Standardization of the image technology


The invention of photography technology made an absolute breakthrough both in the history of science and in the history of art. Over the years, photography has become not just a method of capturing a certain moment, but also an entire industry that has become intertwined with culture, science, history, and even information media. To date, most photographs, like many elements of social life, are in electronic format and space, and as a result, have certain technical parameters. Since even digital photography has become a separate category of activity, which has created many subcategories, as a result, certain norms and requirements for processing and creation have arisen. As in most other branches of human activity, photography has technical quality standards and international regulations, the main of which we will introduce you today.

Photography and graphic technology — Extended color encodings for digital image storage, manipulation and interchange — Part 3: Reference input medium metric RGB color image encoding (RIMM RGB)

ISO 22028-3:2023

The color scheme, despite the artistic features, in the digital world consists of three primary colors. Thus, we can say that the creation of a certain color or shade is a kind of coding. To regulate the quality of generated color codes, there are international standards such as ISO 22028-3:2023.

This document specifies a family of scene-referred extended color gamut RGB color image encodings designated as reference input medium metric RGB (RIMM RGB). Digital images encoded using RIMM RGB can be manipulated, stored, transmitted, displayed or printed by digital still picture imaging systems. Three precision levels are defined using 8-, 12- and 16-bits/channel.

An extended luminance dynamic range version of RIMM RGB is also defined, designated as extended reference input medium metric RGB (ERIMM RGB). Two precision levels of ERIMM RGB are defined using 12- and 16-bits/channel. FP-RIMM RGB, a floating point version of RIMM RGB, defines the expression method of RIMM RGB in a floating point figure. Three precision levels of FP-RIMM RGB are defined using 16-, 32- and 64-bits/channel.

Since this International Standard has a large number of technical aspects, it must be understood that its application is necessary directly for professionals operating in this branch of human activity.

Imaging materials - Scratch resistance of photographic prints - Part 1: General test method

ISO 18951-1:2022

Photo printing has been popular since the advent of the first cameras. Today, high-tech devices that are used everywhere help to capture the moment and get the highest quality result. However, when it comes to printing, different types of techniques need to be applied for each type of equipment, which are regulated in international documents such as ISO 18951-1:2022.

This document specifies test method, test target, and reporting requirements to determine the scratch resistance of prints with photographic images. Photographic images can be produced by a wide range of printing technologies, including silver halide, electrophotography, inkjet, dye diffusion thermal transfer, commonly known as dye sublimation, and dye transfer processes. This document is applicable to prints with paper substrate and other type of substrates including prints on plastic, glass, metal and other materials.

This document is applicable to photographic prints that have no protection as well as photographic prints that are protected by a coating or lamination. It is not the purpose of this document to define limits of acceptability or failure. They would be determined by the user and the intended application.

It should be noted that the information specified in this format is only advisory in nature and cannot guarantee complete confidence in one hundred percent quality. Only by combining several documents with norms and standards in a particular industry, it is possible to achieve the highest quality, and as a result, competitive result.

Document management - Portable Document Format - Extensions to Digital Signatures in ISO 32000-2

ISO/TS 32002:2022

Electronic signatures have ushered in a new era of international collaboration between companies and have significantly changed the concepts and requirements for online security. Since any documentation is somehow related to programming and the code that belongs to each letter and each symbol, it is necessary to understand that electronic signatures also have a number of requirements and norms that are prescribed in such international standards as ISO / TS 32002: 2022.

This document specifies how to extend the ISO 32000-2 specification by adding support for the following:

  • use of the NIST P-curve family of elliptical curves for digital signatures; — use of the Brainpool family of elliptical curves for digital signatures;

  • use of Edwards Curve (EdDSA) Ed448 and Ed25519 families of elliptical curves for digital signatures.

This document does not specify the following:

  • specific processes for converting paper or electronic documents to the PDF file format;

  • specific technical design, user interface implementation, or operational details of rendering;

  • specific physical methods of storing these documents such as media and storage conditions;

  • methods for validating the conformance of PDF files or PDF processors;

  • required computer hardware and/or operating system.

It should be borne in mind that when it comes to international standardization in the field of online technologies, one standard cannot fully regulate all activities in a comprehensive manner, which is why it is necessary to combine documents according to different parameters and combine them into one system that will work aimed at the best result.

Optics and photonics - Test methods for surface imperfections of optical elements - Part 2: Machine vision

ISO/TR 14997-2:2022

Optical elements of technological devices when creating a photograph have a large variation in technical parameters. The quality of the final result may largely depend on the technical parameters of optical devices. In order to be able to predict the expected result in advance, tests are carried out using various methods. These methods, in turn, are regulated by such international documents as ISO/TR 14997-2:2022.

This document provides guidance for the use of machine vision to objectively assess grades of surface imperfections as defined on a drawing using ISO 10110-7 with equivalent results as those obtained by applying the inspector-based methods described in ISO 14997-1. This document also gives guidelines on how to set up a machine vision device regarding fidelity, repeatability and reproducibility, based on the dark field detection principles of ISO 14997-1.

If your field of activity is related to photography, its production and retouching, the application of this International Standard can greatly help you improve the quality of your product as well as improve existing skills.

Photo production and standards

Despite the fact that initially photography is perceived as an art, which, in turn, cannot have norms, rules and frameworks, the devices with which these photos are created have a number of technical standards that affect the final result. To date, not a single day and not a single branch of human activity seems to us without the use of photographs. It is precisely because of this huge popularity of photography that companies whose activities intersect with its production must be aware of the latest international standards in this industry, the high-tech industry and the high speed of development and change. Stay with the iTeh team and you will always be able to take a leading position in the market, not only locally, but also internationally.