Biomimetics -- Biomimetic materials, structures and components

ISO 18457:2016 provides a framework of biomimetics for the development of materials, structures, surfaces, components, and manufacturing technologies. ISO 18457:2016 specifies the principles of biological systems, and especially the performance of biological materials, structures, surfaces, components, and manufacturing technologies that provide the motivation and reasons for biomimetic approaches. It specifies the methodology based on analysis of biological systems, which lead to analogies, and abstractions. The transfer process from biology to technology is described based on examples of biomimetic materials, structures, surfaces, components, and manufacturing technologies. This International Standard describes measurement methods and parameters for the characterization of properties of biomimetic materials. This International Standard provides information on the relevance of biomimetic materials, structures, surfaces, components, and manufacturing technologies for industry. ISO 18457:2016 also links to other subareas in biomimetics because fundamental developments in materials, structures, surfaces, components, and manufacturing technologies often form the basis for a wide variety of additional innovations. It provides guidance and support for all those who develop, design, process, or use biomimetic materials, structures, surfaces, components, and manufacturing technologies. This International Standard can also serve for those who want to learn about and investigate these topics.

Biomimétisme -- Matériaux, structures et composants biomimétiques

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
01-Sep-2016
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Current Stage
9020 - International Standard under periodical review
Start Date
15-Jul-2021
Ref Project

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18457
First edition
2016-09-15
Biomimetics — Biomimetic materials,
structures and components
Biomimétisme — Matériaux, structures et composants biomimétiques
Reference number
ISO 18457:2016(E)
ISO 2016
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 18457:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2016, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 18457:2016(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5 Biological materials........................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 Characteristics ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1.2 Biological materials: multifunctional, fault-tolerant, modular, and adaptive ............. 5

5.1.3 Technical components: monofunctional, durable, with a limited ability to adapt .. 5

5.2 Performances ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6 Methodology of biomimetic material and component development .........................................................14

6.1 Analysis.......................................................................................................................................................................................................14

6.2 Examination of analogies ............................................................................................................................................................15

6.3 Abstraction ..............................................................................................................................................................................................16

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................16

6.3.2 Modeling and simulation .......................................................................................................................................17

6.4 Material selection ..............................................................................................................................................................................18

7 Reasons and occasions for using biomimetic materials, structures, and components

in companies ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................18

Annex A (informative) Examples of biomimetic materials, structures, and components .........................20

Annex B (informative) Analytical methods .................................................................................................................................................31

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................36

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 18457:2016(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity assessment,

as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the

Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 266, Biomimetics.
iv © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 18457:2016(E)
Introduction

The increasing complexity of technical solutions and products requires new approaches. Classic

research and development methods and innovation approaches often reach their limits, especially

in the development and optimization of materials, structures, and components. The identification of

suitable biological principles and their transfer to technical applications in the sense of biomimetics,

therefore, can make an important contribution to the development of functional, adaptive, efficient

(in terms of resources), and safe (in terms of toxicity to humans and the environment) materials,

structures, components and manufacturing techniques.
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18457:2016(E)
Biomimetics — Biomimetic materials, structures and
components
1 Scope

This International Standard provides a framework of biomimetics for the development of materials,

structures, surfaces, components, and manufacturing technologies.

This International Standard specifies the principles of biological systems, and especially the performance

of biological materials, structures, surfaces, components, and manufacturing technologies that provide

the motivation and reasons for biomimetic approaches. It specifies the methodology based on analysis

of biological systems, which lead to analogies, and abstractions. The transfer process from biology to

technology is described based on examples of biomimetic materials, structures, surfaces, components,

and manufacturing technologies. This International Standard describes measurement methods and

parameters for the characterization of properties of biomimetic materials. This International Standard

provides information on the relevance of biomimetic materials, structures, surfaces, components, and

manufacturing technologies for industry.

This International Standard also links to other subareas in biomimetics because fundamental

developments in materials, structures, surfaces, components, and manufacturing technologies often

form the basis for a wide variety of additional innovations. It provides guidance and support for all

those who develop, design, process, or use biomimetic materials, structures, surfaces, components, and

manufacturing technologies. This International Standard can also serve for those who want to learn

about and investigate these topics.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 18458, Biomimetics — Terminology, concepts and methodology
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 18458 and the following apply.

3.1
adaptivity
ability to adapt to variable environmental conditions
3.2
efficiency
relationship between the useful outputs to all inputs of a system
3.3
generative manufacturing process

manufacturing process in which three-dimensional components are produced, for instance, by applying

material layer-by-layer

Note 1 to entry: These technologies can be used in four different levels of manufacturing:

— Concept model (additive manufacturing): A mechanical load cannot be applied to these models and they only

serve to provide a three-dimensional view.
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 18457:2016(E)

— Functional models (additive manufacturing): These models have properties similar to those available in the

components manufactured later on in mass-production.

— Tools (rapid tooling): Tools are created that can be combined with other manufacturing processes.

— Low volume production (rapid manufacturing): The properties of the geometries manufactured correspond

to those desired in actual use.
3.4
gradient transition
gradual transition

direction-dependent, continuous change of a chemical, physical, or mechanical property

Note 1 to entry: Biological materials are often characterized by gradual transitions in terms of their physical

and mechanical properties, which are achieved through structural changes at various hierarchical levels, among

other things.
3.5
compatibility

recyclability and adaptability of a material flow or a technology in the environment

3.6
modularity
composition of an overall system from individual modules
3.7
multifunctionality

structure and properties of a material and component allowing several functions necessary for the

organism or technically desired to be realized at a high level and in equilibrium

3.8
redundancy

existence of functionally comparable systems, whereby one system alone is sufficient to maintain the

corresponding function (multiplicity in systems)
3.9
resilience
fault tolerance

tolerance of a system to malfunctions or capacity to recover functionality after stress

3.10
Self-X property

property and information existing in a material or on a surface proceed processes autonomously

without requiring special control

Note 1 to entry: Self-X properties are widespread in biological materials and surfaces and are of great interest for

transfer to technical products. Examples include self-organization, self-assembly, self-repair, self-healing, self-

cleaning, and self-sharpening.
3.11
stereoregularity
tacticity
certain geometric regularity in the molecular structure of polymer chains

Note 1 to entry: Macromolecular materials with identical chemical compositions can have significantly different

mechanical properties due to differences in the spatial arrangement of their atoms and groups of atoms. In

chemical production techniques, the molecular geometry of polymer chains is determined during polymerization

by the reaction temperature selected and the catalyst used.

Note 2 to entry: A classic example from nature is polyisoprene, which can be elastic (natural rubber), as well as

hard (balata, gutta-percha).
2 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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ISO 18457:2016(E)
4 Abbreviated terms
AES Auger Electron Spectroscopy
AFM Atomic Force Microscope
CT Computed Tomography
DSC Differential Scanning Calorimetry
DTA Differential Thermal Analysis
GC Gas Chromatography
GC-MS/MS Gas Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry
GPC Gel Permeation Chromatography
HPLC High performance liquid chromatography
IR Infrared Spectroscopy
LC-MS/MS Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry
MALDI-MS Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Mass Spectrometry
NMR Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
OM Optical microscope
SEM Scanning Electron Microscope
SEM-EDS Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy
SIM Structured Illumination Microscopy
SIMS Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry
SPM Scanning Probe Microscope
TEM Transmission Electron Microscope
TOF-SIMS Time-of-Flight Secondary Mass Spectrometry
UVVIS Ultra Violet Visible
XPS X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
XRF X-ray Fluorescence Analysis
5 Biological materials
5.1 Characteristics
5.1.1 General

The terms material and structure sometimes have different meanings in biology and in technology.

Classic technical materials are often considered to be homogeneous, so that it is reasonable and

permissible to assume in calculations and for manufacturing purposes that the model is isotropic.

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 18457:2016(E)

Technical materials rely mostly on chemistry for their properties whereas biological materials rely on

structure and are almost invariably composite.

Owing to their hierarchical structure from the molecular to the macroscopic level, it is not possible to

clearly distinguish between the terms “material” and “structure” in the field of biology. For this reason,

the term “material” is used in the following as a general term for all biological materials with their

respective structures.

Some characteristics of biological materials that are relevant to biomimetic implementations are listed

in Table 1.
Table 1 — Characteristics of biological materials
Characteristics Biological Example Explanations
Properties

Multifunctionality Wood: integration of water Biological materials are often multicriteria-optimized

pipes, strength, damping, and possess a high-function density, and they often
storage, among other things combine supposedly conflicting functions.

Hierarchy Wood: at least five A special feature of the hierarchical design of biological

structural levels, from the materials is that structural or (bio) chemical changes in

molecular structure of the one level lead to specific adaptations in the other
cell wall to the structure of hierarchy levels. This level spanning adaptability
the tree trunk permits a wide variety of different functions.

Fault and failure Bones: ample breaking Biological materials can handle a high level of faults and

tolerance (resilience strength, tolerance to damage before they fail as a whole.

and redundancy) micro-cracks, crack
stoppers

Self-X Rubber tree: self-repair Biological materials are able to generate and maintain

their complex functions autonomously, meaning,
Teeth of rodents:
without external control.
self-sharpening
Surface of leaves:
self-cleaning
Adaptivity Bones: load adaptivity Biological materials can react to changes in
environmental conditions by changing their form or
Plant motion: for
through growth and restructuring processes.
example, nastic movements
and tropism

Compatibility Walls of plant cells: Availability/biodegradability of the biological build-

consist almost exclusively ing blocks.
of carbon, oxygen and
The waste products produced are rarely pollutants. The
hydrogen
waste products are in fact biodegradable and recyclable.

Modularity Organization of organs: Repetition of identical basic units at different

composition of several hierarchical levels.
different tissues

Lifespan according to Tree: dropping of leaves Important properties are maintained through renewal.

needs The lifespans of individual components match, and the
components are renewed.

Gradual transitions Many biological materials, Prevention of sudden transitions between properties to

for example, plant stems increase the lifespan and tolerance to damage.
(e.g. fibre/substrate tissue
transitions), long bones
(such as cortical/cancellous
bone transitions), bone/
tendon/ muscle transitions
4 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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ISO 18457:2016(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Characteristics Biological Example Explanations
Manufacture
Growth Many biological Biological materials and organisms are created through
materials, as well as, for genetically controlled self-organization. Living

example, self-cleaning leaf organisms are formed using molecules, organelles, cells,

surfaces: self-assembly of tissues and organs, i.e. by growing from small to large.

the genetically coded wax
molecules

Opportunism (use of Photosynthesis: In biology, a few predominantly light elements that are

readily available utilization of solar energy available locally and in large quantities are used (C, H, O,

resources) N, S, Ca, P, Si).

Mild environmental Enzymes: catalysis at Adequate conversion of material at low ambient

conditions ambient temperatures temperatures.

5.1.2 Biological materials: multifunctional, fault-tolerant, modular, and adaptive

The characteristics of biological materials listed in Table 1 can be divided into properties and

manufacturing characteristics. The properties of biological materials include multifunctionality,

fault and failure tolerance, the Self-X properties, adaptivity, and modularity, only to name a few.

Manufacturing characteristics such as biological growth, meaning, genetically controlled self-

organization from the level of molecules to the level of the living organism itself, and resource-oriented

construction under mild environmental conditions are further examples of the abilities of biological

materials. Furthermore, biological materials have a limited lifespan. After the organism dies, they

are generally completely broken down and return into the natural material cycle. When applied to

the “lifespans” of technical applications, this property is also of interest and is studied in biomimetic

research and development projects.

Tree trunks are a biological example of multicriteria optimization in nature in which numerous and

sometimes conflicting functions are executed simultaneously with high reliability. They combine

mechanical stability against working loads (such as the weight of its own tree trunk and crown, as well

as wind and snow loads) with transport functions for water and metabolic products, storage functions,

[1]
and photosynthesis .

Another characteristic of living organisms is their ability to adapt to variable environmental conditions

(adaptivity), which enables them to survive. The high tolerance of biological materials to damage

shall also be mentioned in this context, as well as the ability of many living organisms to quickly and

efficiently repair damage. The capability for self-repair and adaptivity are characteristics of living

[2]
organisms that are particularly interesting for biomimetic developments .

5.1.3 Technical components: monofunctional, durable, with a limited ability to adapt

Technical components are generally developed and optimized with the focus on a single dominant

function. In technical systems such as vehicles, though, they often fulfil many other boundary conditions

and constraints such as a limited design space, multiple mechanical loads, connection of additional

components, manufacturing and component joining restrictions, but also limited development times.

This often results in compromised solutions or oversized components that are not ideal. Components

are often manufactured based on the material, meaning, they are manufactured from the large (work

piece blank) to the small (product), and are not adaptive or self-repairing as a rule. The durability of a

component can be problematic once it has passed its normal lifespan, and it is often difficult to return it

to geo-ecological material cycles.

While living organisms shall function continuously in order to ensure their survival and successful

reproduction, machines can be taken out of operation for maintenance, modification, and

reconstruction. It is therefore possible to optimize machine components quickly and for a specific

function, and all resources, materials, and technologies available (e.g. high temperature processes in

metal processing and silicon technologies) can be used for this purpose. In comparison to evolutionary

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 18457:2016(E)

processes, these conditions allow very short development stages, and sometimes old technologies are

even completely replaced by new technologies (for example, the replacement of analog technologies by

digital technologies).

These differences cause biological evolution and human technology to reach very different solutions to

comparable “problems” in some cases even though they are subject to the same physical laws and share

[3]
the same physical environment .
5.2 Performances

Performances of biological systems are rich in variety. Examples of 151 biological systems are shown in

[4]

Table 2 . Performances of biological systems are classified into eight categories:

a) materials;
b) process;
c) Self-X;
d) sensors;
e) hydrodynamics;
f) saving energy/saving resources;
g) adaptability to the environment;
h) behaviour/ecology.

The categories contain 56 kinds of specific examples. 43 expected fields of applications are summarized

in Table 2 to see the overview of performance of biological systems. Especially, the interfaces of

biological systems demonstrate particularly interesting properties that have a high potential to lead

to new technological developments; examples are optics, anti-reflection, wettability, adhesion, fluid

dynamics, surface tension, self-organization, self-cleaning, lift, fluid resistance, friction control.

Some examples of biomimetic products are introduced in Annex A.

Table 2 — Performances of biological systems and possible applications in different categories

No. Performances Biological example Possible application areas
a) Materials

1 Anti-reflection, structural Morpho butterfly (see A.9), moth eyes Liquid crystal, decoration,

colour, photonics (see A.10), blue damselfish, maranta, electronics, functional film, cosmetics

fish scales (see A.4)
2 Luminescence Fire fly, squid, jellyfish Automobile, household electric
appliances, decoration

3 Lightweight structure Bamboo, plant stem, winter horsetail Architecture, automobile, structural

(see A.6), boxfish, diatom, bone material
4 Wettability Lotus (see A.12), land snail, wings of Texture, coating material,
butterfly, wings of cicadas, rose, architecture, automobile, glass, water
Namibian desert beetle, pitcher plant harvesting, (marine industry)

5 Mechanical properties Abalone(see A.3), bone, tree, bamboo, Texture, architecture, medicine,

spider silk sports industry
6a Dynamics of a bistable Venus flytrap Switching structures
system
6b Torsional buckling Strelitzia Architecture
6 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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ISO 18457:2016(E)
Table 2 (continued)
No. Performances Biological example Possible application areas

7 Adhesion and attachment Blue mussel, gecko (see A.11), leaf Architecture, medicine, manufacture

beetle, land snail, burdock seeds,
octopus suckers, sea urchin, slime
mould

8 Fluid dynamics Shark skin, dolphin, bluefin tuna, Aircraft, ship, household electric

penguin, bird, dragonfly, maple seeds appliances, coating materials, sports
industry

9 Electrical properties/ Electric eel, dried shells, dried trees Ceramic industry, electric industry

isolator, electricity
generation

10 Impact absorption Pomelo, cashew, joint, rhinoceros Automobile, medicine, defence

beetle industry

11 Bio-template Tobacco mosaic virus, DNA, wings of Electronics, semiconductor industry

butterflies, spirulina
12 Tube structure Mosquito, butterfly, wharf roach Medicine
13 Surface tension Whirligig beetle, backswimmer Coating materials
14 Unidirectional Mouth of snake, earthworm, bee, Machine parts
pitcher plant
b) Process
15 Bio-mineral Shells, teeth, bone, diatom Medicine, decoration, ceramic
industry
16 Photosynthesis Plant Energy industry, agriculture, food
industry

17 Organic synthesis Spider silk, blue mussel, plant wax, Medicine, chemical industry

pine resin, Para rubber tree, liga-
ments of grasshopper (see A.2)
18 Processing Shipworm Civil engineering

19 Metabolism Cellulose degradation, silk, amino- Food industry, energy industry,

acid fermentation, alcohol plastics industry
fermentation, entomophagy,
stockbreeding
20 Micro-mist Bombardier beetle Machine parts, internal-combustion
engine, coating materials
21 Abscission Leaf fall Manufacture
22 Scattering Poppy Household electric appliances
c) Self-X
23 Self-organization Organisms Medicine, electronics, films

24 Self-healing, self-repair Skin, bone, teeth, lizard, plant leaves, Medicine, coating materials,

shark teeth, planarian automobile, electronics, household
electric appliances
25 Self-assembly Cell membrane Medicine, coating

26 Self-cleaning Lotus leaf, land snail, wings of Architecture, automobile, coating

butterflies, wings of cicadas materials
27 Self-sharpening Teeth of rodents (see A.5) Tools
d) Sensor

28 Ocular vision/visible Eyes, compound eyes, photoreceptors Sensor, architecture, household

light, infrared, specific in crown-of-thorn starfish, tube feet electric appliances, automobile,

wavelength urchin, Melanophila beetle, cabbage aircraft
white butterfly

29 Olfaction Ant, dog, insect, deep-sea fish Sensor, household electric appliances,

automobile
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO 18457:2016(E)
Table 2 (continued)
No. Performances Biological example Possible application areas

30 Tactile sense, mechanore- Cat whiskers, gravity sensors of plant Sensor, household electric appliances,

ceptor automobile
31 Chemosensation Ant, fly, bee Sensor, food industry

32 Auditory sense/ultrasonic Bats, longhorn beetle, dolphin, gecko Aircraft, sensor, agriculture (pest

waves, low frequency control)
33 Magnetic sensor Migratory bird, sea turtles, pigeon, Aircraft, sensor, ship
spiny lobster, shark, honeybee
34 Force sensor Cricket Sensor, household electric appliances
e) Hydrodynamics
35 Buoyancy Nautilus, cuttlefish, jellyfish Ship
36 Lift Wings of bird, dragonfly Aircraft, power generation
37 Driving force Jellyfish, Paramecium Robot industry

38 Fluid resistance Shark skin, dolphin, Bluefin tuna, Ship, sports industry, automobile,

penguin, kingfisher, boxfish, wings of aircraft
owl, eel
f) Saving energy, saving resources
39 Friction control Snake, sand skink, joint Machine parts, robot industry,
automobile, medicine, welfare

40 Temperature control Shade of trees, polar bear, swan, Architecture, texture, automobile

skunk cabbage, zebra, anthill,
mammalian sweat, transpiration
41 Moisture control Anthill Architecture
42 Circulatory Food web, leaf fall, fungi, termite Energy industry, agriculture
(sustainability)/
adaptability for recycling,
degradability
g) Adaptability to the environment
43 Desiccation tolerance Plant stomata, chironomid, cactus Medicine, texture

44 Cold-resistance Polar bear, Trematomus fish, Tenebrio Medicine, food industry, battery

beetle, reindeer
45 Acid or alkali tolerant Helicobacter pylori, microbes in Fuel cell
submarine volcano, bacteria in hot
spring/alkaliphile
46 High-temperature Microbes in submarine hydrothermal
tolerance polymetallic ore
47 High-temperature use Eucalyptus, Banksia, Melanophila beetle Sensor
48 Ultraviolet resistance Edelweiss Cosmetics
h) Behaviour, ecology
49 Mimicry/colo
...

DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 18457
ISO/TC 266 Secretariat: DIN
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2015-07-20 2015-10-20
Biomimetics — Biomimetic materials, structures and
components
Biomimétisme — Matériaux, structures et composants biomimétiques
ICS: 07.080
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 18457:2015(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2015
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 18457:2015(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2015, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 18457:2015(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Biological materials........................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.1 Characteristics ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.1.2 Biological materials: multifunctional, fault-tolerant, modular, and adaptive ............. 4

4.1.3 Technical components: monofunctional, durable, with a limited ability to adapt .. 5

4.2 Performance .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5 Methodology of biomimetic material and component development .........................................................11

5.1 Analysis.......................................................................................................................................................................................................11

5.1.1 Overview of analysis methodologies ...........................................................................................................12

5.1.2 Measurement and characterization of creature and biomimetic surfaces .................15

5.2 Examination of analogies ............................................................................................................................................................17

5.3 Abstraction ..............................................................................................................................................................................................18

5.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................18

5.3.2 Modelling and simulation .....................................................................................................................................19

5.4 Material selection ..............................................................................................................................................................................20

6 Reasons and occasions for using biomimetic materials, structures and

componentsin companies ........................................................................................................................................................................20

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................20

Annex A (informative) Examples of biomimetic materials, structures, and components .........................22

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................32

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 18457:2015(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. www.iso.org/directives

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received. www.iso.org/patents

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

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The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 266, Biomimetics.
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ISO/DIS 18457:2015(E)
Introduction

The increasing complexity of technical solutions and products requires new approaches. Classic

research and development methods and innovation approaches often reach their limits, especially in the

development and optimization of materials, structures, and components. The identification of suitable

biological principles and their transfer to technical applications in the sense of biomimetic therefore

can make an important contribution to the development of functional, adaptive, efficient (in terms

of resources), and safe (in terms of toxicity to humans and the environment) materials, structures,

components and manufacturing techniques.
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DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 18457:2015(E)
Biomimetics — Biomimetic materials, structures and
components
1 Scope

This international standard provides a framework in biomimetics for the development of materials,

structures, surfaces, components and manufacturing technologies.

The principles of biological systems, and especially the performance of biological materials, structures,

surfaces, components and manufacturing technologies that provides the motivation and reasons for

biomimetic approaches, are specified. The methodology is specified based on analysis of biological systems,

which lead to analogies, and abstractions. The transfer process from biology to technology is described

based on examples of biomimetic materials, structures, surfaces, components and manufacturing

technologies. The standard describes measurement methods and parameters for the characterization of

properties of biomimetic materials. The standard provides information on the relevance of biomimetic

materials, structures, surfaces, components and manufacturing technologies for industry

The standard also links to other subareas in biomimetics because fundamental developments in

materials, structures, surfaces, components and manufacturing technologies often form the basis for a

wide variety of additional innovations. It provides guidance and support for all those who develop, design,

process or use biomimetic materials, structures, surfaces, components and manufacturing technologies.

This standard may also serve for those who want to learn about and investigate these topics.

2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO 18458:2015, Biomimetics — Terminology, concepts and methodology
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 18458:2015 and the

following apply.
3.1
Adaptivity
Ability to adapt to variable environmental conditions
3.2
Efficiency
Relationship between an output and the energy required to generate this output
3.3
Generative manufacturing process

Manufacturing process in which three-dimensional components are produced by applying material

layer-by-layer

Note 1 to entry: These technologies can be used in four different levels of manufacturing:

— Concept model (additive manufacturing): A mechanical load cannot be applied to these models and they only

serve to provide a three-dimensional view.
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ISO/DIS 18457:2015(E)

— Functional models (additive manufacturing): These models have properties similar to those available in the

components manufactured later on in mass-production.

— Tools (rapid tooling): Tools are created that can be combined with other manufacturing processes.

— Low volume production (rapid manufacturing): The properties of the geometries manufactured correspond

to those desired in actual use.
3.4
Gradient - gradual transition

Direction-dependent, continuous change of a chemical, physical, or mechanical property

Note 1 to entry: Biological materials are often characterized by gradual transitions in terms of their physical

and mechanical properties, which are achieved through structural changes at various hierarchical levels, among

other things.
3.5
Compatibility

Recyclability and adaptability of a material flow or a technology in the environment

3.6
Modularity
Composition of an overall system from individual modules
3.7
Multifunctionality

Structure and properties of a material and component allow several of the functions necessary for the

organism or several functions desired technically to be realized at a high level and in equilibrium

3.8
Redundancy

Existence of functionally comparable systems, whereby one system alone is sufficient to maintain the

corresponding function (multiplicity in systems)
3.9
Resilience - fault tolerance

Tolerance of a system to malfunctions or capacity to recover functionality after stress

3.10
Self-x property

Property and information existing in a material or on a surface proceed processes autonomously without

requiring special control

Note 1 to entry: Self-X properties are widespread in biological materials and surfaces and are of great interest

for transfer to technical products. Examples include self-organization, self-assembly, self-repair, self-healing, self-

cleaning, and self-sharpening.
3.11
Stereoregularity - tacticity
Certain geometric regularity in the molecular structure of polymer chains

Note 1 to entry: Macromolecular materials with identical chemical compositions can have significantly different

mechanical properties due to differences in the spatial arrangement of their atoms and groups of atoms. In

chemical production techniques, the molecular geometry of polymer chains is determined during polymerization

by the reaction temperature selected and the catalyst used.

Note 2 to entry: A classic example from nature is polyisoprene, which can be elastic (natural rubber) as well as

hard (balata, gutta-percha).
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ISO/DIS 18457:2015(E)
4 Biological materials
4.1 Characteristics
4.1.1 General

The terms material and structure sometimes have different meanings in biology and in technology.

In technology, the term material is a collective term for the substances needed to manufacture and

operate machines. It includes raw materials, industrial materials, semi-finished products, auxiliary

supplies, operating materials, as well as parts and assemblies. In the following, the term material is used

in the sense of working material.

Classic technical materials are often highly homogeneous, so that it is reasonable and permissible to

assume in calculations and for manufacturing purposes that the model possesses quasi-isotropic

properties. Some biological materials are organic substances and others are organogenetic substances

(substances produced by living organisms). Due to their hierarchical structure from the molecular to the

macroscopic level, it is not possible to clearly distinguish between the terms “material” and “structure”

in the field of biology. For this reason, the term “material” is used in the following as a general term for

all biological materials and structures. The assumption that the material has quasi-isotropic properties,

which can be assumed in many cases for technical materials, generally leads to an oversimplification of

a biological material.

The characteristics of biological materials that are relevant to biomimetic implementations are

listed in Table 1.
Table 1 — Characteristics of biological materials
Characteristics Biological Example Explanations
Properties

Multifunctionality wood: integration of water Biological materials are often multicriteria-optimized

pipes, strength, damp- and possess a high function density, and they often com-
ing, storage, among other bine supposedly conflicting functions.
things

Hierarchy wood: at least five A special feature of the hierarchical design of biological

structure levels, from the materials is that structural or (bio) chemical changes in

molecular structure of the one level lead to specific adaptations in the other hier-

cell wall to the structure of archy levels. This level spanning adaptability permits a

the trunk wide variety of different functions.

Fault and failure tol- bones: ample breaking Biological materials can handle a high level of faults and

erance (resilience and strength, tolerance to damage before they fail as a whole.

redundancy) micro- cracks, crack stop-
pers

Self-X rubber tree: self-repair Biological materials are able to generate and maintain

their complex functions autonomously, meaning without
teeth of rodents:
external control.
self-sharpening
surface of leaves:
self-cleaning

Adaptivity bones: load adaptivity Biological materials can react to changed environmental

conditions by changing their form or through growth
plant motion: for exam-
and restructuring processes.
ple nastic movements and
tropism

Compatibility photosynthesis: utiliza- Use of easily available sources of energy.

tion of solar energy
The waste products produced are rarely pollutants. The
waste products are in fact biodegradable and recyclable.
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ISO/DIS 18457:2015(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Characteristics Biological Example Explanations

Modularity organization of organs: Repetition of identical basic units at different hierarchi-

com- position of several cal levels.
different tissues

Lifespan according to tree: dropping of leaves Important properties are maintained through renewal.

needs The life- spans of individual components match, and the
components are renewed.

Gradual transitions many biological materials, Prevention of sudden transitions between properties to

for example plant stems increase the lifespan and tolerance to damage.
(fibre/ substrate tissue
transitions, for exam-
ple), long bones (such as
corticalis/cancellous bone
transitions), bone/tendon/
muscle transitions
Manufacture

Growth many biological materi- Biological materials and organisms are created through

als as well as, for exam- genetically controlled self-organization. Living organ-

ple self-cleaning leaf isms are formed using molecules, organelles, cells,

surfaces: self-assembly of tissues, and organs, i.e. by growing from small to large.

the genetically coded wax
molecules

Opportunism (use walls of plant cells: In biology, a few predominantly light elements that are

of readily available consist almost exclusively available locally and in large quantities are used (C, H, O,

resources) of carbon, oxygen, and N, S, Ca, P, Si).
hydrogen
Biological materials are created in mild environmental
conditions (ambient temperature, ambient pressure).

Mild environmental enzymes: catalysis at Adequate conversion of material at low ambient temper-

conditions ambient temperatures atures.

4.1.2 Biological materials: multifunctional, fault-tolerant, modular, and adaptive

The characteristics of biological materials listed in Table 1 can be divided into properties and

manufacturing characteristics. The properties of biological materials include multifunctionality, fault

and failure tolerance, the self-X properties, adaptivity, and modularity, only to name a few. Manufacturing

characteristics such as biological growth, meaning genetically controlled self-organization from the

level of molecules to the level of the living organism itself, and resource-oriented construction under

mild environmental conditions are further examples of the abilities of biological materials. Furthermore,

biological materials have a limited lifespan. After the organism dies, they are generally completely broken

down and put back into the natural material cycle. When applied to the “lifespans” of technical applications,

this property is also of interest and is studied in biomimetic research and development projects.

Trunks are a biological example of multicriteria optimization in nature in which numerous functions,

which are sometimes conflicting functions, are executed simultaneously with high “reliability”. They

combine mechanical stability against working loads (such as the weight of its own trunk and crown

as well as wind and snow loads) with transport functions for water and assimilate, storage functions

and photosynthesis to extract materials. This multifactor optimization makes “biological materials” of

[1-3]
interest to the field of biomimetics.

Another characteristic of all living organisms is their ability to adapt to variable environmental

conditions (adaptivity), which enables them to survive successfully even when there are changes in

the environment. The high tolerance of biological materials to damage shall also be mentioned in this

context, as well as the ability of many living organisms to quickly and efficiently repair damage. The

capability for self-repair and adaptivity are characteristics of living organisms that are particularly

interesting for biomimetic developments.
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ISO/DIS 18457:2015(E)

4.1.3 Technical components: monofunctional, durable, with a limited ability to adapt

Technical components are generally developed and optimized with the focus on a single dominant

function. In technical systems such as vehicles, though, they often fulfil many other boundary conditions

and constraints such as a limited design space, multiple mechanical loads, connection of additional

components, manufacturing and component joining restrictions, but also limited development times.

This often results in compromise solutions or oversized components that are not ideal. Components

are often manufactured based on the material, meaning they are manufactured from the large (work

piece blank) to the small (product), and are not adaptive or self-repairing as a rule. The durability of a

component can be problematic once it has passed its normal lifespan, and it is often difficult to return it

to geo-ecological material cycles.

While living organisms need to function continuously in order to ensure their survival and successful

reproduction, machines can be taken out of operation for maintenance, modification, and reconstruction.

It is therefore possible to optimize machine components quickly and for a specific function, and all

resources, materials, and technologies available (e.g. high temperature processes in metal processing

and silicon technologies) can be used for this purpose. In comparison to evolutionary processes, these

conditions allow very short development stages, and sometimes old technologies are even completely

replaced by new technologies (for example the replacement of analog technologies by digital technologies).

These differences cause biological evolution and human technology to reach very different solutions to

comparable “problems” in some cases even though they are subject to the same physical laws and share

the same physical environment.
4.2 Performance

Performances of biological example are rich in variety. Examples of 151 creatures are shown in Table 2.

[4]

Performances of biological examples are classified in eight categories: (1) materials, (2) process,

(3) self-x, (4) sensor, (5) hydrodynamics (6) saving energy/ saving resources, (7) adaptability to the

environment, (8) behaviour/ ecology. The characteristic performances of biological examples are

introduced with 56 kinds of specific examples. 43 expected fields of applications are summarized in

Table 2 to see the overview of performance of biological examples. The creature surfaces have especially

many performances and are expected to bring a new technology: the performances are optics, anti-

reflection, wettability, adhesion, fluid dynamics, surface tension, self-organization, self-cleaning, lift,

fluid resistance, friction control. Some examples of biomimetic product were introduced in Annex A.

Table 2 — Performance of creatures and expected applications were summarized in each

category: (1) materials, (2) process, (3) self-x, (4) sensor, (5) hydrodynamics, (6) saving

energy/saving resources, (7) adaptability to the environment, (8) behaviour/ecology

(1) MATERIALS
No. Performance Biological example Expected examples

1 Optics, anti-reflection, Morpho butterfly (see A.9), moth eyes liquid crystal, decoration, electronics,

structural colour,condense (see A.10), blue damselfish, maranta, functional film, cosmetcs

rays of light fish scales (see A.4)
2 Luminescence fire fly, squid, jellyfish automobile, household electric appli-
ances, decoration

3 lightweighting design bamboo, plant stem, winter horsetail architecture, automobile,structural

(see A.6), boxfish, diatom, bone material

4 wettability lotus (see A.12), land snail, wings texture, coating material, architec-

of butterfly, wings of cicadas, rose, ture, automobile, glass, water har-
namib desert beetle, pitcher plant vesting, (marine industry)

5 mechanical properties abalone(sea A.3), bone, tree, bamboo, texture, architecture,medicine,

spider silk sports industry
6 dynamics of a bistable venus flytrap, paradise bird architecture
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ISO/DIS 18457:2015(E)
Table 2 (continued)

7 adhesion blue mussel, gecko (see A.11), leaf architecture, medicine,manufacture

beetle, land snail, burdock seeds,
octopus suckers, sea urchin, slime
mould

8 fuid dynamics shark skin, dolphin, bluefin tuna, pen- aircraft, ship, household electric

guin, bird, dragonfly, maple seeds appliances, coating materials, sports
industry

9 electrical properties/ electric eel, dried shells, dried trees ceramic industry, electric industry

isolator, electricity gener-
ation

10 impact absorption pomelo, cashew, joint, rhinoceros automobile, medicine, defence indus-

beetle try

11 bio-template tobacco mosaic virus, DNA, wings of electronics, semiconductor industry

butterflies, spirulina
12 tube structure mosquito, butterfly, wharf roach medicine
13 surface tension whirligig beetle, backswimmer coating materials
14 unidirectional mouth of snake, earthworm, bee, machine parts
pitcher plant
(2) PROCESS
No. Performance Biological example Expected examples
15 bio-mineral shells, teeth, bone, diatom medicine, decoration, ceramic indus-
try
16 photosynthesis plant energy industry, agriculture, food
industry

17 organic synthesis spider silk, blue mussel, plant wax, medicine, chemical industry

pine resin, Para rubber tree, liga-
ments of grasshopper (see A.2)
18 processiong shipworm civil engineering

19 metabolism cellulose degradation, silk, ami- food industry, energy industry, plas-

no-acid fermentation, alcohol fermen- tics industry
tation, entomophagy, stockbreeding
20 micro-mist bombardier beetle machine parts, internal-combustion
engine, coating materials
21 abscission leaf fall manufacture
22 scattering poppy household electric appliances
(3) SELF-X
No. Performance Biological example Expected examples
23 self-organization organisms medicine, electronics, films

24 self-healing, self-repair skin, bone, teeth, lizard, plant leaves, medicine, coating materials, automo-

shark teeth, planarian bile, electronics, household electric
appliances
25 self-assembly cell membrane medicine, coating

26 self-cleaning lotus leaf, land snail, wings of butter- architecture,automobile, coating

flies, wings of cicadas materials
27 self-sharpning teeth of rodents (see A.5) tools
(4) SENSOR
No. Performance Biological example Expected examples
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ISO/DIS 18457:2015(E)
Table 2 (continued)

28 ocular vision/ visible light, eyes, compound eyes, photoreceptors sensor, architecture, household elec-

infrared, specific wave- in crown-of-thorn starfish tube feet tric appliances, automobile, aircraft

length - urchin/Melanophila beetle, cabbage
white butterfly

29 olfaction ant, dog, insect, deep-sea fish sensor, household electric appliances,

automobile

30 tactile sense, mechanore- cat whiskers, gravity sensors of plant sensor, household electric appliances,

ceptor automobile
31 taste sensation ant, fly, bee sensor, food industry

32 auditory sense/ultrasonic bats, longhorn beetle, dolphin, gecko aircraft, sensor, agriculture (pest

waves, low frequency control)
33 magnetic sensor migratory bird, sea turtles, pigeon, aircraft, sensor, ship
spiny lobster, shark, honeybee
34 force sensor cricket sensor, household electric appliances
(5) HYDRODYNAMICS
No. Performance Biological example Expected examples
35 buoyancy nautilus, cuttlefish, jellyfish ship
36 lift wings of bird, dragonfly aircraft, power generation
37 driving force jellyfish, paramecium robot industry

38 fluid resistance shark skin, dolphin, Bluefin tuna, ship, sports industry, automobile,

penguin, kingfisher, boxfish, wings of aircraft
owl, eel
(6) SAVING ENERGY, SAVING RESOURCES
No. Performance Biological example Expected examples

39 friction control snake, sand skink, joint machine parts, robot industry, auto-

mobile, medicine, welfare

40 temperature control shade of trees, polar bear, swan, architecture, texture, automobile

skunk cabbage, zebra, anthill, mam-
malian sweat, transpiration
41 moisture control anthill architecture
42 circulatory(sustainabil- food web, leaf fall, fungi, termite energ
...

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