Cellular plastics - Determination of volume percentage of open and closed cells of rigid materials (ISO 4590:1981)

Schaumstoffe - Bestimmung des Volumenanteils offener und geschlossener Zellen in harten Schaumstoffen (ISO 4590:1981)

Diese Internationale Norm beschreibt ein allgemeines Verfahren zur Bestimmung des Volumenanteils offener und geschlossener Zellen von harten Schaumstoffen durch Messung des geometrischen Volumens und anschliessender Messung des gasdichten Volumens der Probekörper. Dieses Verfahren sieht eine Korrektur des scheinbaren Volumens offener Zellen vor, indem die durch Anschneiden der bei der Herstellung der Probekörper geöffneten Zellen an der Oberfläche berücksichtigt werden. Für die Messung des gasdichten Volumens werden zwei alternative Verfahren sowie die entsprechende Apparatur beschrieben.

Plastiques alvéolaires - Détermination du pourcentage volumique de cellules ouvertes et fermées des matériaux rigides (ISO 4590:1981)

Penjeni polimerni materiali - Trde pene - Določanje prostorninskega deleža odprtih in zaprtih celic (ISO 4590:1981)

General Information

Publication Date
Withdrawal Date
Technical Committee
Current Stage
9960 - Withdrawal effective - Withdrawal
Start Date
Completion Date


Buy Standard

EN ISO 4590:2000
English language
15 pages
sale 10% off
sale 10% off
e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (Sample)

SIST EN ISO 4590:2000
Cellular plastics - Determination of volume percentage of open and closed cells of rigid
materials (ISO 4590:1981)
Schaumstoffe - Bestimmung des Volumenanteils offener und geschlossener Zellen in
harten Schaumstoffen (ISO 4590:1981)
Plastiques alvéolaires - Détermination du pourcentage volumique de cellules ouvertes et
fermées des matériaux rigides (ISO 4590:1981)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 4590:1995
83.100 Penjeni polimeri Cellular materials
SIST EN ISO 4590:2000 en
2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------

SIST EN ISO 4590:2000

---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------

SIST EN ISO 4590:2000

---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------

SIST EN ISO 4590:2000

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------

SIST EN ISO 4590:2000

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------

SIST EN ISO 4590:2000

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------

SIST EN ISO 4590:2000
International Standard
Cellular plastics - Determination of volume percentage
of open and closed cells of rigid materials
Plastiques alvholaires - Determination du pourcentage volumique de celfules ouvertes et fermkes des matkiaux rigides
First edition - 1981-12-01
UDC 678405.8 : 531.754.4 Ref. No. ISO 4590-1981 (EI
Descriptors : cellular materials, plastics, cellular plastics, tests, physical tests, test equipment.
Price based on 12 pages

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------

SIST EN ISO 4590:2000
ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of
national Standards institutes (ISO member bodies). The work of developing lnter-
national Standards is carried out through ISO technical committees. Every member
body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been set up has the
right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental
and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.
Draft International Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to
the member bodies for approval before their acceptance as International Standards by
the ISO Council.
International Standard ISO 4590 was developed by Technical Committee ISO/TC 61,
Plastics, and was circulated to the member bodies in July 1978.
lt has been approved by the member bodies of the following countries :
Austria Greece Poland
Hungary Romania
Brazil Iran South Africa, Rep. of
Bulgaria Israel Spain
Italy Sweden
Czechoslovakia Japan Turkey
Egypt, Arab Rep. of Korea, Rep. of USA
Mexico USSR
France Netherlands Y ugosiavia
Germany, F. R. New Zealand
The member body of the following country expressed disapproval of the document on
technical grounds
United Kingdom
0 International Organkation for Standardkation, 1981
Printed in Switzerland

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------

SIST EN ISO 4590:2000
ISO 4590-1981 (E)
Cellular plastics - Determination of volume percentage
of open and closed cells of rigid materials
corrected volume percentage of open cells, cc), : The
1 Scope and field of application 36
a;parent volume percentage of open cells q, corrected to take
into account the surface cells opened by cutting during
This International Standard specifies a general method for the
preparation of the test specimens.
determination of the volume percentage of open and closed
cells of rigid cellular plastics, by measurement first of the
lt is the Iimit of the apparent volume percentage of open cells
geometrical volume and then of the air impenetrable volume of
cc), as the surface/volume ratio r approaches Zero.
test specimens. This method provides for correcting the ap-
parent open cell volume by taking into account the surface cells
opened by cutting during specimen preparation. Two alter-
3.7 corrected volume percentage of closed cells, I+Y, :
native methods and corresponding apparatus are specified for
Volume percentage remaining after accounting for corrected
the measurement of the impenetrable volume. The results ob-
volume percentage of open cells :
tained are to be used for comparison purposes only.
2 Reference
This percentage includes the volume of the cell Walls.
ISO 1923, Cellular plastics and rubber - Determination of
linear dimensions.
4 Principle
Determination of the surface area S and geometrical volume Vg
3 Definitions of a number of test specimens, each having different
geometrical surface/voIume ratio r.
For the purposes of this International Standard, the following
Determination of the impenetrable volume 5 by either of two
definitions apply.
methods, namely
The total surface area of the test
3.1 surface area, S :
a) method 1 - by pressure Variation (pyknometer);
specimen determined by measuring its geometrica I dimensions.
b) method 2 - by volume expansion.
of the test
3.2 geometrical volume, vg : The volume
specimen determined by measuring its geometrica 11 dimensions.
The determination of the impenetrable volume Vi is based on
the application of the Boyle-Mariotte law to a gas confined in
an indeformable chamber, first in the absence and then in the
for the test
3.3 surfaceholume ratio, r : The ratio 7
9 presence of a test specimen.
Calculation of the apparent volume percentage of open cells CI),
3.4 impenetrable volume, y : The volume of the test
of the test specimen, plotting of the curve cc),. = f(r) and ex-
specimen into which air cannot penetrate and from which gas
trapolation to r = 0, followed by calculation of the corrected
cannot escape, under the test conditions.
volume percentage of open cells cr), and the corrected volume
percentage of closed cells wo.
3.5 apparent volume percentage of open cells, CO, : The
5 Test specimens
vg - v
x 100
5.1 Number and shape
lt includes the volume of the cells opened during cutting of the A minimum of three sets of test specimens, with each set con-
sisting of three rectangular parallelepipeds (see figure 1) shall
test specimen, and depends on the nature of the cellular plastic
be prepared from each Sample. The specimens of each of the
under test and on the surface/voIume ratio r of the test
three sets are to be designated rl, r2 and r3.

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------

SIST EN ISO 4590:2000
ISO 45904981 (EI
5.2 Preparation 8.1 Principle of method 1
Test specimens are to be tut with a bandsaw and machined if Determination of the following characteristics for an at-
necessary, with minimum deformation to the original cell struc- mospheric pressure&mb and a pressure reduction pe in the test
ture. They shall be free of dust, voids and moulding skins. chamber in relation t0 &,-,b :
Hot-wire cutting shall not be used. a) the corresponding volume Change SV,, of the test
chamber in the absence of a test specimen; this determina-
tion constitutes the calibration of the apparatus;
5.3 Dimensions
b) the corresponding volume Change SV,, of the test
The required test specimen dimensions depend on the specific
chamber in the presence of a test specimen.
method used to measure the impenetrable volume Vi. Initial
specimen sizes are to be tut as follows :
The impenetrable volume Vi of the test specimen is given by the
Method 1 : Pressure Variation (pyknometer)
length :4Omm
width : 30 mm WM - svA2
Vi =
thickness : 20 mm
- Pe
Method 2 : Volume expansion
where PB = Pamb + Pe
length : 1OOmm
width : 30 mm
In practice (see 8.2.2), Vi is calculated from the equivalent
thickness : 30 mm
5.4 Sectioning of test specimens
4 - j2
Vi = -
Both methods require that specimens r2 and r3 of each set be
- KPe
further sectioned as shown in figure 1 to provide a range of sur-
face/volume ratios for testing.
6 Conditioning and testing atmospheres
Zl is a pyknometer scale reading corresponding to K 6 VA,;
The test specimens shall be conditioned for not less than 16 h
j2 is a pyknometer scale reading corresponding to K 6 VA,;
at 23 + 2 OC and 50 $r 5 % relative humidity Prior to testing.
lt is important that the test be conducted at 23 + 2 OC and
K isa constant relati ng the pyknometer scale readings to
preferably at controlled and moderate humidity, i.e. 50 + 5 %
volume Change in the chamber.
relative humidity.
Measurement of surface area S and
8.2 Description of apparatus for method 1
geometrical volume Vg
8.2.1 The apparatus consists of an air pyknometer that per-
7.1 Determine the linear dimensions of each test specimen
mits instant reading of thedifference between internal pressure
according to ISO 1923, except that measurements shall be
and atmospheric pressure. A schematic diagram of the ap-
made to the nearest 0,05 mm. Location of the measurement
paratus is shown in figure 3. lt consists essentially of the
Points shall be as shown in figure 2.
following items :
7.2 Calculate the average linear dimensions, the surface area
a) test chamber A, including a removable measurement
S, and the geometrical volume Vg, retaining all significant
chamber D of volume approximately 50 cm3, which fits to
figures for test specimens rl (one parallelepiped), r2 (two
the main part of chamber A by means of an appropriate
parallelepipeds) and r3 (four parallelepipeds). Round off the
mechanical device, a filter F and an air-tight circular joint G,
final values for surface area S to the nearest 0,Ol cm2 and for
to ensure impermeability and reproducibility of the
the geometrical volume Vg to the nearest 0,Ol cm?
geometrical volume of this part of the test chamber;
b) chamber B to create the reduced pressure.
8 Determination of impenetrable volume K
by method 1 : Pressure Variation (pyknometer)
8.2.2 The two chambers A and B are linked in parallel by
NOTE - The impenetrable volume Vi is to be determined according to
means of tubing fitted with a valve T,, which tan connect or
either method 1 or method 2. The principle, description of apparatus,
disconnect them, and a differential manometer M,. The tubing
calibration, procedure and calculation for these two methods for deter-
tan be connected directly to atmosphere by means of valve Tz.
mining Vi are specified in this clause and clause 9, respectively.

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------

SIST EN ISO 4590:2000
8.4 Procedure for method 1
When chamber D is connected to chamber A by means of the
air-tight joint G and the valve TI is closed, the volume I(A of the
combined chambers (including the free volume of the
8.4.1 Prior to testing, move Piston PA and PB along the whole
chambers and of the tubing connected to the manometer M1
available distance to Change completely the air in chambers A
and to the valve TI) tan be modified by moving the Piston PA by
and B and the tubing. In this case, all the valves should be
means of the trank C,.
open. In Order to obtain greater homogeneity be-
tween internal and external environments, it is advisable to
The indicator I of the displacement of the Piston PA permits
repeat this Operation several times.
reading directly on a scale J, with a precision of 025 %, a
value I which has been precalibrated by the manufacturer to
Determine the atmospheric pressure Pamb to the nearest
some corresponding Change SV,, starting from an initial
10 Pa*.
reference value I/,.
8.4.2 Verify the zero readings of the manometers M, and MZ.
NOTE - The relationship between / and 6 VA is defined by a propor-
tionality constant K (/ = K 6 V”> as provided by the equipment
manufacturer or by calibration from Standard volumes. The proper
8.4.3 Place chamber D (containing the test specimen, if
value for K is achieved only if the zero reading on scale J is previously
applicable) in Position.
adjusted during the setting up of the air pyknometer in accordance
with the manufacturer’s instructions. The value of K for one commer-
cially available air pyknometer is 20.
8.4.4 Again cha nge the air in the apparatus by moving pistons
PA and PB in the appropriate way.
8.2.3 Chamber B tan be connected directly to the at-
mosphere by means of valve T,. Moreover, it is connected by 8.4.5 Adjust Piston PA so as to obtain a reading I = 0 on sca!e
means of tubing and valve T, to a differential manometer M2
J. Position Piston PB to enable the desired pressure reduction
which indicates the pressure reduction that tan be imposed at
to be achieved.
any time to the internal volume of chamber B with respect to
the ambient atmosphere. The manometer M2 shall permit the
8.4.6 Close valves T,, T2 and then T,. Wait a few seconds.
reading of the pressure reduction to 0,25 % (i.e., a pressure
Both manometers M, and M2 should indicate Zero. If such is
reduction pe of - 200 mmH*O shall be read to within
not the case, re-open valves T,, T3 and TZ, repeat the Operation
+ 0,5 mmH20).
specified in 8.4.4 and then proceed in accordance with 8.4.5. If
the manometers continue to show instability, measurements
The pressure in chamber B is adjustable (when valves Tl and
are impossible due to anomalies discussed in the annex (see
T3 are closed) by moving the Piston P, by means of the trank
clauses A.4, A.5 and A.6).
Cs. The differente pe (negative in the procedure for method 1)
between the pressure PB in chamber B and the atmospheric
pressurePamb is indicated on the manometer M2 when valve T4 8.4.7 When the differential manometers are stable, lower the
internal pressure by progressively moving Piston PB and almost
is open :
simultaneously Piston PA to maintain the indicator on
manometer M, close to Zero, while observing the pressure
Pe = PB - Pamb
reduction on manometer MZ.
83 . Calibration of pyknometer apparatus
Never move Piston PA backwards during this Operation.
Determine, according to the test procedure specified in 8.4 and
8.4.8 Proceed as specified in 8.4.7 until the pressure reduc-
for the atmospheric pressure &,,-,b prevailing at the moment of
tion pe =
- 200 mmH,O. The equilibrium must be stable.
test, the reading I, corresponding to a pressure Change
If such is not the case, there exists one of the anomalies
- 200 mmH*O in relation to &mb.
Pe =
discussed in the annex (see clauses A.4, A.5 and A.6), namely
rupture of cell Walls, test specimen deformation or rapid
Variation of &mb.
1 In Order to eliminate the need for determining /l, each time the
barometric pressure Pamb changes, it may be desirable to establish a
NOTE - In the case of test specimens of new types of cellular
calibration curve of /I = .f(Pamb) for a given value of pe. This tan be
materials, preliminary determinations should be performed using
accomplished as shown in figure 6 by repeating step 8.3 over a period
several values of pressure reduction Pe, Chosen in arithmetic progres-
of several days over which Pamb varies.
sion (for example, - 100 mmH20, - 200 mmH20, - 300 mmH20,
etc.). During the test, the highest value of pressure reduction should
2 If it is desired, for some cellular mater

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.