Information technology — Programming languages, their environments and system software interfaces — Guidelines for the preparation of language-independent service specifications (LISS)

ISO/IEC TR 14369:2018 provides guidelines to those concerned with developing specifications of information technology services and their interfaces intended for use by clients of the services, in particular by external applications that do not necessarily all share the environment and assumptions of one particular programming language. The guidelines do not directly or fully cover all aspects of service or interface specifications, but they do cover those aspects required to achieve language independence, i.e. required to make a specification neutral with respect to the language environment from which the service is invoked. The guidelines are primarily concerned with the interface between the service and the external applications making use of the service, including the special case where the service itself is already specified in a language-dependent way but needs to be invoked from environments of other languages. Language bindings, already addressed by ISO/IEC TR 10182, are dealt with by providing advice on how to use the two documents together. ISO/IEC TR 14369:2018 provides technical guidelines, rather than organizational or administrative guidelines for the management of the development process, though in some cases the technical guidelines can have organizational or administrative implications.

Technologies de l'information — Langages de programmation, leurs environnements et interfaces du logiciel d'exploitation — Lignes directrices pour l'élaboration de spécifications de service indépendantes du langage (LISS)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
29-Jan-2018
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
30-Jan-2018
Completion Date
30-Jan-2018
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ISO/IEC TR 14369:2018 - Information technology -- Programming languages, their environments and system software interfaces -- Guidelines for the preparation of language-independent service specifications (LISS)
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TECHNICAL ISO/IEC TR
REPORT 14369
Second edition
2018-01
Information technology —
Programming languages, their
environments and system software
interfaces — Guidelines for the
preparation of language-independent
service specifications (LISS)
Technologies de l'information — Langages de programmation,
leurs environnements et interfaces du logiciel d'exploitation —
Lignes directrices pour l'élaboration de spécifications de service
indépendantes du langage (LISS)
Reference number
ISO/IEC TR 14369:2018(E)
ISO/IEC 2018
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ISO/IEC TR 14369:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC TR 14369:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................viii

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5 Overview ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1 Services, interfaces, service providers and service users .................................................................................. 4

5.2 Information technology services ............................................................................................................................................. 4

5.3 Services and language independence ................................................................................................................................. 5

5.4 Language-independent specifications ................................................................................................................................ 6

5.5 Problems of language dependence and inbuilt assumptions ......................................................................... 7

5.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.5.2 Representational assumptions ............................................................................................................................ 7

5.5.3 Implementation assumptions............................................................................................................................... 7

6 Guidelines on strategy .................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.2 General guidelines................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

6.2.1 Guideline: Dependence of the interface on the service .................................................................. 8

6.2.2 Guideline: What to do when there are interoperability, concurrency, or

time constraint issues.................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.2.3 Guideline: Use of marshalling/unmarshalling ....................................................................................... 8

6.2.4 Guideline: Recruiting expertise from a variety of backgrounds ............................................. 9

6.3 What to do if starting from scratch........................................................................................................................................ 9

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.3.2 Guideline: Avoidance of implementation assumptions .................................................................. 9

6.3.3 Specifying the service in language-independent form .................................................................... 9

6.3.4 Specifying the interface to the service in language-independent form .........................10

6.4 What to do if starting from an existing language-dependent specification ....................................10

6.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................10

6.4.2 General guidelines .......................................................................................................................................................10

6.4.3 Converting an existing language-dependent specification of the service

into language-independent form ....................................................................................................................12

6.4.4 Converting an existing implicit interface into an explicit language-

independent interface ..............................................................................................................................................13

6.4.5 Specifying a language-independent interface to a service whose

specification is language-dependent ...........................................................................................................14

7 Guidelines on document organization........................................................................................................................................15

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................15

7.2 Guideline: The general framework .....................................................................................................................................15

7.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................15

7.2.2 Checklist of parts for inclusion .........................................................................................................................15

7.3 Guideline: Production and publication ...........................................................................................................................16

7.4 Guideline: Document organization when starting from a language-specific specification 16

8 Guidelines on terminology ......................................................................................................................................................................17

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................17

8.2 Guideline: The need for rigour ...............................................................................................................................................17

8.3 Guideline: The need for consistency .................................................................................................................................17

8.4 Guideline: Use of undefined terms ......................................................................................................................................17

8.5 Guideline: Use of ISO 2382 ........................................................................................................................................................17

8.6 Guideline: Use of definition by reference ......................................................................................................................18

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ISO/IEC TR 14369:2018(E)

8.7 Guideline: Terminology used in bindings .....................................................................................................................18

9 Guidelines on use of formal specification languages ..................................................................................................18

9.1 Guideline: Use of a formal specification language .................................................................................................18

9.2 Checklist of formal specification languages ................................................................................................................18

9.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................18

9.2.2 Estelle .....................................................................................................................................................................................18

9.2.3 Lotos ........................................................................................................................................................................................19

9.2.4 VDM-SL ..................................................................................................................................................................................19

9.2.5 Z ...................................................................................................................................................................................................19

9.2.6 Extended BNF ..................................................................................................................................................................20

9.3 Guideline: Using formal specifications from the outset ...................................................................................20

9.4 Guideline: Use of operational semantics .......................................................................................................................20

10 Guidelines on interoperability............................................................................................................................................................21

10.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................21

10.1.1 Interoperability with what? ................................................................................................................................21

10.1.2 The nature of the interoperation ....................................................................................................................22

10.1.3 How interoperation is invoked .........................................................................................................................22

10.2 Guidelines on interoperability with other instantiations of the same service .............................22

10.2.1 Guideline: Identifying features affecting interoperability ........................................................22

10.2.2 Guideline: Precise definition and rigorous conformity requirements ...........................22

10.2.3 Guideline: Importance of exchange values .............................................................................................23

10.3 Guidelines on interoperability with other services ..............................................................................................23

10.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................23

10.3.2 Guideline: Interoperability with other services being defined at the same time .23

10.3.3 Guideline: Interoperability with a pre-defined service ...............................................................23

11 Guidelines on concurrency issues ...................................................................................................................................................24

11.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................24

11.2 Guidelines on concurrency within the service specification ........................................................................24

11.2.1 Guideline: Avoidance of unnecessary concurrency requirements ....................................24

11.3 Guidelines on concurrency of interaction with service users .....................................................................24

11.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................24

11.3.2 Guideline: Handling of concurrent service requests .....................................................................25

11.3.3 Guideline: Number of concurrent service requests handled ..................................................25

11.3.4 Guideline: Order of processing of service requests ........................................................................25

11.3.5 Guideline: Criteria for prioritizing service requests ......................................................................25

11.4 Guidelines on concurrency requirements on bindings .....................................................................................25

11.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................25

11.4.2 Guideline: Avoidance of concurrency requirements .................. ....................................................25

11.4.3 Guideline: Specification of unavoidable concurrency requirements ...............................26

12 Guidelines on the selection and specification of datatypes..................................................................................26

12.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................26

12.2 Guideline: Use of ISO/IEC 11404 General-Purpose Datatypes (GPD) ..................................................26

12.3 Guideline: Specification of datatype parameter values ....................................................................................26

12.4 Guideline: Treatment of values outside the set defined for the datatype .........................................27

12.5 Guideline: Specification of operations on data values .......................................................................................27

12.6 Guideline: Recommended basic set of datatypes ...................................................................................................27

12.7 Guideline: Specification of arithmetic datatypes....................................................................................................27

12.8 Guideline: Approach to language bindings of datatypes .................................................................................28

12.9 Guideline: Avoidance of representational definitions ........................................................................................28

13 Guidelines on specification of procedure calls ..................................................................................................................28

13.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................28

13.2 Guideline: Avoidance of unnecessary operational assumptions or detail ........................................29

13.3 Guideline: Use of ISO/IEC 13886 procedure calling model ..........................................................................29

13.4 Guidelines on the use of ISO/IEC 13886 ........................................................................................................................29

13.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................29

13.4.2 Guideline: Selection of datatypes of parameters ..............................................................................30

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13.4.3 Guideline: Selection of parameter passing modes ...........................................................................30

13.4.4 Guideline: Use of bindings to LIPC ................................................................................................................31

13.5 Interfacing via remote procedure calling (RPC)......................................................................................................31

13.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................31

13.5.2 Guideline: Avoid limiting the service specification because of constraints

on the interface specification .............................................................................................................................31

13.5.3 Guideline: Specification of RPC interface.................................................................................................32

13.5.4 Guideline: Use of subsets .......................................................................................................................................32

13.5.5 Guideline: Use of ISO/IEC 11578 ....................................................................................................................32

13.6 Guideline: Guidance concerning procedure calling to those defining language

bindings to the language-independent service specification ......................................................................32

14 Guidelines on specification of fault handling ......................................................................................................................33

14.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................33

14.2 Guideline: Fault detection requirements .......................................................................................................................34

14.3 Checklist of potential faults .......................................................................................................................................................34

14.3.1 Invocation faults ............................................................................................................................................................34

14.3.2 Execution faults ...................................................................... ........................................................................................34

14.4 Guideline: Recovery from non-fatal faults ....................................................................................................................35

15 Guidelines on options and implementation dependence .......................................................................................35

15.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................35

15.2 Guidelines on service options .................................................................................................................................................36

15.2.1 Guideline: Optional service features ............................................................................................................36

15.2.2 Guideline: Avoidance of assumptions about the use of the service ..................................36

15.2.3 Guideline: Use of query mechanism .............................................................................................................36

15.2.4 Guideline: Management of optional service features ....................................................................36

15.2.5 Guideline: Definition of optional features ...............................................................................................37

15.3 Guidelines on interface options .............................................................................................................................................37

15.3.1 Guideline: Completeness of interface .........................................................................................................37

15.3.2 Guideline: Interface to service with options .........................................................................................37

15.4 Guidelines on binding options ................................................................................................................................................37

15.4.1 Guideline: Completeness of binding ............................................................................................................37

15.4.2 Guideline: Binding to a service with options ........................................................................................37

15.4.3 Guideline: Binding to a language with optional features ...........................................................38

15.5 Guidelines on implementation dependence ...............................................................................................................38

15.5.1 Guideline: Completeness of definition .......................................................................................................38

15.5.2 Guideline: Provision of implementation options ..............................................................................38

15.5.3 Guideline: Implementation-defined limits .............................................................................................39

16 Guidelines on conformity requirements ..................................................................................................................................40

16.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................40

16.2 Guidelines for specifying conformity of implementations of the service .........................................41

16.2.1 Guideline: Avoidance of assumptions about the implementation language .............41

16.2.2 Guideline: Avoidance of representational assumptions .............................................................41

16.2.3 Guideline: Avoidance of implementation model ...............................................................................41

16.2.4 Guideline: Requiring end results rather than methods ...............................................................41

16.3 Guidelines for specifying conformity of implementations of the interface .....................................41

16.3.1 Guideline: Requirements on implementation-defined aspects ............................................41

16.4 Guidelines for specifying conformity of bindings ..................................................................................................42

16.4.1 Guideline: Propagating requirements to conforming bindings ............................................42

16.4.2 Guideline: Adherence to defined semantics ..........................................................................................42

17 Guidelines on specifying a language binding to a language-independent

interface specification .................................................................................................................................................................................42

17.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................42

17.2 Guideline: Use of bindings to LID and LIPC .................................................................................................................42

17.3 Guideline: Adherence to defined semantics ...............................................................................................................42

17.4 Guideline: Binding document organization ................................................................................................................43

17.5 Guideline: “Reference card” binding documents ....................................................................................................43

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18 Guidelines on revisions ..............................................................................................................................................................................44

18.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................44

18.2 Kinds of change that a revision can introduce ..........................................................................................................44

18.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................44

18.2.2 Addition of a new feature ......................................................................................................................................44

18.2.3 Change to the specification of a well-defined feature ...................................................................44

18.2.4 Deletion of a well-defined feature..................................................................................................................44

18.2.5 Deletion of ill-defined feature............................................................................................................................44

18.2.6 Clarification of ill-defined feature ..................................................................................................................45

18.2.7 Change or deletion of obsolescent feature .............................................................................................45

18.2.8 Change of level definition ......................................................................................................................................45

18.2.9 Change of specified limit to implementation-defined value ...................................................45

18.2.10 Change of other implementation requirement ...................................................................................45

18.2.11 Change of conformity clause...............................................................................................................................45

18.3 General guidelines applicable to rev
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