Graphic technology -- Printing from digital data across multiple technologies

Technologie graphique -- Impression à partir de données numériques via des technologies multiples

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FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 15339-1
ISO/TC 130
Graphic technology — Printing
Secretariat: SAC
from digital data across multiple
Voting begins on:
2014-06-23 technologies —
Voting terminates on:
Part 1:
2014-08-23
Principles
Technologie graphique — Impression à partir de données numériques
via des technologies multiples —
Partie 1: Principes
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/FDIS 15339-1:2014(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2014
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 15339-1:2014(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2014

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 15339-1:2014(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 Principles and assumptions ......................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Data encoding .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.3 Data preparation ................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.4 Characterized reference printing conditions and colour characterization data ............................ 3

4.5 Use selection criteria for choice of characterized reference printing condition ............................ 3

4.6 Adjustment of data for substrate colour differences ............................................................................................. 4

4.7 Alternate printing reference........................................................................................................................................................ 4

4.8 Colour profiles ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5 Process control ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2 Printing to intended gamut .......................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.3 Determine colour characterization ....................................................................................................................................... 6

5.4 Maintain running characteristics of the printing device .................................................................................... 6

5.5 Job content specific adjustments ............................................................................................................................................. 7

Annex A (normative) Correction of colourimetric data for variation in substrate colour ...........................8

Annex B (informative) Tolerancing schema ...............................................................................................................................................10

Annex C (informative) Process independent workflow .................................................................................................................14

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................15

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 15339-1:2014(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information
The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 130, Graphic technology.

ISO 15339 consists of the following parts, under the general title Graphic technology — Printing from

digital data across multiple technologies:
— Part 1: Principles
— Part 2: Characterized reference printing conditions, CRPC1- CRPC7
iv © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 15339-1:2014(E)
Introduction

ISO 15339 series is based on the premise that in the printing and publishing industries, electronic data is

the intermediary for content storage and exchange throughout production, including copy preparation,

job assembly, proofing, and process colour printing. It further assumes that data preparation can be

largely process independent and that choice of the printing process or processes to be used for final

production will be based primarily on run length requirements and substrates to be used. There

are various tools in place to both define the relationship of digital data to printed colour for specific

instances of printing and to manipulate data such that similar results can be obtained between and

among different printing processes (ISO/TS 10128). These specific instances of printing are typically

described by colour characterization data, which is the relationship between CMYK input data and

colour measured on the printed sheet. Where such a set of colour characterization data is used as a

reference, it is referred to as a characterized reference printing condition (CRPC).

When producing printed colour reproductions, it is important that the organizations responsible for

material preparation, colour separation, proofing, and printing are all working to a common set of

parameters that uniquely define the intended visual characteristics of the final printed product. Such

an agreement enables the correct production of suitable input data and subsequent production of proofs

from these data. The purpose of a proof is to simulate the visual characteristics of the finished print

product as closely as possible prior to production printing.

There is a unique relationship between ink, substrate, and printing process that limits the maximum

chroma of the solids of the printing colourants and therefore limits the range of colours (colour gamut)

that can be achieved for particular combinations. While special inks can be used, the commonly

available ink pigments are used across all traditional ink processes. While toner and ink-jet systems

have different colourant constraints than traditional ink processes, they tend to mimic traditional

ink process aims and they will be treated as a variation of traditional ink processes. The achievable

chroma range (gamut) of ink-on-paper characterized reference printing conditions can generally be

bracketed between cold-set printing on newsprint on the small end and by printing on gloss coated

stocks (by a variety of processes) on the large end. Between these limits, there is significant overlap

of process/substrate combinations. The number of intermediate characterized reference printing

conditions that are logical to define between smallest and largest is in part a function of the tolerances

to which printing is expected to conform to the intended characterized reference printing condition.

However, the intermediate characterized reference printing conditions also need to represent common

widely used printing and that was the determining factor for the selection of the characterized reference

printing conditions listed in ISO 15339-2. In addition, a characterized reference printing condition 7 is

included to represent a possible exchange space for large gamut processes that exceed the colour gamut

of characterized reference printing condition 6 and therefore need a larger reference gamut.

The data sets defined in ISO 15339-2 are those associated with the initial publication of ISO 15339 series.

It is the intent of ISO TC 130 that if changes in, or additions to, these data sets are needed in the future,

they will be documented in added parts of ISO 15339 series so that changes in the data sets, or addition

of data sets, are possible without losing traceability to earlier data sets.

A colour characterization data set is required for each characterized reference printing condition

specified. Because the intent of ISO 15339 series is that the data sets provided can be used as the reference

for any printing process, they might not be aligned with the typical TVI and trapping associated with

any specific printing process. The values selected need to represent a compromise between all potential

processes to be used — in effect virtual printing on a virtual printing system.

It is important to realize that digital data can be encoded as already separated CMYK or can consist

of un-separated data (typically in an RGB colour space) with supplementary information (ICC colour

profiles, etc) defining the colour intended on the printed sheet. Such unseparated data plus the associated

supplementary data is sometimes referred to as “virtual CMYK” data. All data is to be encoded according

to one of the PDF/X specifications (parts of ISO 15930) to allow the necessary metadata which identifies

the intended characterized reference printing condition to be included.

The colour of the printing substrate is a critical component of the colour appearance of a printed image

(it behaves like a fifth colour). With the current widespread use of optical brightening agents (OBA),

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 15339-1:2014(E)

substrate colour is defined in terms of its apparent reflectance under D50 illumination (see ISO 3664).

For halftone images, the colour of the substrate contributes mostly in the area not covered by ink.

ISO 13655 provides a reasonably effective method to adjust tristimulus data of measured halftone

areas for moderate changes in substrate colour. ISO 15339 is based on the assumption that the colour

characterization data can be adjusted (fine-tuned) for the range of normal substrate colours expected

and that different characterized reference printing conditions are not required for moderate differences

in substrate colour.

Although density, tone value increase, grey balance, etc. are individually important tools for the printing

and publishing industry, in this part of ISO 15339, they are assumed to be part of process control and

not printing definition. They need to be considered in developing reference colour characterization data

sets and need to be used where applicable as part of local site ongoing process control.

Modern characterization data and profile evaluation tools allow identification of the colour of the solids,

the colour and tone values of the single colour scales, and the CMY values associated with the neutral

(achromatic) tone scale. Using the values derived from the colour characterization data, rather than any

a priori values, is the recommended input for process control aims used to control a printing process

intended to conform to a particular characterized reference printing condition.

Annex C provides a description of the process independent workflow that is the basis for the concepts

embodied in ISO 15339 series.
vi © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 15339-1:2014(E)
Graphic technology — Printing from digital data across
multiple technologies —
Part 1:
Principles
1 Scope

This part of ISO 15339 establishes principles for the use of colour characterization data as the definition

of the intended relationship between input data and printed colour for copy preparation, job assembly,

proofing, and graphic arts production printing. Additional parts of ISO 15339 specify a limited number

of characterized reference printing conditions that span the expected range of colour gamut used for the

production of printed material from digital data, regardless of the printing process used. The procedure

to be used to adjust colour characterization data for the normally expected range of substrate colour is

specified.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/TS 10128, Graphic technology — Methods of adjustment of the colour reproduction of a printing system

to match a set of characterization data

ISO 12642-2, Graphic technology — Input data for characterization of 4-colour process printing — Part 2:

Expanded data set

ISO 13655, Graphic technology — Spectral measurement and colourimetric computation for graphic arts

images

ISO 15930 (all parts), Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange using PDF

ISO 15076-1, Image technology colour management — Architecture, profile format and data structure —

Part 1: Based on ICC.1:2010
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
characterized reference printing condition
CRPC

identified printing condition and its colour characterization data used as the aim for a particular printing

task (job)
3.2
colour characterization data

tabulation of data that represents the relationship between device code values (e.g. CMYK) and the

colour (CIELAB) produced on the printed sheet by those values in a specific printing process

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 15339-1:2014(E)
3.3
colour profile

set of transforms, encoded according to the rules of ISO 15076-1, that convert data between (to and

from) device space and profile connection space

Note 1 to entry: Transforms contained within a colour profile can include manipulation of gamut

compression/expansion, tone reproduction, colour separation, black printer creation, printing limitations (e.g.

total area coverage), etc.
3.4
gamut
region of CIELAB colour space containing all printable colours

Note 1 to entry: For comparison purposes, the CIELAB values of the primaries and secondaries, along with the

substrate, are often an adequate, if sparse, definition of a colour gamut. The surface values of the measurements

of a target, such as that included in ISO 12642-2, can provide a more complete definition.

3.5
process independent

condition of being independent of the printing process (offset, flexography, gravure, etc.) to be used for

production of printed material
3.6
identified printing condition

printing condition documented in a national or International Standard or industry publication in a way

that allows it to be replicated by an industry practitioner
4 Requirements
4.1 Principles and assumptions

One of the key principles upon which this part of ISO 15339 is based is that colour content data can be

adjusted such that any printing processes, capable of achieving a specified colour gamut, can produce

the within-gamut image colours specified by the appropriate reference colour characterization data.

This allows printing aims to be process independent.

A second principle is that process control aims and tools should be based on (extracted from) the

reference colour characterization data selected and not based on a priori assumptions. Many of the

parameters used in process control such as tone value increase, grey balance, etc. are contained within,

or can be derived from, the colour characterization data chosen as reference. Local site tools can also be

used for initial setup processes, but these need to be based on the known differences between the colour

characterization data aims and the colour characterization of the actual printing system being used.

Where similar characteristics, such as tone reproduction, are desired between different characterized

reference printing conditions (different colour gamut), these need to be built into the colour

characterization data associated with these characterized reference printing conditions. Characterized

reference printing conditions, and their associated colour characterization data, can be thought of as a

virtual printing system (press) and as such, the characterization data can be manipulated mathematically

to fine tune results to achieve smoothness, uniformity, and/or other characteristics.

The key requirement for successful application of these principals is that the reference colour

characterization data and the characterization data for the printing system being used shall have

the same gamut and be sufficient to allow the necessary data adjustment. (See ISO/TS 10128 for

recommended procedures to implement such data adjustment.)
4.2 Data encoding

In the absence of other prior agreement, electronic colour content data to be used as the intermediate

storage and exchange media between copy preparation, job assembly, proofing, and printing shall be

2 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 15339-1:2014(E)

encoded in accordance with a part of ISO 15930. Any deviation from this, such as encoding in ISO 12639 or

in some other format, shall be according to prior agreement by all parties and shall include communication

of the reference characterization data of the intended printing condition and, as necessary, a colour

profile to transform any data not supplied in the process colour model of the reference.

4.3 Data preparation

All print elements shall be prepared either as device code values or as colourimetrically-defined data.

However, both types of data, if present in print elements, shall be prepared for a single characterized

reference printing condition. This condition shall be provided in the PDF/X output intent in the case of

an ISO 15930 exchange or shall be communicated by mutually agreed upon methods in other situations.

Unless otherwise agreed between sender and receiver, the characterized reference printing condition

shall be one of the data sets defined in a part of ISO 15339.
4.4 Characterized reference printing conditions and colour characterization data

The characterized reference printing conditions associated with ISO 15339 are contained in additional

parts of ISO 15339. This approach was taken to allow ISO TC 130 to change or update characterized

reference printing conditions without revising or invalidating characterized reference printing

conditions that might have been used as the basis for existing printing work.

The data sets defined in ISO 15339-2 (CRPC 1-7) are those associated with the initial publication of

ISO 15339 series.

NOTE If changes in, or additions to these data sets are needed in the future, they can be documented in

added parts of ISO 15339 and carry new CRPC designations. When additional CRPCs are published in subsequent

parts of ISO 15339, it is expected that they will follow the same sequential naming scheme to avoid confusion, i.e.

15339-CRPC-8 would be the next named data set.

For alternate printing processes that do not use colourants that align with the hue angles of a

characterization data set, the colour values may be simulated by the appropriate combination of the

colourants available, assuming the colour gamut of those colourants encompasses the gamut of the

characterized reference printing condition selected. For convenience, this part of ISO 15339 will continue

to refer to single-colour solids, two-colour overprints, etc recognizing that alternate printing systems

might simulate these values using appropriate combinations of available colourants.

All colourimetry should be measured according to ISO 13655 M1 with white backing. Where the

substrate is non-fluorescent, M1 data are identical to M0 data and M0 data may be used as M1 data. If

M1 data is not available, M0 data converted to M1 is sufficient (see Annex A).

The measurement conditions and intended interpretation of all colourimetric data provided as part of

ISO 15339 CRPCs (ISO 15339-2 and future parts) shall be defined in the part of ISO 15339 in which the

data appears.

The characterized reference printing conditions shown in ISO 15339-2 have been selected to be near the

middle of both the general class of printing that is expected to make use of each characterized reference

printing condition and the colour of the substrates used. It is expected that adjustments for substrate

colour (see 4.6) will allow each characterized reference printing condition to meet a wide variety of

needs and be independent of the printing process to be used.

4.5 Use selection criteria for choice of characterized reference printing condition

It is anticipated that the printing industry (with support from the ink and paper organizations) will

begin to develop tables of substrate types and printing processes that will support and/or be most

appropriate for each of the characterized reference printing conditions. Where the same content is to be

reproduced by more than one process or on more than one substrate, a gamut common to the multiple

needs should be selected. Where only a single substrate and printing system is to be used, the typical

choice should be the largest gamut that choice will support.
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 15339-1:2014(E)

The chosen characterized reference printing condition shall be used as the basis for design and content

creation.

Communication of the intended printing condition between all parties (preparation, proofing, and

printing) only needs to identify ISO 15339 and the gamut to be used along with information relating to

any limitations of the intended printing process that need to be considered during preparation, proofing,

or printing.

Not all printing processes that can achieve the same colour gamut are subject to the same limitations.

Offset, gravure, flexography, electrophotographic, ink-jet, etc., each have limitations that might have to

be considered in the final data preparation for printing. These typically include limitations of total ink

coverage, minimum and maximum printable dot sizes, etc.

NOTE If general guidance is needed, additional parts of ISO 15339 can be prepared to assist in the

communication or standardization of the handling of such limitations.
4.6 Adjustment of data for substrate colour differences

The characterization data contained in ISO 15339-2 are all based on the CMYK characterization target

defined in ISO 12642-2. The substrate colour is therefore given in data element 1 of each data set.

Where the printing substrate to be used has a colour that differs from that of the reference printing

condition selected for data preparation and data exchange, correction of the data for such differences

can be beneficial. The use of a single method to accomplish correction enhances the ability of different

users to achieve similar results. Annex A provides one conversion method that produces reasonable

results for halftone type images. Where substrate adjustment is done this fact, the method used (if other

than Annex A) and the values of the intended substrate shall be communicated to all involved.

Where the printing substrate to be used has a colour that differs from that of the reference printing

condition selected for data preparation and data exchange by less than 2 CIEDE2000, the user can elect

to use the data without modification.

Where the printing substrate to be used has a colour that differs from the characterized reference

printing condition selected for data preparation and data exchange by more than 2 but less than 5

CIEDE2000, the method defined in Annex A (see also ISO 13655) should be used to adjust the data before

proofing and printing.

Where the difference in substrate colour is greater than 5 CIEDE2000, this correction may be used but

the user is cautioned that special colour characterization data might be required which is beyond the

scope of ISO 15339 series.

NOTE When data adjustment is done using the tristimulus correction technique defined in Annex A, the

colour values of all data points in the colour characterization data set are changed — including the aim values for

the single-colour solids.

Where characterization data is exchanged that has been modified for changes in substrate colour, it

can no longer be simply referenced as ISO 15339-CRPCx. Where the exchange between participants is

not a blind exchange, agreements concerning the substrate to be used and the substrate correction can

be exchanged and included in private metadata. For blind exchange, it can be treated as an alternate

printing reference (see 4.7).
4.7 Alternate printing reference

Where one of the sets of reference colour characterization data defined in the additional parts of

ISO 15339 are not appropriate for the intended printing because of the inks, paper, or printing process

to be used, prior agreement should be obtained between all parties involved before copy preparation

work is started and the colour characterization data to be used and any colour management profiles

shall be communicated with the job content files.
4 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 15339-1:2014(E)
4.8 Colour profiles

The use of colour profiles is an important part of the data preparation process and colour profiles with

specific characteristics are often specified by industry trade associations to restrict an

...

DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 15339-1.2
ISO/TC 130 Secretariat: SAC
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2013-09-26 2013-12-26
Graphic technology — Printing from digital data across
multiple technologies —
Part 1:
Principles

Technologie graphique — Impression à partir de données numériques via des technologies multiples —

Partie 1: Principes
ICS: 37.100.99;35.240.30
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 15339-1.2:2013(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2013
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 15339-1.2:2013(E)
Copyright notice

This ISO document is a Draft International Standard and is copyright-protected by ISO. Except as

permitted under the applicable laws of the user’s country, neither this ISO draft nor any extract

from it may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means,

electronic, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission being secured.

Requests for permission to reproduce should be addressed to either ISO at the address below or ISO’s

member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Reproduction may be subject to royalty payments or a licensing agreement.
Violators may be prosecuted.
ii © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 15339-1.2
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction.........................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................1

2 Normative references............................................................................................................................1

3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................1

4 Requirements.........................................................................................................................................2

4.1 Principles and assumptions.................................................................................................................2

4.2 Data encoding........................................................................................................................................3

4.3 Data preparation....................................................................................................................................3

4.4 Characterized reference printing conditions and colour characterization data.............................3

4.5 Use selection criteria for choice of characterized reference printing condition ............................3

4.6 Adjustment of data for substrate colour differences ........................................................................4

4.7 Alternate printing reference .................................................................................................................4

4.8 Colour profiles .......................................................................................................................................4

5 Process control .....................................................................................................................................5

5.1 General ...................................................................................................................................................5

5.2 Printing to intended gamut...................................................................................................................5

5.3 Determine colour characterization ......................................................................................................6

5.4 Maintain running characteristics of the printing device ...................................................................6

5.5 Job content specific adjustments .......................................................................................................7

Annex A (normative) Correction of colorimetric data for variation in substrate colour .............................8

Annex B (informative) Tolerancing schema.....................................................................................................9

Annex C (informative) Process independent workflow.................................................................................13

Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................14

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 15339-1.2
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 15339-1 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 130, Graphic technology.

ISO 15339 consists of the following parts, under the general title Graphic technology — Printing from digital

data across multiple technologies:
⎯ Part 1: Principles
⎯ Part 2: Characterized reference printing conditions - 2013
iv © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 15339-1.2
Introduction

ISO 15339 is based on the premise that in the printing and publishing industry, electronic data is the

intermediary for content storage and exchange throughout production including copy preparation, job

assembly, proofing, and process colour printing. It further assumes that data preparation can be largely

process independent and that choice of the printing process or processes to be used for final production will

be based primarily on run length requirements and substrates to be used. There are a variety of tools in place

to both define the relationship of digital data to printed colour for specific instances of printing and to

manipulate data such that similar results can be obtained between and among different printing processes

(ISO/TS 10128). These specific instances of printing are typically described by colour characterization data,

which is the relationship between CMYK input data and colour measured on the printed sheet. Where such a

set of colour characterization data is used as a reference, it is referred to as a characterized reference printing

condition (CRPC).

When producing printed colour reproductions it is important that the organizations responsible for material

preparation, colour separation, proofing, and printing are all working to a common set of parameters that

uniquely define the intended visual characteristics of the final printed product. Such an agreement enables the

correct production of suitable input data and subsequent production of proofs from these data. The purpose of

a proof is to simulate the visual characteristics of the finished print product as closely as possible prior to

production printing.

There is a unique relationship between ink, substrate, and printing process that limits the maximum chroma of

the solids of the printing colorants and therefore limits the range of colours (colour gamut) that can be

achieved for particular combinations. While special inks can be used, the commonly available ink pigments

seem to be used across all traditional ink processes. While toner and ink-jet systems have different colorant

constraints than traditional ink processes, they tend to mimic traditional ink processes aims and they will be

treated as a variation of traditional ink processes. The achievable chroma range (gamuts) of ink-on-paper

characterized reference printing conditions can generally be bracketed between cold-set printing on newsprint

on the small end and by printing on gloss coated stocks (on a variety of processes) on the large end.

Between these limits there is significant overlap of process/substrate combinations. The number of

intermediate characterized reference printing conditions that are logical to define between smallest and largest

is in part a function of the tolerances to which printing is expected to conform to the intended characterized

reference printing condition. However, the intermediate characterized reference printing conditions also need

to represent common widely used printing conditions and that was the determining factor for the selection of

printing conditions listed in Part 2 of ISO 15339. In addition a characterized reference printing condition 7 is

included to represent a possible exchange space for large gamut processes that exceed the colour gamut of

characterized reference printing condition 6 and therefore need a larger reference gamut.

The data sets defined in ISO 15339-2 are those associated with the initial publication of ISO 15339. It is the

intent of ISO TC130 that if changes in, or additions to. these data sets are needed in the future they will be

documented in added parts of ISO 15339 so that changes in the data sets are possible without loosing

traceability to earlier data sets.

A colour characterization data set is required for each characterized reference printing condition specified.

Because these data sets can be used as the reference for any printing process, they will not be aligned with

the typical TVI and trapping associated with any specific process. The values selected represent a

compromise between all processes – in effect virtual printing on a virtual printing system.

It is important to realize that digital data can be encoded as already separated CMYK or can consist of un-

separated data (typically in an RGB colour space) with supplementary information (ICC colour profiles, etc)

defining the colour it is intended to be on the printed sheet. Such un-separated data plus the associated

supplementary data is sometimes referred to as "virtual CMYK" data. All data is to be encoded according to

one of the PDF/X specifications (Parts of ISO 15930) or to allow the necessary metadata which identifies the

intended characterized reference printing condition to be included.
© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 15339-1.2

The colour of the printing substrate is a critical component of the colour appearance of a printed image (it

behaves like a 5th colour). With the current widespread use of optical brightening agents (OBA) substrate

colour is defined in terms of its apparent reflectance under D50 illumination (see ISO 3664). For halftone

images the colour of the substrate contributes mostly in the area not covered by ink. ISO 13655 provides a

reasonably effective method to adjust tristimulus data of measured halftone areas for moderate changes in

substrate colour. ISO 15339 is based on the assumption that the colour characterization data can be adjusted

(fine tuned) for the range of normal substrate colours expected and that different characterized reference

printing conditions are not required for moderate differences in substrate colour.

Although density, tone value increase, gray balance, etc. are individually important tools for the printing and

publishing industry, in this International Standard they are assumed to be part of process control and not

printing definition. They need to be considered in developing reference colour characterization data sets and

need to be used where applicable as part of local site ongoing process control.

Gray balance in particular is a useful tool for the control of a running press. Modern characterization data and

profile evaluation tools allow identification of the CMY values associated with the neutral (achromatic) tone

scale and the single colour tone value scales for that colour characterization data set. Using the values

derived from the colour characterization data, rather than any a priori values, is the recommended input for

process control aims used to control a printing process intended to conform to a particular characterized

reference printing condition.

Annex C provides a description of the process independent workflow that is the basis for the concepts

embodied in ISO 15339.
vi © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 15339-1.2
Graphic technology — Printing from digital data across multiple
technologies — Part 1: Principles
1 Scope

This part of ISO 15339 establishes principles for the use of colour characterization data as the definition of the

intended relationship between input data and printed colour for copy preparation, job assembly, proofing, and

graphic arts production printing. Additional Parts of ISO 15339 specify a limited number of characterized

reference printing conditions that span the expected range of colour gamuts used for the production of printed

material from digital data, regardless of printing process used. The procedure to be used to adjust colour

characterization data for the normally expected range of substrate colour Is specified.

2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/TS 10128, Graphic technology — Methods of adjustment of the colour reproduction of a printing system

to match a set of characterization data

ISO 12642-2, Graphic technology — Input data for characterization of 4-colour process printing — Part 2:

Expanded data set

ISO 13655, Graphic technology — Spectral measurement and colorimetric computation for graphic arts

images

ISO 15930 (all parts), Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange using PDF

ISO 15076-1, Image technology colour management — Architecture, profile format and data structure — Part

1: Based on ICC.1:2010

CGATS/IDEAlliance TR 015, Graphic technology — Graphic technology — Methodology for Establishing

Printing Aims Based on a Shared Near-neutral Gray-scale
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply
3.1
colour characterization data

tabulation of data that represents the relationship between device code values (eg:CMYK) and the colour

(CIELAB) produced on the printed sheet by those values in a specific printing process

3.2
colour profile

set of transforms, encoded according the rules of ISO 15076-1, that convert data between (to and from)

device space and profile connection space
© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 15339-1.2

Note 1 to entry: The transforms contained within a colour profile can include manipulation of gamut

compression/expansion, tone reproduction, colour separation, black printer creation, printing limitations (e.g. total data

area), etc.
3.3
gamut

the (mostly convex) hull in CIELAB space which contains all printable colours (and no others) for a substrate

and printing process.

Note 1 to entry: For comparison purposes the CIELAB values of the primaries and secondaries along with the

substrate are often an adequate (sparse) definition of a colour gamut, although a more complete definition can be given by

the surface values of the measurements of a target like the one contained in ISO 12642-2.

3.4
characterized reference printing condition (CRPC)

identified printing condition and its colour characterization data that is used as the aim for a particular printing

task (job)
3.5
process independent

independent of the printing process (offset, flexography, gravure, etc.) to be used for production of printed

material
3.6
identified printing condition

printing condition documented in a national or international standard or industry publication in a way that

allows it to be replicated by an industry practitioner
4 Requirements
4.1 Principles and assumptions

One of the key principles upon which this International Standard is based is that colour content data can be

adjusted such that any printing processes, that can achieve a specified colour gamut, can produce the within-

gamut image colours specified by the appropriate reference colour characterization data. This allows printing

aims to be process independent.

A second principle is that process control aims and tools should be based (extracted from) on the reference

colour characterization data selected and not based on a priori assumptions. Many of the parameters used in

process control such as tone value increase, gray balance, etc. are contained within, or can be derived from,

the colour characterization data chosen as reference. Local site tools can also be used for initial setup

processes, but these need to be based on the known differences between the colour characterization data

aims and the colour characterization of the actual printing system being used.

Where similar characteristics, such as tone reproduction, are desired between different characterized

reference printing conditions (different colour gamuts) these need to be built into the colour characterization

data associated with these characterized reference printing conditions. Characterized reference printing

conditions, and their associated colour characterization data, can be thought of as a virtual printing system

(press) and as such the characterization data can be manipulated mathematically to fine tune results to

achieve smoothness, uniformity and/or other characteristics.

The key requirement for successful application of these principals is that the reference colour characterization

data and the characterization data for the printing system being used shall have the same gamut and be

sufficient to allow the necessary data adjustment. (see ISO/TS 10128 for recommended procedures to

implement such data adjustment)
2 © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 15339-1.2
4.2 Data encoding

In the absence of other prior agreement, electronic colour content data to be used as the intermediate storage

and exchange media between copy preparation, job assembly, proofing, and printing shall be encoded in

accordance with a part of ISO 15930. Any deviation from this, such as encoding in ISO 12639 or in some

other format, shall be according to prior agreement by all parties, and shall include communication of the

reference characterization data of the intended printing condition and, as necessary, a colour profile to

transform any data not supplied in the process colour model of the reference.
4.3 Data preparation

All print elements shall be prepared either as device code values or as colorimetrically defined data. However,

both types of data if present in print elements shall be prepared for a single characterized reference printing

condition. This condition shall be provided in the PDF/X output intent in the case of an ISO 15930 exchange,

or shall be communicated by mutually agreed upon methods in other situations. Unless otherwise agreed

between sender and receiver, the characterized reference printing condition shall be one of the data sets

defined in a part of ISO 15339.
4.4 Characterized reference printing conditions and colour characterization data

The characterized reference printing conditions associated with ISO 15339 are contained in additional Parts of

ISO 15339. This approach was taken to allow ISO TC130 to change or update characterized reference

printing conditions without revising or invalidating characterized reference printing conditions that might have

been used as the basis for existing printing work.

The data sets defined in ISO 15339-2 are those associated with the initial publication of ISO 15339. If

changes in, or additions to these data sets are needed in the future, they will be documented in added parts of

ISO 15339.

It is important to note that these characterized reference printing conditions are based on the ink colours and

2-colour overprints defined in the various parts of ISO 12647 with corrections for substrate colour differences.

However, for alternate printing processes that do not use colorants that align with the hue angles of these

characterization data sets, these colour values may be simulated by the appropriate combination of the

colorants available, assuming the colour gamut of those colorants encompasses the gamut of the

characterized reference printing condition selected. For convenience this part of ISO 15339 will continue to

refer to single-colour solids, two-colour overprints, etc recognizing that alternate printing systems may

simulate these values using appropriate combinations of available colorants.

All colorimetry should be measured, according to ISO 13655 M1 with white backing. Where the substrate is

non-fluorescent M1 data are identical to M0 data and M0 data may be used as M1 data. If M1 data is not

available, M0 data converted to M1 is sufficient (see Annex A). M1 data over white backing shall be provided.

The characterized reference printing conditions shown in ISO 15339-2 have been selected to be near the

middle of both the general class of printing that is expected to make use of each characterized reference

printing condition and the colour of the substrates used. It is expected that adjustments for substrate colour

(see 4.6) will allow each characterized reference printing condition to meet a wide variety of needs and be

independent of the "printing" process to be used.

4.5 Use selection criteria for choice of characterized reference printing condition

It is anticipated that the printing industry (with support from the ink and paper organizations) will begin to

develop tables of substrate types and printing processes that will support and/or be most appropriate for each

of the characterized reference printing conditions. Where the same content is to be reproduced by more than

one process or on more than one substrate a gamut common to the multiple needs should be selected.

Where only a single substrate and printing system is to be used, the typical choice should be the largest

gamut that choice will support.
© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 15339-1.2

The chosen characterized reference printing condition shall be used as the basis for design and content

creation.

Communication of the intended printing condition between all parties (preparation, proofing, and printing) only

needs to identify ISO 15339 and the gamut to be used along with information relating to any limitations of the

intended printing process that need to be considered during preparation, proofing, or printing.

Not all printing processes that can achieve the same colour gamut are subject to the same limitations. Offset,

gravure, flexography, electrophotographic, ink-jet, etc., each have limitations that may have to be considered

in the final data preparation for printing. These typically include limitations of total ink coverage, minimum and

maximum printable dot sizes, etc. Should general guidance be needed, additional parts of ISO 15339 can be

prepared to assist in the communication or standardization of the handling of such limitations.

4.6 Adjustment of data for substrate colour differences

The characterization data contained in ISO 15339-2 are all based on the CMYK characterization target

defined in ISO 12642-2. The substrate colour is therefore given in data element 1 of each data set.

Where the printing substrate to be used has a colour that differs from that of the reference printing condition

selected for data preparation and data exchange by less than 2 CIEDE2000 the data may be used without

modification.

Where the printing substrate to be used has a colour that differs from the characterized reference printing

condition selected for data preparation and data exchange by more than 2 but less than 5 CIEDE2000 the

method defined in Annex A (see also ISO 13655) shall be used to adjust the data before proofing and printing.

Where substrate adjustment is done this fact and the CIELAB values of the intended substrate shall be

communicated to all involved.

Where the difference in substrate colour is greater than 5 CIEDE2000, this correction may be used but the

user is cautioned that special colour characterization data might be required which is beyond the scope of

ISO 15339..

NOTE When data adjustment is done using the tristimulus correction technique defined in Annex A, the "colour" of all

data points in the colour characterization data set are changed ─ including the aim values for the single colour solids.

Where characterization data is exchanged that has been modified for changes in substrate colour, that

information shall be communicated with the color reference printing condition data.

4.7 Alternate printing reference

Where one of the sets of reference colour characterization data defined in the additional parts of ISO 15339

are not appropriate for the intended printing because of the inks, paper, or printing process to be used, prior

agreement should be obtained between all parties involved before copy preparation work is started and the

colour characterization data to be used and any colour management profiles shall be communicated with the

job content files.
4.8 Colour profiles

The use of colour profiles is an important part of the data preparation process and colour profiles with specific

characteristics are often specified by industry trade associations to restrict and provide more commonality in

user input. It is important that colour characterization data and colour management profiles are not confused.

While profiles are based on characterization data they also contain additional data processing information.

Profiles are required when data is transformed into, or from, CMYK and other working colour spaces.

According to ISO 15076-1, an output device profile is required to contain tags that define the transforms

between profile connection space and the device values (and reverse) for perceptual, saturation, and

colorimetric intents. In addition the transforms include gamut mapping, colour separation methodologies, tone

reproduction, and process limits such as tone value sum. These determine the device-space values that will

be created from input data linked through profile connection space. Therefore many profiles can be created for

4 © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 15339-1.2

the same characterized reference printing condition, and all are equally valid. Profiles also typically contain

proprietary transforms and/or computational procedures. Therefore, profiles are not generally appropriate for

standardization.
5 Process control
5.1 General

Although process control is considered to be the responsibility of the local facility, some basic principles are

important and represent a change from traditional (before the widespread availability and use of electronic

data for content interchange) practices.
In general the major steps in process control are:

a) Optimize the printing system performance to be as close as possible to the gamut of the characterized

reference printing condition.

NOTE The goal is that apexes of the outer gamut of the printing system to be used match the apexes of the

characterized reference printing condition. Where hue differences of the colorants make this impossible, the usual

procedure is to adjust the printing system so that the apexes of the characterized reference printing condition are

contained within the outer gamut of the printing system. In
...

DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 15339-1.2
ISO/TC 130 Secretariat: SAC
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2013-09-26 2013-12-26
Graphic technology — Printing from digital data across
multiple technologies —
Part 1:
Principles

Technologie graphique — Impression à partir de données numériques via des technologies multiples —

Partie 1: Principes
ICS: 37.100.99;35.240.30
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 15339-1.2:2013(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2013
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 15339-1.2:2013(E)
Copyright notice

This ISO document is a Draft International Standard and is copyright-protected by ISO. Except as

permitted under the applicable laws of the user’s country, neither this ISO draft nor any extract

from it may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means,

electronic, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission being secured.

Requests for permission to reproduce should be addressed to either ISO at the address below or ISO’s

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Reproduction may be subject to royalty payments or a licensing agreement.
Violators may be prosecuted.
ii © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 15339-1.2
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction.........................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................1

2 Normative references............................................................................................................................1

3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................1

4 Requirements.........................................................................................................................................2

4.1 Principles and assumptions.................................................................................................................2

4.2 Data encoding........................................................................................................................................3

4.3 Data preparation....................................................................................................................................3

4.4 Characterized reference printing conditions and colour characterization data.............................3

4.5 Use selection criteria for choice of characterized reference printing condition ............................3

4.6 Adjustment of data for substrate colour differences ........................................................................4

4.7 Alternate printing reference .................................................................................................................4

4.8 Colour profiles .......................................................................................................................................4

5 Process control .....................................................................................................................................5

5.1 General ...................................................................................................................................................5

5.2 Printing to intended gamut...................................................................................................................5

5.3 Determine colour characterization ......................................................................................................6

5.4 Maintain running characteristics of the printing device ...................................................................6

5.5 Job content specific adjustments .......................................................................................................7

Annex A (normative) Correction of colorimetric data for variation in substrate colour .............................8

Annex B (informative) Tolerancing schema.....................................................................................................9

Annex C (informative) Process independent workflow.................................................................................13

Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................14

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 15339-1.2
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 15339-1 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 130, Graphic technology.

ISO 15339 consists of the following parts, under the general title Graphic technology — Printing from digital

data across multiple technologies:
⎯ Part 1: Principles
⎯ Part 2: Characterized reference printing conditions - 2013
iv © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 15339-1.2
Introduction

ISO 15339 is based on the premise that in the printing and publishing industry, electronic data is the

intermediary for content storage and exchange throughout production including copy preparation, job

assembly, proofing, and process colour printing. It further assumes that data preparation can be largely

process independent and that choice of the printing process or processes to be used for final production will

be based primarily on run length requirements and substrates to be used. There are a variety of tools in place

to both define the relationship of digital data to printed colour for specific instances of printing and to

manipulate data such that similar results can be obtained between and among different printing processes

(ISO/TS 10128). These specific instances of printing are typically described by colour characterization data,

which is the relationship between CMYK input data and colour measured on the printed sheet. Where such a

set of colour characterization data is used as a reference, it is referred to as a characterized reference printing

condition (CRPC).

When producing printed colour reproductions it is important that the organizations responsible for material

preparation, colour separation, proofing, and printing are all working to a common set of parameters that

uniquely define the intended visual characteristics of the final printed product. Such an agreement enables the

correct production of suitable input data and subsequent production of proofs from these data. The purpose of

a proof is to simulate the visual characteristics of the finished print product as closely as possible prior to

production printing.

There is a unique relationship between ink, substrate, and printing process that limits the maximum chroma of

the solids of the printing colorants and therefore limits the range of colours (colour gamut) that can be

achieved for particular combinations. While special inks can be used, the commonly available ink pigments

seem to be used across all traditional ink processes. While toner and ink-jet systems have different colorant

constraints than traditional ink processes, they tend to mimic traditional ink processes aims and they will be

treated as a variation of traditional ink processes. The achievable chroma range (gamuts) of ink-on-paper

characterized reference printing conditions can generally be bracketed between cold-set printing on newsprint

on the small end and by printing on gloss coated stocks (on a variety of processes) on the large end.

Between these limits there is significant overlap of process/substrate combinations. The number of

intermediate characterized reference printing conditions that are logical to define between smallest and largest

is in part a function of the tolerances to which printing is expected to conform to the intended characterized

reference printing condition. However, the intermediate characterized reference printing conditions also need

to represent common widely used printing conditions and that was the determining factor for the selection of

printing conditions listed in Part 2 of ISO 15339. In addition a characterized reference printing condition 7 is

included to represent a possible exchange space for large gamut processes that exceed the colour gamut of

characterized reference printing condition 6 and therefore need a larger reference gamut.

The data sets defined in ISO 15339-2 are those associated with the initial publication of ISO 15339. It is the

intent of ISO TC130 that if changes in, or additions to. these data sets are needed in the future they will be

documented in added parts of ISO 15339 so that changes in the data sets are possible without loosing

traceability to earlier data sets.

A colour characterization data set is required for each characterized reference printing condition specified.

Because these data sets can be used as the reference for any printing process, they will not be aligned with

the typical TVI and trapping associated with any specific process. The values selected represent a

compromise between all processes – in effect virtual printing on a virtual printing system.

It is important to realize that digital data can be encoded as already separated CMYK or can consist of un-

separated data (typically in an RGB colour space) with supplementary information (ICC colour profiles, etc)

defining the colour it is intended to be on the printed sheet. Such un-separated data plus the associated

supplementary data is sometimes referred to as "virtual CMYK" data. All data is to be encoded according to

one of the PDF/X specifications (Parts of ISO 15930) or to allow the necessary metadata which identifies the

intended characterized reference printing condition to be included.
© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 15339-1.2

The colour of the printing substrate is a critical component of the colour appearance of a printed image (it

behaves like a 5th colour). With the current widespread use of optical brightening agents (OBA) substrate

colour is defined in terms of its apparent reflectance under D50 illumination (see ISO 3664). For halftone

images the colour of the substrate contributes mostly in the area not covered by ink. ISO 13655 provides a

reasonably effective method to adjust tristimulus data of measured halftone areas for moderate changes in

substrate colour. ISO 15339 is based on the assumption that the colour characterization data can be adjusted

(fine tuned) for the range of normal substrate colours expected and that different characterized reference

printing conditions are not required for moderate differences in substrate colour.

Although density, tone value increase, gray balance, etc. are individually important tools for the printing and

publishing industry, in this International Standard they are assumed to be part of process control and not

printing definition. They need to be considered in developing reference colour characterization data sets and

need to be used where applicable as part of local site ongoing process control.

Gray balance in particular is a useful tool for the control of a running press. Modern characterization data and

profile evaluation tools allow identification of the CMY values associated with the neutral (achromatic) tone

scale and the single colour tone value scales for that colour characterization data set. Using the values

derived from the colour characterization data, rather than any a priori values, is the recommended input for

process control aims used to control a printing process intended to conform to a particular characterized

reference printing condition.

Annex C provides a description of the process independent workflow that is the basis for the concepts

embodied in ISO 15339.
vi © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 15339-1.2
Graphic technology — Printing from digital data across multiple
technologies — Part 1: Principles
1 Scope

This part of ISO 15339 establishes principles for the use of colour characterization data as the definition of the

intended relationship between input data and printed colour for copy preparation, job assembly, proofing, and

graphic arts production printing. Additional Parts of ISO 15339 specify a limited number of characterized

reference printing conditions that span the expected range of colour gamuts used for the production of printed

material from digital data, regardless of printing process used. The procedure to be used to adjust colour

characterization data for the normally expected range of substrate colour Is specified.

2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/TS 10128, Graphic technology — Methods of adjustment of the colour reproduction of a printing system

to match a set of characterization data

ISO 12642-2, Graphic technology — Input data for characterization of 4-colour process printing — Part 2:

Expanded data set

ISO 13655, Graphic technology — Spectral measurement and colorimetric computation for graphic arts

images

ISO 15930 (all parts), Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange using PDF

ISO 15076-1, Image technology colour management — Architecture, profile format and data structure — Part

1: Based on ICC.1:2010

CGATS/IDEAlliance TR 015, Graphic technology — Graphic technology — Methodology for Establishing

Printing Aims Based on a Shared Near-neutral Gray-scale
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply
3.1
colour characterization data

tabulation of data that represents the relationship between device code values (eg:CMYK) and the colour

(CIELAB) produced on the printed sheet by those values in a specific printing process

3.2
colour profile

set of transforms, encoded according the rules of ISO 15076-1, that convert data between (to and from)

device space and profile connection space
© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 15339-1.2

Note 1 to entry: The transforms contained within a colour profile can include manipulation of gamut

compression/expansion, tone reproduction, colour separation, black printer creation, printing limitations (e.g. total data

area), etc.
3.3
gamut

the (mostly convex) hull in CIELAB space which contains all printable colours (and no others) for a substrate

and printing process.

Note 1 to entry: For comparison purposes the CIELAB values of the primaries and secondaries along with the

substrate are often an adequate (sparse) definition of a colour gamut, although a more complete definition can be given by

the surface values of the measurements of a target like the one contained in ISO 12642-2.

3.4
characterized reference printing condition (CRPC)

identified printing condition and its colour characterization data that is used as the aim for a particular printing

task (job)
3.5
process independent

independent of the printing process (offset, flexography, gravure, etc.) to be used for production of printed

material
3.6
identified printing condition

printing condition documented in a national or international standard or industry publication in a way that

allows it to be replicated by an industry practitioner
4 Requirements
4.1 Principles and assumptions

One of the key principles upon which this International Standard is based is that colour content data can be

adjusted such that any printing processes, that can achieve a specified colour gamut, can produce the within-

gamut image colours specified by the appropriate reference colour characterization data. This allows printing

aims to be process independent.

A second principle is that process control aims and tools should be based (extracted from) on the reference

colour characterization data selected and not based on a priori assumptions. Many of the parameters used in

process control such as tone value increase, gray balance, etc. are contained within, or can be derived from,

the colour characterization data chosen as reference. Local site tools can also be used for initial setup

processes, but these need to be based on the known differences between the colour characterization data

aims and the colour characterization of the actual printing system being used.

Where similar characteristics, such as tone reproduction, are desired between different characterized

reference printing conditions (different colour gamuts) these need to be built into the colour characterization

data associated with these characterized reference printing conditions. Characterized reference printing

conditions, and their associated colour characterization data, can be thought of as a virtual printing system

(press) and as such the characterization data can be manipulated mathematically to fine tune results to

achieve smoothness, uniformity and/or other characteristics.

The key requirement for successful application of these principals is that the reference colour characterization

data and the characterization data for the printing system being used shall have the same gamut and be

sufficient to allow the necessary data adjustment. (see ISO/TS 10128 for recommended procedures to

implement such data adjustment)
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ISO/DIS 15339-1.2
4.2 Data encoding

In the absence of other prior agreement, electronic colour content data to be used as the intermediate storage

and exchange media between copy preparation, job assembly, proofing, and printing shall be encoded in

accordance with a part of ISO 15930. Any deviation from this, such as encoding in ISO 12639 or in some

other format, shall be according to prior agreement by all parties, and shall include communication of the

reference characterization data of the intended printing condition and, as necessary, a colour profile to

transform any data not supplied in the process colour model of the reference.
4.3 Data preparation

All print elements shall be prepared either as device code values or as colorimetrically defined data. However,

both types of data if present in print elements shall be prepared for a single characterized reference printing

condition. This condition shall be provided in the PDF/X output intent in the case of an ISO 15930 exchange,

or shall be communicated by mutually agreed upon methods in other situations. Unless otherwise agreed

between sender and receiver, the characterized reference printing condition shall be one of the data sets

defined in a part of ISO 15339.
4.4 Characterized reference printing conditions and colour characterization data

The characterized reference printing conditions associated with ISO 15339 are contained in additional Parts of

ISO 15339. This approach was taken to allow ISO TC130 to change or update characterized reference

printing conditions without revising or invalidating characterized reference printing conditions that might have

been used as the basis for existing printing work.

The data sets defined in ISO 15339-2 are those associated with the initial publication of ISO 15339. If

changes in, or additions to these data sets are needed in the future, they will be documented in added parts of

ISO 15339.

It is important to note that these characterized reference printing conditions are based on the ink colours and

2-colour overprints defined in the various parts of ISO 12647 with corrections for substrate colour differences.

However, for alternate printing processes that do not use colorants that align with the hue angles of these

characterization data sets, these colour values may be simulated by the appropriate combination of the

colorants available, assuming the colour gamut of those colorants encompasses the gamut of the

characterized reference printing condition selected. For convenience this part of ISO 15339 will continue to

refer to single-colour solids, two-colour overprints, etc recognizing that alternate printing systems may

simulate these values using appropriate combinations of available colorants.

All colorimetry should be measured, according to ISO 13655 M1 with white backing. Where the substrate is

non-fluorescent M1 data are identical to M0 data and M0 data may be used as M1 data. If M1 data is not

available, M0 data converted to M1 is sufficient (see Annex A). M1 data over white backing shall be provided.

The characterized reference printing conditions shown in ISO 15339-2 have been selected to be near the

middle of both the general class of printing that is expected to make use of each characterized reference

printing condition and the colour of the substrates used. It is expected that adjustments for substrate colour

(see 4.6) will allow each characterized reference printing condition to meet a wide variety of needs and be

independent of the "printing" process to be used.

4.5 Use selection criteria for choice of characterized reference printing condition

It is anticipated that the printing industry (with support from the ink and paper organizations) will begin to

develop tables of substrate types and printing processes that will support and/or be most appropriate for each

of the characterized reference printing conditions. Where the same content is to be reproduced by more than

one process or on more than one substrate a gamut common to the multiple needs should be selected.

Where only a single substrate and printing system is to be used, the typical choice should be the largest

gamut that choice will support.
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ISO/DIS 15339-1.2

The chosen characterized reference printing condition shall be used as the basis for design and content

creation.

Communication of the intended printing condition between all parties (preparation, proofing, and printing) only

needs to identify ISO 15339 and the gamut to be used along with information relating to any limitations of the

intended printing process that need to be considered during preparation, proofing, or printing.

Not all printing processes that can achieve the same colour gamut are subject to the same limitations. Offset,

gravure, flexography, electrophotographic, ink-jet, etc., each have limitations that may have to be considered

in the final data preparation for printing. These typically include limitations of total ink coverage, minimum and

maximum printable dot sizes, etc. Should general guidance be needed, additional parts of ISO 15339 can be

prepared to assist in the communication or standardization of the handling of such limitations.

4.6 Adjustment of data for substrate colour differences

The characterization data contained in ISO 15339-2 are all based on the CMYK characterization target

defined in ISO 12642-2. The substrate colour is therefore given in data element 1 of each data set.

Where the printing substrate to be used has a colour that differs from that of the reference printing condition

selected for data preparation and data exchange by less than 2 CIEDE2000 the data may be used without

modification.

Where the printing substrate to be used has a colour that differs from the characterized reference printing

condition selected for data preparation and data exchange by more than 2 but less than 5 CIEDE2000 the

method defined in Annex A (see also ISO 13655) shall be used to adjust the data before proofing and printing.

Where substrate adjustment is done this fact and the CIELAB values of the intended substrate shall be

communicated to all involved.

Where the difference in substrate colour is greater than 5 CIEDE2000, this correction may be used but the

user is cautioned that special colour characterization data might be required which is beyond the scope of

ISO 15339..

NOTE When data adjustment is done using the tristimulus correction technique defined in Annex A, the "colour" of all

data points in the colour characterization data set are changed ─ including the aim values for the single colour solids.

Where characterization data is exchanged that has been modified for changes in substrate colour, that

information shall be communicated with the color reference printing condition data.

4.7 Alternate printing reference

Where one of the sets of reference colour characterization data defined in the additional parts of ISO 15339

are not appropriate for the intended printing because of the inks, paper, or printing process to be used, prior

agreement should be obtained between all parties involved before copy preparation work is started and the

colour characterization data to be used and any colour management profiles shall be communicated with the

job content files.
4.8 Colour profiles

The use of colour profiles is an important part of the data preparation process and colour profiles with specific

characteristics are often specified by industry trade associations to restrict and provide more commonality in

user input. It is important that colour characterization data and colour management profiles are not confused.

While profiles are based on characterization data they also contain additional data processing information.

Profiles are required when data is transformed into, or from, CMYK and other working colour spaces.

According to ISO 15076-1, an output device profile is required to contain tags that define the transforms

between profile connection space and the device values (and reverse) for perceptual, saturation, and

colorimetric intents. In addition the transforms include gamut mapping, colour separation methodologies, tone

reproduction, and process limits such as tone value sum. These determine the device-space values that will

be created from input data linked through profile connection space. Therefore many profiles can be created for

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ISO/DIS 15339-1.2

the same characterized reference printing condition, and all are equally valid. Profiles also typically contain

proprietary transforms and/or computational procedures. Therefore, profiles are not generally appropriate for

standardization.
5 Process control
5.1 General

Although process control is considered to be the responsibility of the local facility, some basic principles are

important and represent a change from traditional (before the widespread availability and use of electronic

data for content interchange) practices.
In general the major steps in process control are:

a) Optimize the printing system performance to be as close as possible to the gamut of the characterized

reference printing condition.

NOTE The goal is that apexes of the outer gamut of the printing system to be used match the apexes of the

characterized reference printing condition. Where hue differences of the colorants make this impossible, the usual

procedure is to adjust the printing system so that the apexes of the characterized reference printing condition are

contained within the outer gamut of the printing system. In
...

DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 15339-1
ISO/TC 130 Secretariat: DIN
Voting begins on Voting terminates on
2011-08-04 2012-01-04

INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION  МЕЖДУНАРОДНАЯ ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ ПО СТАНДАРТИЗАЦИИ  ORGANISATION INTERNATIONALE DE NORMALISATION

Graphic technology — Printing from digital data across multiple
technologies —
Part 1:
Principles and characterized reference printing conditions

Technologie graphique — Impression à partir de données numériques via des technologies multiples —

Partie 1: Principes et conditions d'impression de référence caractérisées
ICS 35.240.30; 37.100.99

In accordance with the provisions of Council Resolution 15/1993 this document is circulated in

the English language only.

Conformément aux dispositions de la Résolution du Conseil 15/1993, ce document est distribué

en version anglaise seulement.

To expedite distribution, this document is circulated as received from the committee

secretariat. ISO Central Secretariat work of editing and text composition will be undertaken at

publication stage.

Pour accélérer la distribution, le présent document est distribué tel qu'il est parvenu du

secrétariat du comité. Le travail de rédaction et de composition de texte sera effectué au

Secrétariat central de l'ISO au stade de publication.

THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY NOT BE

REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.

IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,

DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME

STANDARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN NATIONAL REGULATIONS.

RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH

THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION.
© International Organization for Standardization, 2011
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ISO/DIS 15339-1
Copyright notice

This ISO document is a Draft International Standard and is copyright-protected by ISO. Except as permitted

under the applicable laws of the user’s country, neither this ISO draft nor any extract from it may be

reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,

photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission being secured.

Requests for permission to reproduce should be addressed to either ISO at the address below or ISO’s

member body in the country of the requester.
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Reproduction may be subject to royalty payments or a licensing agreement.
Violators may be prosecuted.
ii © ISO 2011 – All rights reserved
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ISO/DIS 15339-1
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction.........................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................1

2 Normative references............................................................................................................................1

3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................1

4 Requirements.........................................................................................................................................2

4.1 Principles and assumptions.................................................................................................................2

4.2 Data encoding........................................................................................................................................3

4.3 Data preparation ....................................................................................................................................3

4.4 Characterized reference printing conditions and colour characterization data.............................3

4.5 Use selection criteria for choice of characterized reference printing condition ............................6

4.6 Adjustment of data for substrate colour differences ........................................................................6

4.7 Alternate printing reference .................................................................................................................7

4.8 Colour profiles .......................................................................................................................................7

5 Process control .....................................................................................................................................7

5.1 General ...................................................................................................................................................7

5.2 Conform to the intended gamut...........................................................................................................8

5.3 Determine colour characterization ......................................................................................................8

5.4 Maintain running characteristics of the printing device ...................................................................9

5.5 Job content specific adjustments .....................................................................................................10

Annex A (normative) Correction of colorimetric data for variation of substrate colour ...........................11

Annex B (informative) Process independent workflow.................................................................................12

Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................13

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ISO/DIS 15339-1
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 15339-1 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 130, Graphic technology.

ISO 15339 consists of the following parts, under the general title Graphic technology — Printing from digital

data across multiple technologies
⎯ Part 1: Principles and characterized reference printing conditions
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ISO/DIS 15339-1
Introduction

ISO 15339 is based on the premise that in the printing and publishing industry, electronic data is the

intermediary for content storage and exchange throughout production including copy preparation, job

assembly, proofing, and printing. It further assumes that data preparation can be largely process independent

and that choice of the printing process or processes to be used for final production will be based primarily on

run length requirements and substrates to be used. Each of the major printing processes has unique

limitations that are covered in additional parts of ISO 15339. There are a variety of tools in place to both

define the relationship of digital data to printed colour for specific instances of printing and to manipulate data

such that common results can be obtained between and among different printing processes (ISO/TS 10128).

These specific instances of printing are typically described by colour characterization data, which is the

relationship between CMYK input data and colour measured on the printed sheet. Where such a set of colour

characterization data is used as a reference (such as in this part of ISO 15339) it is referred to as a

characterized reference printing condition.

When producing printed colour reproductions it is important that the organizations responsible for material

preparation, colour separation, proofing, and printing are all working to a common set of parameters that

uniquely define the intended visual characteristics of the final printed product. Such an agreement enables the

correct production of suitable input data and subsequent production of proofs from these data. The purpose of

a proof is to simulate the visual characteristics of the finished print product as closely as possible prior to

production printing.

There is a unique relationship between ink, substrate, and printing process that limits the maximum chroma of

the solids of the printing colorants and therefore limits the range of colours (colour gamut) that can be

achieved for particular combinations. While special inks can be used, the commonly available ink pigments

seem to be used across all wet ink processes. While toner and ink-jet systems have different colorant

constraints than wet ink processes, they tend to mimic wet ink processes aims and they will be treated as a

variation of wet ink processes. The achievable chroma range (gamuts) of ink-on-paper characterized

reference printing conditions can generally be bracketed between cold-set printing on newsprint on the small

end and by sheet-fed printing on gloss coated stock on the large end. Between these limits there is significant

overlap of process/substrate combinations. The number of intermediate characterized reference printing

conditions that are logical to define between smallest and largest is in part a function of the tolerances to

which printing is expected to conform to the intended characterized reference printing condition. However, the

intermediate characterized reference printing conditions also need to represent common widely used printing

conditions and that was the determining factor for the selection of printing conditions listed in this part of ISO

15339. In addition a characterized reference printing condition 7 is included to represent a possible exchange

space for digital printing data and/or other large gamut processes that exceed the colour gamut of

characterized reference printing condition 6 and therefore need a larger exchange gamut.

The references that were used to create the various data sets are shown in Table 1.

A colour characterization data set is required for each characterized reference printing condition specified.

Because these data sets can be used as the reference for any printing process, they will not be aligned with

the typical TVI and trapping associated with any specific process. The values selected represent a

compromise between all processes – in effect virtual printing on a virtual printing system.

It is important to realize that digital data can be encoded as already separated CMYK or can consist of un-

separated data (typically in an RGB colour space) with supplementary information (ICC colour profiles, etc)

defining the colour it is intended to be on the printed sheet. Such un-separated data plus the associated

supplementary data is sometimes referred to as "virtual CMYK" data. All data is to be encoded according to

one of the PDF/X specifications (Parts of ISO 15930) or TIFF/IT (ISO 12639) to allow the necessary metadata

which identifies the intended characterized reference printing condition to be included.

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ISO/DIS 15339-1
Table 1 ─ Reference data sets used
CRPC Name US reference European reference
1 Universal ColdsetNews SNAP2009 IFRA 26
2 Universal HeatsetNews BetaHeatsetNews Fogra 42
3 Universal PremUncoated BetaOffsetUncoated Fogra 47
4 Universal SuperCal BetaSupercal Fogra 40
5 Universal PubCoated SWOP2006_Coated 3,5 Fogra 45,46
6 Universal PremCoated GRAColL2006_Coated 1 Fogra 39
7 Universal Extra Large Average of digital printers

The colour of the printing substrate is a critical component of the colour appearance of a printed image (the

5th colour). With the current widespread use of optical brightening agents (OBA) substrate colour is defined in

terms of its apparent reflectance under D50 illumination (see ISO 3664). For halftone images the colour of the

substrate contributes mostly in the area not covered by ink. ISO 13655 provides a reasonably effective

method to adjust tristimulus data of measured halftone areas for moderate changes in substrate colour. This

part of ISO 15339 is based on the assumption that the colour characterization data can be adjusted (fine

tuned) for the range of normal substrate colours expected and that different characterized reference printing

conditions are not required for moderate differences in substrate colour.

Although density, tone value increase, gray balance, etc. are individually important tools for the printing and

publishing industry, in this International Standard they are assumed to be part of process control and not

printing definition. They need to be considered in developing reference colour characterization data sets and

are indispensable as part of local site ongoing process control.

Gray balance in particular is a useful tool for the control of a running press. Modern characterization data and

profile evaluation tools allow identification of the CMY values associated with the neutral (achromatic) tone

scale and the single colour tone value scales for that colour characterization data set. Using the values

derived from the colour characterization data, rather than any a priori values, is the recommended input for

process control aims used to control a printing process intended to conform to a particular characterized

reference printing condition.

Annex B provides a description of the process independent workflow that is the basis for the concepts

embodied in this part of ISO 15339.
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DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 15339-1
Graphic technology — Printing from digital data across multiple
technologies —
Part 1:
Principles and characterized reference printing conditions
1 Scope

This part of ISO 15339 establishes principles for use of electronic colour content data as the intermediate

storage and exchange media between copy preparation, job assembly, proofing, and graphic arts production

printing. It specifies a limited number of characterized reference printing conditions that span the expected

range of colour gamuts used for the production of printed material from digital data, regardless of printing

process used. It also specifies the procedure to be used to adjust colour characterization data for the

normally expected range of substrate colour.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/TS 10128, Graphic technology — Methods of adjustment of the colour reproduction of a printing system

to match a set of characterization data

ISO 12639, Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange — Tag image file format for image

technology (TIFF/IT)

ISO 12642-2, Graphic technology — Input data for characterization of 4-colour process printing — Part 2:

Expanded data set

ISO 13655, Graphic technology — Spectral measurement and colorimetric computation for graphic arts

images

ISO 15930 (all parts), Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange using PDF

ISO 15076-1, Image technology colour management — Architecture, profile format and data structure — Part

1: Based on ICC.1:2010
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
colour characterization data

a tabulation of data that represents the relationship between device code values (eg:CMYK) and the colour

(CIELAB) produced on the printed sheet by those values in a specific printing process

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ISO/DIS 15339-1
3.2
colour profile

a set of transforms, encoded according the rules of ISO 15076-1, that convert data between (to and from)

device space and profile connection space

Note 1 to entry: The transforms contained within a colour profile can include manipulation of gamut

compression/expansion, tone reproduction, colour separation, black printer creation, printing limitations (e.g. total data

area), etc.
3.3
gamut

the (mostly convex) hull of the colour space defined by the CIELAB values of the primaries and secondaries

along with the substrate in a printing process

Note 1 to entry: For comparison purposes the CIELAB values of the primaries and secondaries along with the

substrate are often an adequate (sparse) definition of a colour gamut, although a more complete definition can be given by

the surface values of the measurements of a target like the one contained in ISO 12642-2.

3.4
characterized reference printing condition (CRPC)

an identified printing condition and its colour characterization data that is used as the aim for a particular

printing task (job)
3.5
process independent

independent of the printing process (offset, flexography, gravure, etc.) to be used for production of printed

material
4 Requirements
4.1 Principles and assumptions

One of the key principles upon which this International Standard is based is that electronic tools exist that

allow colour electronic content data to be adjusted such that any printing processes, that can achieve a

specified colour gamut, can produce the within-gamut image colours specified by the appropriate reference

colour characterization data. This allows printing aims to be process independent.

A second principle is that process control aims and tools should be based on the reference colour

characterization data selected and not based on a priori assumptions. Many of the parameters used in

process control such as tone value increase, gray balance, etc. are contained within, or can be derived from,

the colour characterization data chosen as reference. Local site tools can also be used for initial setup

processes, but these need to be based on the known differences between the colour characterization data

aims and the colour characterization of the actual printing system being used.

Where similar characteristics, such as tone reproduction, are desired between different characterized

reference printing conditions (different colour gamuts) these need to be built into the colour characterization

data associated with these characterized reference printing conditions. Characterized reference printing

conditions, and their associated colour characterization data, can be thought of as a virtual printing system

(press) and as such the characterization data can be manipulated mathematically to fine tune results to

achieve smoothness, uniformity and/or other characteristics.

The key requirement for successful application of these principals is that the reference colour characterization

data and the characterization data for the printing system being used shall have the same gamut and the data

steps shall have sufficient tonal steps that the data can be adjusted as necessary. (see ISO/TS 10128)

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ISO/DIS 15339-1
4.2 Data encoding

All electronic colour content data to be used as the intermediate storage and exchange media between copy

preparation, job assembly, proofing, and printing shall be encoded in accordance with a part of ISO 15930 or

as specified in ISO 12639.

Where colour content data is encoded in accordance with ISO 12639 it shall have the selected colour

characterization data, or the appropriate pointers to the registry containing the colour characterization data,

included in TIFF/IT TAG 34029. If some or all of the colour content data is not supplied in the process colour

model of the characterized reference printing condition, a colour profile shall be included using TIFF/IT TAG

34675 which shall be used to transform the colour content data provided into the process colour model of the

characterized printing condition.
4.3 Data preparation

All print elements shall be prepared as either output device code values or as colorimetrically defined data.

However, both types of data, if present in print elements, shall be prepared for a single characterized

reference printing condition identified in the PDF/X output intent. Unless otherwise agreed between sender

and receiver, the characterized reference printing condition identified shall be one of the data sets defined in

4.4.
4.4 Characterized reference printing conditions and colour characterization data
4.4.1 General

Colour characterization data is the relationship between CMYK data and printed colour (intended or

measured). Many profiles (all equally valid) can be based on a single set of characterization data. Therefore

characterization data is used to define the expected printing parameters and the relationship between the

device values provided (real or virtual) and the colour expected on the printed substrate.

The use of colour profiles is an important part of the data preparation process and colour profiles with specific

characteristics are often specified by industry trade associations to restrict and provide more commonality in

user input. However, they are not appropriate for standardization.
4.4.2 Characterized reference printing conditions

The characterization data sets associated with the characterized reference printing conditions identified in this

part of ISO 15339 are included as data files ISO15339-RPC-1.csv through ISO15339-RPC-7.csv. The

CIELAB a*-b* projection of the colour characterization data of each of these characterized reference printing

conditions is shown in Figure 1.

It is important to note that these characterized reference printing conditions are based on the ink colours and

2-colour overprints defined in the various parts of ISO 12647 with corrections for substrate colour differences.

However, for alternate printing processes that do not use colorants that align with the hue angles of these

characterization data sets, these colour values may be simulated by the appropriate combination of the

colorants available, assuming the colour gamut of those colorants encompasses the gamut of the

characterized reference printing condition selected. For convenience this part of ISO 15339 will continue to

refer to single-colour solids, two-colour overprints, etc recognizing that alternate printing systems may

simulate these values using appropriate combinations of available colourants.

All colorimetry should be measured, according to ISO 13655 M1 with white backing. If M1 measured data is

not available, M0, data converted to M1 is sufficient. M1 data over white backing shall be provided..

The substrate, single colour solids, and two-colour overprints that are the aims for the characterization data

set shall be as shown in Table 2 and Table 3.

The colorimetrically computed TVI for each of the single colour scales of each of the characterized reference

printing conditions is listed in Table 4 for information.
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ISO/DIS 15339-1

Table 5 lists typical use conditions, and a convenient name, for each of these characterized reference printing

conditions. These characterized reference printing conditions have been selected to be near the middle of

both the general class of printing that is expected to make use of each characterized reference printing

condition and the colour of the substrates used. It is expected that adjustments for substrate colour (see 4.6)

will allow each characterized reference printing condition to meet a wide variety of needs and be independent

of the "printing" process to be used.

Additional parts of ISO 15339 will detail both limitations and adjustments associated with specific "printing"

processes (including ink-jet and electrophotographic printing) that will facilitate their acceptance of content

data exchanged based on these characterized reference printing conditions.
Table 2 — Characterized reference printing conditions – Primary colour aims
CRPC Substrate Printed solid colours
colour
Cyan Magenta Yellow Black
L* a* b* L* a* b* L* a* b* L* a* b* L* a* b*
1 83 0 4 58 -24 -28 54 46 -1 78 -2 59 36 1 4
2 86 0 2 55 -29 -35 50 57 -3 80 -3 72 28 1 1
3 95 1 -3 60 -26 -44 56 62 -2 89 -3 77 31 1 1
4 89 0 3 55 -35 -37 47 65 -3 83 -5 79 23 1 1
5 92 0 0 56 -37 -44 48 71 -4 86 -5 87 18 0 0
6 95 1 -3 55 -36 -51 48 75 -4 89 -4 93 15 0 0
7 97 1 -4 54 -41 -54 48 77 -11 89 -3 103 14 0 0

Table 3 — Characterized reference printing conditions –Two-colour overprint aims

Red Green Blue
CRPC
L* a* b* L* a* b* L* a* b*
53 43 25 53 -35 16 41 6 -24
49 53 32 49 -46 20 33 11 -33
54 56 30 54 -43 17 38 11 -31
46 61 38 48 -55 24 27 14 -38
47 65 44 51 -61 25 26 19 -43
47 69 48 50 -65 26 24 20 -47
47 75 53 49 -71 29 19 27 -53
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ISO/DIS 15339-1
Table 4 — Colorimetric TVI
Colorimetric TVI @ 50% input TV
CRPC
C M Y K
20.4 22.6 22.6 24.2
17.3 19.6 19.6 21.2
15.8 19.2 19.1 21.5
12.1 16.0 16.0 19.6
15.1 17.4 17.5 19.7
12.9 16.0 16.0 19.6
10.2 14.5 14.6 19.2

a) When the equivalent densitometric TVI is calculated using the method of ISO TS

10128, in all cases the Cyan TVI equals the Magenta TVI.
120
100
CRPC 7
CRPC 6
CRPC 5
CRPC 4
CRPC 3
CRPC 2
CRPC 1
-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80
-20
-40
-60
Figure 1 — Characterized reference printing condition a*-b* plots
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ISO/DIS 15339-1
Table 5 — Characterized reference printing conditions, typical uses
CRPC Name Typical use
Newsprint, small gamut, printing using coldset offset, flexography, letterpress,
1 Universal ColdsetNews
etc.
Improved newsprint, moderate gamut printing using heatset or similar
2 Universal HeatsetNews
technology
3 Universal PremUncoated Utility printing on a matt uncoated paper
4 Universal SuperCal General printing on super-calendared paper
5 Universal PubCoated Magazine publication
6 Universal PremCoated Large gamut, printing using sheet-fed offset, gravure

7 Universal Extra Large Digital printing and potentially other large gamut printing processes

4.5 Use selection criteria for choice of characterized reference printing condition

It is anticipated that the printing industry (with support from the ink and paper organizations) will begin to

develop tables of substrate types and printing processes that will support and/or be most appropriate for each

of the characterized reference printing conditions of Table 5. Where the same content is to be reproduced by

more than one process or on more than one substrate a gamut common to the multiple needs should be

selected. Where only a single substrate and printing system is to be used, the typical choice should be the

largest gamut that choice will support.

The chosen characterized reference printing condition shall be used as the basis for design and content

creation.

Communication of the intended printing condition between all parties (preparation, proofing, and printing) only

needs to identify this part of ISO 15339 and the gamut to be used along with information relating to any

limitations of the intended printing process that need to be considered during preparation, proofing, or printing.

Unfortunately, all printing processes that can achieve the same colour gamut are not subject to the same

limitations. Offset, gravure, flexography, electrophotographic, ink-jet, etc., each have limitations that may have

to be considered in the final data preparation for printing. These typically include limitations of total ink

coverage, minimum and maximum printable dot sizes, etc. Part 2 of ISO 15339 includes guidance on each of

the commonly used printing processes to assist in the communication of any su
...

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