Qualification test report

Upon completion of testing, a qualification test report shall be written and maintained on file during the life cycle

of the design. A copy of this report shall be made available for inspection at the manufacturer's facility. Any

failure during qualification testing shall be analysed and the failure analysis and corrective action shall be

included in the qualification test report.
7.4 Retest

A retest as specified in Clause 8 may be allowed when failure of the original joint occurs during qualification

testing. When retesting is permitted, the failure analysis and corrective action shall be included in the

qualification test report specified in 7.3.
7.5 Test equipment and inspection facilities
7.5.1 General

Test equipment and inspection facilities shall be of sufficient accuracy and quality to permit performance of

required inspections and tests.
7.5.2 Calibration system requirements

Testing and inspection facilities shall maintain a calibration system for Measuring and Test Equipment in

accordance with the national standards of the country in which the testing is conducted.

7.6 Test conditions
Test conditions shall be as follows.
— Test pressures as specified within each test shall be used.

— Fluid used in the testing of GMCs shall be water, air or nitrogen (N ), as specified.

— Unless otherwise specified, GMCs shall be tested within the temperature range stated by the type of test

being performed. When no temperature is specified within a test, the test shall be conducted at ambient

conditions.
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ISO 15837:2004(E)
7.7 Performance requirements

Pass criteria for each test shall require meeting or exceeding the performance requirements specified in each

test.
8 Number of tests and retests for qualification testing
8.1 General
Each test shall be performed on specimens as denoted in Table A.1.
8.2 Penalty runs
8.2.1 General

In the event of not passing a test, the manufacturer shall proceed with one of the following options.

a) If the leak or separation is determined to be design related, the manufacturer shall redesign the GMC and

start all tests from the beginning.

b) If the leak or separation is determined to be unrelated to the design, the test specimen shall be run again

with a replacement test specimen.

c) If the leak or separation cannot be shown to be either design related or non-design related, the

manufacturer shall test three additional penalty-run specimens. The requirements specified in 8.2.2 shall

apply.
8.2.2 Penalty-run specimens
Penalty-run specimens shall meet the following requirements.

— Penalty-run specimens shall be prepared when a GMC has failed any of the tests specified in Annex A.

— GMCs used for penalty run(s) shall be of the same type, working pressure and class as the failed GMC

being replaced.

— The pipe or fitting used in penalty runs shall be of the same material, outside diameter and wall thickness as

the pipe or fitting being replaced. Preparation of the penalty-run specimens shall be in accordance with

Clause 9.
— Penalty-run specimens shall be identified in accordance with 9.3.

— In addition to the part number and test specimen number, a designator shall be placed after the test

specimen number which allows the specimen to be identified as a penalty-run specimen. The method used

to identify penalty-run specimens shall be at the manufacturer's option.
9 Specimen preparation and installation
9.1 General

Specimen preparation and installation on appropriate testing apparatus shall be in accordance with the

manufacturer's recommended procedures.
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ISO 15837:2004(E)
9.2 Assembly of specimens for test
9.2.1 General
The following are general test requirements:

— GMCs qualified under the requirements of this International Standard shall be tested and qualified as a

completed assembly; that is, a joint;

— test specimens used in testing shall be assembled using a GMC of a single type, working pressure and

class;

— the wall thickness and outside diameter. size of the pipe or fitting shall be as specified by the manufacturer

for the GMC joint being qualified.
9.2.2 Prohibited assemblies

The intermixing of sub-components of the same type, working pressure and class, but of different brands or

trade names, constitutes non-conformance with this standard and is prohibited.
9.3 Identification of test specimens

Test specimens shall be identified in accordance with the following requirements.

— Each test specimen shall be identified with a unique number to provide traceability back to the test records.

— Identification of test specimens shall be permanent. In those cases where size or design does not permit

permanent markings, tagging or bagging may be used.

— When, as a result of testing, a test specimen is sectioned into two or more pieces, each piece shall be

marked with the original unique identification number.
9.4 Disposal

Test specimens may be disposed of following approval of the qualification test report by the GMC manufacturer.

10 Test methods
10.1 General

Standard qualification tests for GMC are specified in Annex A. The following tests described are required for

GMC qualification as applicable to the type, working pressure and class.
10.2 Certification of test results

When specified in the purchase order or the contract, the purchaser shall be furnished certification that samples

representing the GMC have been tested as directed in this International Standard and the requirements have

been met. When specified in the purchase order or contract, a report of the results shall be available for

inspection at the manufacturer's facility.
10.3 In-process material tests

In-process material tests shall be performed in accordance with manufacturer's standard in-process test

procedures.
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ISO 15837:2004(E)
11 Inspection
11.1 Terms of inspection

Inspection of GMCs shall be in accordance with manufacturer's standard inspection procedure or as agreed

upon between the purchaser and the manufacturer or supplier as part of the purchase contract.

11.2 Raw-material inspection

Raw material shall be inspected for compliance with its material specification. A certificate of compliance or mill

certificate shall be obtained from the material supplier, as applicable.
11.3 Quality-conformance inspection

GMC samples shall be visually and dimensionally examined to verify conformance to the manufacturer's

drawings.
11.4 Process-control inspection

GMCs shall be inspected throughout the entire manufacturing and processing cycle. Methods of inspection

shall be in conformance to the manufacturer's quality assurance procedures.
12 Product marking
12.1 General

Each GMC shall be marked with the manufacturer's name or trademark, size and markings traceable to the

type, working pressure and class. When shape or size does not permit inclusion of all required markings, the

information may be omitted in the reverse order presented.
12.2 Additional markings

Additional markings, other than those specified, which are part of the manufacturer's standard practice, may

also be applied to GMCs.
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ISO 15837:2004(E)
13 Packaging

The GMC shall be boxed, crated, wrapped and otherwise protected during shipment and storage in accordance

with the manufacturer's standard practice. Care shall be taken to properly protect the GMC from distortion and

other damage during shipment and storage. GMCs may be shipped assembled; or bolts and gaskets may be

packaged separately in suitable containers to withstand handling and storage.
Figure 1 — Typical construction of Type I
Figure 2 — Typical construction of Type II — Class 1
ISO 2004 – All rights reserved 9
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ISO 15837:2004(E)
Figure 3 — Typical construction of Type II — Class 2
Figure 4 — Typical construction of Type II — Class 3
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ISO 15837:2004(E)
Annex A
(normative)
Tests to be used in the qualification of GMCs
A.1 General requirements
A.1.1 Scope

This clause lists the tests to be used in the qualification of GMCs. In addition, statements that apply to all tests

are specified to minimize redundancy.
A.1.2 Safety concerns

The tests required to qualify GMCs may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This standard

does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user

of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of

regulations or limitations prior to use.
A.1.3 Order of tests
The test procedures appear in the order given in Table A.1.
Table A.1 — Test order
Name of test Clause
Examination of specimens A.2
Pneumatic proof (leak) test A.3
Vacuum proof test A.4
Hydrostatic proof test A.5
Flexibility proof test A.6
Hydrostatic burst test A.7
Rigidity test A.8
Bending-moment proof test A.9
Bending-moment ultimate test A.10
A.1.4 General testing requirements
General test requirements are as follows:

— Table A.2 provides information on the tests that shall be performed and the number of specimens for each

test.
◦ ◦
24 C± 5 C
— Ambient temperature tests shall be performed at .

— Tests may be performed by the manufacturer or by a test facility designated by the manufacturer. In all

cases, the testing apparatus used to test GMC shall be calibrated in accordance with the requirements

specified in Clause 7.

— Pipe or fittings shall be prepared and installed in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.

— When pressure testing with water, test specimens shall be purged of air prior to pressurizing.

ISO 2004 – All rights reserved 11
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ISO 15837:2004(E)

— End caps, adapters and plugs used to block off a pipe or fitting end shall be of design(s) designated by the

manufacturer. The end caps, adapters and plugs shall be constructed to preclude their failure during testing.

— Failure of any test specimen which is related to separation or leakage at the end cap, adapter or plug shall

be recorded in the test report, but shall not be considered a failure of the GMC/pipe or fitting combination

being tested. Replacement test specimens shall be prepared in accordance with Clause 9.

— Failure of any test specimen at the GMC pipe or fitting joint being tested constitutes failure of the GMC

design. GMCs shall be assembled in accordance with manufacturer's recommended procedures.

— Qualification of a GMC shall be based upon a successful passing of the tests described in A.2 through A.10.

The flexibility test (see A.6) does not apply to Class 1 GMCs, the rigidity test (see A.8) does not apply to

Classes 2 and 3 GMCs and the Bending-moment proof test (see A.9) does not apply to Type II Class 2 or

3GMCs.
Table A.2 — Testing requirements
Description of test Number of specimens Applicability of test
A.2 Examination of specimens All Types I and II – Classes 1, 2, 3
A.3 Pneumatic proof (leak) test 3 Types I and II – Classes 1, 2, 3
A.4 Vacuum proof test 3 Types I and II – Classes 1, 2, 3
A.5 Hydrostatic proof test 3 Types I and II – Classes 1, 2, 3
A.6 Flexibility proof test 3 Types I and II – Classes 2 and Type II Class 3
A.7 Hydrostatic burst test 3 Types I and II – Classes 1, 2, 3
A.8 Rigidity proof test 3 Types I and II – Class 1
A.9 Bending-moment proof test 3 Type I – Class 1, 2 and Type II – Class 1
A.10 Bending-moment ultimate test 3 Type I – Class 1, 2 and Type II – Class 1
NOTE As far as practical, specimens may be used for more than one test.
A.2 Examination of specimens
A.2.1 Scope

This procedure covers the inspection and examination of test specimens prepared in accordance with the

requirements specified in Clause 9.
A.2.2 Significance and use

GMCs are comprised of couplings which are attached to or onto pipes or fittings using a variety of methods. In

order to ascertain the integrity of each GMC type covered, it becomes important to subject all types of GMCs to

essentially the same tests. When the same tests are used, the assembly of some of the test specimens may

become critical to the results of the test performed. The usefulness of this procedure lies in the examination of

GMC test specimens to ensure that resulting assemblies duplicate appropriate stresses for all types of GMCs

qualified using the tests specified herein.
A.2.3 Procedures

GMC test specimens shall be assembled in accordance with the manufacturer's assembly procedures. The

materials used to assemble the test specimens shall be in accordance with Clause 9. The pipe or fitting

dimensions may vary (tolerances), as allowed by the manufacturer. Quality and workmanship of the test

specimens shall be in accordance with the requirements specified in Clause 6. End caps or adapters used to

close off pipe or fitting ends shall be at the discretion of the manufacturer or designated testing facility. During

visual examination of the test specimens, any unusual findings in accordance with the requirements specified in

Clause 11 shall be recorded.
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ISO 15837:2004(E)
A.2.4 Test report

The following information shall be recorded in the test report at the time of examination:

a) date examined;
b) GMC specimen number;
c) pipe or fitting material and finish;
d) measured pipe or fitting outside diameter;
e) wall thickness.
A.3 Pneumatic proof (leak) test
A.3.1 Scope
This clause covers pneumatic proof (leak) testing of GMC test specimens.
A.3.2 Significance and use

This test is the initial test of all GMC specimens prepared for qualification. The test is performed by internally

pressurizing the test specimen(s) using dry air or nitrogen (N ). If the specimen shows no evidence of leakage,

the specimen has successfully passed the test. This test is useful in determining if the GMC pipe or fitting

connection has been assembled correctly, if the gasket is seated and installed correctly, and if the GMC design

performs as proposed at this pressure.
A.3.3 Test procedure
The following procedures shall be followed.

— The test specimen shall be placed in an appropriate chamber and secured in place in accordance with the

manufacturer's recommended procedures. Classes 1 and 2 shall not be longitudinally restrained. Class 3

shall be longitudinally restrained.
— The pneumatic proof test shall be performed at ambient temperature.

— The chamber shall be equipped with calibrated pressure gauges to permit visual readings of the actual

internal pressure being applied.

— Nitrogen (N ) or dry air shall be used to internally pressurize the test specimens to 0,55 MPa or to

0,25 times the proposed rated pressure, whichever is less. The tolerance on the internal pressure shall be

0,03 MPa. A stabilization period shall be allowed to remove surface bubbles. The test period following

stabilization shall be 5 min. There shall be no evidence of leakage during the test period. If leakage occurs

...

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