Information technology -- Home electronic system (HES) architecture

ISO/IEC 14543-3-11:2016(E) specifies an OSI Layers 1 to 3 Frequency Modulated Wireless Protocol for low-power devices such as energy harvested devices in a home environment. The protocol is specifically designed to keep the energy consumption of such sensors and switches extremely low.

Technologies de l'information -- Architecture des systèmes électroniques domestiques (HES)

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Status
Published
Publication Date
23-Feb-2016
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
19-Feb-2016
Completion Date
24-Feb-2016
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ISO/IEC 14543-3-11
Edition 1.0 2016-02
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Information technology – Home electronic system (HES) architecture –
Part 3-11: Frequency modulated wireless short-packet (FMWSP) protocol
optimised for energy harvesting – Architecture and lower layer protocols
ISO/IEC 14543-3-11:2016-02(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 14543-3-11
Edition 1.0 2016-02
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Information technology – Home electronic system (HES) architecture –
Part 3-11: Frequency modulated wireless short-packet (FMWSP) protocol
optimised for energy harvesting – Architecture and lower layer protocols
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 35.200 ISBN 978-2-8322-3194-4

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – ISO/IEC 14543-3-11:2016
© ISO/IEC 2016
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ......................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 7

2 Normative references..................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviations .............................................................................. 8

3.1 Terms and definitions ............................................................................................ 8

3.2 Abbreviations ...................................................................................................... 12

4 Conformance ............................................................................................................... 12

5 Architecture ................................................................................................................. 13

5.1 Generic protocol description ................................................................................ 13

5.1.1 Overview ..................................................................................................... 13

5.1.2 Physical layer .............................................................................................. 13

5.1.3 Data link layer .............................................................................................. 13

5.1.4 Network layer ............................................................................................... 14

5.1.5 Transport layer ............................................................................................ 14

5.1.6 Session layer ............................................................................................... 14

5.1.7 Presentation layer ........................................................................................ 14

5.1.8 Application layer .......................................................................................... 14

5.2 Data unit description ........................................................................................... 14

6 Layer 1 – Physical layer ............................................................................................... 14

6.1 Overview............................................................................................................. 14

6.2 General description ............................................................................................. 14

6.3 Physical specifications for a FMWSP transmitter .................................................. 16

6.4 Physical specifications for a FMWSP receiver ...................................................... 17

6.5 Packet structure .................................................................................................. 17

6.6 Relationship between a packet and a telegram .................................................... 18

7 Layer 2 – Data link layer .............................................................................................. 19

7.1 Overview............................................................................................................. 19

7.2 Structure of a telegram of length less than 8 B ..................................................... 19

7.3 Structure of a telegram length of more than 7 B ................................................... 20

7.4 Data integrity ...................................................................................................... 22

8 Layer 3 – Network layer ............................................................................................... 23

8.1 Overview............................................................................................................. 23

8.2 Media access ...................................................................................................... 23

8.2.1 General ....................................................................................................... 23

8.2.2 Listen before talk ......................................................................................... 23

8.2.3 Random access ........................................................................................... 23

8.3 Repeater ............................................................................................................. 24

Annex A (informative) Examples of how to evaluate the hash value ..................................... 25

Bibliography ....................................................................................................................... 26

Figure 1 – Illustration of a frequency modulated signal and various associated physical

parameters ......................................................................................................................... 15

Figure 2 – The packet structure for the FMWSP protocol ..................................................... 18

Figure 3 – Relationship between a packet and a telegram .................................................... 19

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 14543-3-11:2016 – 3 –
© ISO/IEC 2016

Figure 4 – Structure of a telegram length of less than 8 B .................................................... 19

Figure 5 – Structure of a telegram length of more than 7 B .................................................. 20

Figure A.1 – C code program .............................................................................................. 25

Table 1 – The FMWSP protocol stack structure (OSI) .......................................................... 13

Table 2 – Requirements for a FMWSP transmitter ............................................................... 17

Table 3 – Requirements for a FMWSP receiver ................................................................... 17

Table 4 – Packet field values of the FMWSP protocol .......................................................... 18

Table 5 – Field values and meaning of a telegram with less than 8 B of length ..................... 19

Table 6 – Header (HDR) description .................................................................................... 21

Table 7 – Extended header (EXHDR) description ................................................................. 22

Table 8 – Extended telegram type (ETELTYP) description ................................................... 22

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – ISO/IEC 14543-3-11:2016
© ISO/IEC 2016
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY –
HOME ELECTRONIC SYSTEM (HES) ARCHITECTURE –
Part 3-11: Frequency modulated wireless short-packet (FMWSP)
protocol optimised for energy harvesting –
Architecture and lower layer protocols
FOREWORD

1) ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are members of

ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical committees established

by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical activity. ISO and IEC technical

committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international organizations, governmental and non-

governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the work. In the field of information technology,

ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee, ISO/IEC JTC 1.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC and ISO on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an

international consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation

from all interested IEC National Committees and ISO member bodies.

3) IEC, ISO and ISO/IEC publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted

by IEC National Committees and ISO member bodies in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to

ensure that the technical content of IEC, ISO and ISO/IEC publications is accurate, IEC or ISO cannot be held

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8) Attention is drawn to the normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this ISO/IEC publication may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard ISO/IEC 14543-3-11 was prepared by subcommittee 25:

Interconnection of information technology equipment, of ISO/IEC joint technical committee 1:

Information technology.

The list of all currently available parts of the ISO/IEC 14543 series, under the general title

Information technology – Home electronic system (HES) architecture, can be found on the

IEC web site and ISO web site.

This International Standard has been approved by vote of the member bodies, and the voting

results may be obtained from the address given on the title page.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 14543-3-11:2016 – 5 –
© ISO/IEC 2016
INTRODUCTION

Various electrically controlled sensors and switches are used in homes and similar

environments for many different applications. Examples of such applications are lighting,

heating, energy management, blinds control, different forms of security control and

entertainment (audio and video).

In most cases the device, e.g., a switch initiating an action, and the device, e.g., a lamp, are

installed at different places. The distance can be bridged by wires, infrared or radio

transmission. Presently equipment at both ends of a wireless transmission link needs to be

powered by line or battery.

While wireless transmissions are especially attractive to retrofit homes, power maintenance of

battery-driven devices is a burden. In addition, these batteries require scarce materials. Since

the command and control messages sent by control and sensor devices in homes are very

short, they can be powered using new techniques for energy harvesting, provided they use a

wireless protocol that operates on relatively low power. Energy available in the environment of

a device is captured and stored (harvested) to power operation of the device. Examples of

energy sources are mechanical actuation, solar radiation, temperature differences, etc. If this

is executed at least one device in the link neither needs a battery nor a wire. Energy

harvesting devices need very limited power and use an energy efficient radio protocol to send

data to other conventionally powered devices in the home. In order to ensure interoperability

of such devices from different sources within a home, an international standard for a protocol

is required that uses the little power that energy harvested devices can provide and at the

same time spans distances to be bridged within a home environment.

Several such devices used within a home may come from different sources. They are required

to interwork with each other using a common internal network (in this standard called a home

network) and supporting a home automation system. When a home automation system meets

ISO/IEC HES standards, it is called a Home Electronic System (HES).

Two alternative technologies are supported by the ISO/IEC 14543 series of standards. The

two standards, ISO/IEC 14543-3-10 and ISO/IEC 14543-3-11, are optimised for energy

harvesting based on similar techniques, but with different modulation schemes.

ISO/IEC 14543-3-10 and ISO/IEC 14543-3-11 specify two lower layer wireless short-packet

protocols, where the former uses an amplitude modulated signal and ISO/IEC 14543-3-11 a

frequency modulated signal.

Amplitude modulated wireless communications are more energy efficient but less adapted to

mobile devices. This is due to the fact that the impedance of a mobile antenna is affected by

the environment of the mobile device, e.g., when the device is held in the hand or moved to

metal surface. Changes in impedance affect the amplitude linearity of the radio frequency

output amplifier, but have no impact on the frequency itself. Thus, an AM wireless system is

more sensitive to changes in environment than a FM wireless system. Also frequencies above

800 MHz are better suited for mobile devices, since they require smaller antennas. Thus, the

frequency 315 MHz is not used in this standard, which together makes the FM wireless

system more efficient for mobile devices.

Compared to the AM wireless system, the FM wireless system provides more flexibility in the

size of various pieces of information that can be transmitted. This includes the possibility to

have larger payloads, different lengths of the identifiers of originators and destinations, and

greater variability of structures and lengths of the telegram types. In addition, the number of

steps a telegram can be repeated is increased from 2 to 15.
AM and FM wireless system are efficient enough to

• support energy harvested products for sensors and switches that do not require cables

and batteries, and
• extend the life of battery-operated devices.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – ISO/IEC 14543-3-11:2016
© ISO/IEC 2016

Both an AM and a FM system can be active at the same time, since each system is so

constructed that only permitted messages are accepted. Collisions can be avoided by listen-

before-talk (LBT) technology or overcome by redundant transmissions.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 14543-3-11:2016 – 7 –
© ISO/IEC 2016
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY –
HOME ELECTRONIC SYSTEM (HES) ARCHITECTURE –
Part 3-11: Frequency modulated wireless short-packet (FMWSP)
protocol optimised for energy harvesting –
Architecture and lower layer protocols
1 Scope

This part of ISO/IEC 14543 specifies a frequency modulated wireless protocol for low-

powered devices such as energy harvested devices in a home environment. This wireless

protocol is specifically designed to keep the energy consumption of such sensors and

switches extremely low.
The design is characterised by

• keeping the communications very short, infrequent and mostly unidirectional, and

• using communication frequencies that provide a good range even at low transmit power

and avoid collisions from disturbers.

This allows the use of small and low cost energy harvesters that can compete with similar

batteries-powered devices. The messages sent by energy harvested devices are received and

processed mainly by line-powered devices such as relay switch actuators, repeaters or

gateways. Together these form part of a home automation system, which, when conforming to

the ISO/IEC 14543 series of standards, is defined as a Home Electronic System.

This part of ISO/IEC 14543 specifies OSI Layers 1 to 3 of the Frequency Modulated Wireless

Short-Packet (FMWSP) protocol. It makes use of a frequency modulated signal well adapted

to mobile devices and also supports high frequency wireless communications.

The FMWSP protocol system consists of two, and optionally three types of components that

are specified in this standard. These are the transmitter, the receiver and optionally the

repeater. Repeaters are needed when the transmitter and the receiver are located such that

no good direct communication between them can be established. By direct communications

the functional distance of the system is up to 300 m line-of-sight including the Fresnel zone

and up to 30 m in buildings.
Since wireless communications may be overheard by receivers outside the intended

environment, users should be aware of the risks this might cause before installing any

wireless system. In contrast to listening devices, however, protection against malicious

attacks for the technology in this standard can partly be handled in the upper layers, and is

thus not treated here.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and

are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any
amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 7498-1, Information technology – Open systems interconnection – Basic Reference

Model – Part 1: The Basic Model
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – ISO/IEC 14543-3-11:2016
© ISO/IEC 2016
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviations
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1.1
byte
represented by 8 bit
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 14543-3-10:2012, 3.1.4]
3.1.2
centre frequency
mean frequency between the mark and space frequency of the transmitter
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
3.1.3
collision

two wireless transmitters using the same wireless channel and transmitting data at the same

time
3.1.4
cyclic redundancy check
CRC
integrity hash algorithm based on a polynomial division
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 14543-3-10:2012, 3.1.6]
3.1.5
DATA_DL
field in the telegram containing the payload data of the link layer
3.1.6
DATA_PL
field in the packet containing the payload data of the physical layer
3.1.7
data rate
number of bits per second
3.1.8
data rate error

difference between the actual data rate and the specified data rate divided by the specified

data rate
3.1.9
energy harvesting

energy available in the environment of a device that is captured and stored (harvested) to

power operation of the device

Note 1 to entry: Examples of energy sources are mechanical actuation, solar radiation, temperature differences

etc.
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 14543-3-10:2012, 3.1.8]
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 14543-3-11:2016 – 9 –
© ISO/IEC 2016
3.1.10
frequency deviation
FDEV
half the magnitude between the mark frequency and the space frequency
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
3.1.11
frequency error
difference between the centre frequency and the operating frequency
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
3.1.12
frequency modulation
representation of logical 1 and logical 0 by mark and space frequencies
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
3.1.13
frequency shift keying
FSK
transmission representing digital data by means of frequency modulation
3.1.14
HASH

field in which the hash value for the data integrity control of a transmitted telegram is

specified

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 14543-3-10:2012, 3.1.10, modified – "Subtelegram" has been removed in

the definition.]
3.1.15
identity of destination
DESTID
unique identity of the destination device of a FMWSP telegram

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 14543-3-10:2012, 3.1.14, modified – Both the term and the definition

have been modified, not, however, the abbreviation.]
3.1.16
identity of source
ORIGID
unique identity of the device from which the telegram originates
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
3.1.17
LENGTH

field in a packet or a telegram specifying the number of remaining bytes in the packet

respectively the telegram
3.1.18
listen before talk
LBT

technique of checking the occupancy of the wireless channel before transmitting any packets

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 14543-3-10:2012, 3.1.17, modified – "Frames" has been replaced by

"packets" in the definition.]
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – ISO/IEC 14543-3-11:2016
© ISO/IEC 2016
3.1.19
mark frequency
frequency in a frequency modulated transmission representing a logical 1
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
3.1.20
maximum tolerated signal
maximum input level power a receiver is able to cope with
3.1.21
non-return-to-zero
NRZ
code used for transmission of digital data
3.1.22
operating frequency
frequency claimed by the system specification
3.1.23
optimum sampling point
middle of the transmitted bit
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
3.1.24
out of band spurious emissions
frequencies not deliberately created by the system
3.1.25
packet
set of data to be transmitted as a complete unit on the physical layer
3.1.26
packet error rate

average fraction of transmitted packets that has not been correctly received, where each

packet contains arbitrary data
3.1.27
power amplifier ramp-off time
PA Ramp-Off Time

time between the end of the last symbol of the packet and the time the transmitter is powered

down
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
3.1.28
power amplifier ramp-on time
PA Ramp-On Time

time between the transmitter has been powered on and the start of the first symbol of the

preamble (PRE)
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
3.1.29
preamble
PRE

alternating sequence of bits in the beginning of a packet used for threshold generation and bit

synchronisation
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 14543-3-11:2016 – 11 –
© ISO/IEC 2016
3.1.30
pulse shape
shape of the symbol
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
3.1.31
radio frequency power
RF power
strength of the transmitter
3.1.32
rated transmission power
transmission power claimed by the specification of the transmitter
3.1.33
receiver sensitivity

minimum input power level for which the specified packet error rate has been fulfilled

3.1.34
repeated telegrams
telegrams transmitted by a repeater
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 14543-3-10:2012, 3.1.28]
3.1.35
repeater
receives telegrams and sends refreshed signals to any FMWSP receiver
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 14543-3-10:2012, 3.1.29]
3.1.36
space frequency
frequency in a frequency modulated transmission representing a logical 0
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
3.1.37
symbol
bit transmitted by the sender representing either a logical 0 or a logical 1
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
3.1.38
synchronisation word
SYNCWD

word transmitted in the packet to identify the FMWSP protocol and also used to synchronize

the receiver to the incoming signal
3.1.39
telegram
data unit of the network and data link layers

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 14543-3-10:2012, 3.1.34, modified – The definition has been changed

and the note has been removed.]
3.1.40
telegram type
identifies the type of a telegram transmitted in the FMWSP protocol
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
– 12 – ISO/IEC 14543-3-11:2016
© ISO/IEC 2016

Note 1 to entry: There are several types of telegrams that can be transmitted in the FMWSP protocol. Telegram

types are used and defined by applications and chosen such that a minimum amount of energy is consumed. This

standard specifies the syntax of the telegram types, but the semantics and which fields are supported are specified

by the applications.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 14543-3-10:2012, 3.1.35, modified – The abbreviation has been deleted,

the definition has been modified and Notes 1 and 2 have been replaced by a new Note 1.]

3.1.41
transmission power
power of the emission during transmission
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
3.2 Abbreviations
ADDATA Additional Data
CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check
DATA_DL Payload Data of the data link and network layers
DATA_PL Payload Data of the physical layer
DESTID Destination device IDentity
EIRP Effective Isotropic Radiated Power
ERP Effective Radiated Power
ETELTYP Extended Telegram Type
EXHDR Extension Header
FDEV Frequency deviation
FMWSP Frequency Modulated Wireless Short-Packet Protocol
FSK Frequency Shift Keying
HDR Header
LBT Listen Before Talk
LSB Least Significant Bit
MSB Most Significant Bit
NRZ Non-Return-to-Zero
ORIGID Transmitting device Identity
PRE Preamble
RF Radio Frequency
SYNCWD Synchronisation Word
4 Conformance

The three components of the FMWSP protocol system specified in this standard are the

transmitter, the receiver and the repeaters. The repeaters shall be able to both transmit and

receive telegrams and shall thus support the requirements for both the transmitters and

receivers.

To conform to this International Standard the components shall support at least one of the

three wirele
...

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