High-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Part 100: Alternating-current circuit-breakers

IEC 62271-100:2021 is applicable to three-phase AC circuit-breakers designed for indoor or outdoor installation and for operation at frequencies of 50 Hz and/or 60 Hz on systems having voltages above 1 000 V. This document includes only direct testing methods for making-breaking tests. For synthetic testing methods refer to IEC 62271-101.
This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition published in 2008, Amendment 1:2012 and Amendment 2:2017. This edition constitutes a technical revision.
The main changes with respect to the previous edition are listed below:
– the document has been updated to IEC 62271-1:2017;
– Amendments 1 and 2 have been included;
– the definitions have been updated, terms not used have been removed;
– Subclauses 7.102 through 7.108 have been restructured.
The contents of the corrigendum of December 2021 and July 2022 have been included in this copy.

Appareillage à haute tension - Partie 100: Disjoncteurs à courant alternatif

L’IEC 62271-100:2021 est applicable aux disjoncteurs triphasés à courant alternatif conçus pour l'installation à l'intérieur ou à l'extérieur, et pour fonctionner à des fréquences de 50 Hz et/ou 60 Hz sur des réseaux de tensions supérieures à 1 000 V. Le présent document inclut uniquement les méthodes d’essai direct pour les essais d’établissement et de coupure. Pour les méthodes d’essai synthétique, voir l’IEC 62271-101.
Cette troisième édition annule et remplace la deuxième édition parue en 2008 ainsi que l’Amendement 1:2012 et l’Amendement 2:2017. Cette édition constitue une révision technique.
Les principales modifications par rapport à l'édition précédente sont les suivantes:
- le document a été mis à jour par rapport à l’IEC 62271-1:2017;
- les amendements 1 et 2 ont été inclus;
- les définitions ont été actualisées et les termes non utilisés ont été supprimés;
- les paragraphes 7.102 à 7.108 ont été restructurés.
La version française de cette norme n’a pas été soumise au vote.
Le contenu du corrigendum de décembre 2021 et de juillet 2022 a été pris en considération dans cet exemplaire.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
06-Jul-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
07-Jul-2021
Ref Project

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IEC 62271-100
Edition 3.0 2021-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
High-voltage switchgear and controlgear –
Part 100: Alternating-current circuit-breakers
Appareillage à haute tension –
Partie 100: Disjoncteurs à courant alternatif
IEC 62271-100:2021-07(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 62271-100
Edition 3.0 2021-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
High-voltage switchgear and controlgear –
Part 100: Alternating-current circuit-breakers
Appareillage à haute tension –
Partie 100: Disjoncteurs à courant alternatif
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 29.130.10 ISBN 978-2-8322-9885-5

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

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® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 62271-100:2021  IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ......................................................................................................................... 11

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 13

2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 13

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................... 14

3.1 General terms and definitions ............................................................................... 15

3.2 Assemblies ........................................................................................................... 19

3.3 Parts of assemblies .............................................................................................. 19

3.4 Switching devices ................................................................................................. 19

3.5 Parts of circuit-breakers ........................................................................................ 21

3.6 Operational characteristics ................................................................................... 25

3.7 Characteristic quantities ....................................................................................... 27

3.8 Index of definitions ................................................................................................ 43

4 Normal and special service conditions ........................................................................... 47

5 Ratings .......................................................................................................................... 47

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 47

5.2 Rated voltage (U ) ................................................................................................ 48

5.3 Rated insulation level (U , U , U ) ....................................................................... 48

d p s

5.4 Rated frequency (f ) .............................................................................................. 48

5.5 Rated continuous current (I ) ................................................................................ 48

5.6 Rated short-time withstand current (I ) ................................................................. 48

5.7 Rated peak withstand current (I ) ......................................................................... 48

5.8 Rated duration of short-circuit (t ) ......................................................................... 48

5.9 Rated supply voltage of auxiliary and control circuits (U ) .................................... 48

5.10 Rated supply frequency of auxiliary and control circuits ........................................ 48

5.11 Rated pressure of compressed gas supply for controlled pressure systems .......... 48

5.101 Rated short-circuit breaking current (I ) .............................................................. 49

5.102 Rated first-pole-to-clear factor (k ) for terminal fault ........................................... 52

5.103 Rated short-circuit making current ........................................................................ 52

5.104 Rated operating sequence .................................................................................... 52

5.105 Rated out-of-phase making and breaking current .................................................. 52

5.106 Rated capacitive currents...................................................................................... 53

6 Design and construction ................................................................................................ 55

6.1 Requirements for liquids ....................................................................................... 55

6.2 Requirements for gases ........................................................................................ 55

6.3 Earthing ................................................................................................................ 55

6.4 Auxiliary and control equipment and circuits ......................................................... 56

6.5 Dependent power operation .................................................................................. 56

6.6 Stored energy operation ........................................................................................ 56

6.7 Independent unlatched operation (independent manual or power operation) ......... 56

6.8 Manually operated actuators ................................................................................. 56

6.9 Operation of releases ............................................................................................ 56

6.10 Pressure/level indication ....................................................................................... 57

6.11 Nameplates........................................................................................................... 58

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IEC 62271-100:2021  IEC 2021 – 3 –

6.12 Locking devices .................................................................................................... 60

6.13 Position indication ................................................................................................. 60

6.14 Degrees of protection provided by enclosures ....................................................... 60

6.15 Creepage distances for outdoor insulators ............................................................ 60

6.16 Gas and vacuum tightness .................................................................................... 60

6.17 Tightness for liquid systems .................................................................................. 60

6.18 Fire hazard (flammability) ..................................................................................... 60

6.19 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) ..................................................................... 60

6.20 X-ray emission ...................................................................................................... 60

6.21 Corrosion .............................................................................................................. 60

6.22 Filling levels for insulation, switching and/or operation .......................................... 61

6.101 Requirements for simultaneity of poles during single closing and single

opening operations ............................................................................................... 61

6.102 General requirement for operation ........................................................................ 61

6.103 Pressure limits of fluids for operation .................................................................... 61

6.104 Vent outlets .......................................................................................................... 62

6.105 Time quantities ..................................................................................................... 62

6.106 Mechanical loads .................................................................................................. 62

6.107 Circuit-breaker classification ................................................................................. 63

7 Type tests ..................................................................................................................... 65

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 65

7.2 Dielectric tests ...................................................................................................... 67

7.3 Radio interference voltage (RIV) test .................................................................... 72

7.4 Resistance measurement ...................................................................................... 72

7.5 Continuous current tests ....................................................................................... 73

7.6 Short-time withstand current and peak withstand current tests .............................. 74

7.7 Verification of the protection ................................................................................. 74

7.8 Tightness tests ..................................................................................................... 74

7.9 Electromagnetic compatibility tests (EMC) ............................................................ 74

7.10 Additional tests on auxiliary and control circuits .................................................... 75

7.11 X-radiation test procedure for vacuum interrupters ................................................ 75

7.101 Mechanical and environmental tests ..................................................................... 75

7.102 Miscellaneous provisions for making and breaking tests ....................................... 88

7.103 General considerations for making and breaking tests ........................................ 106

7.104 Demonstration of arcing times ............................................................................. 113

7.105 Short-circuit test quantities ................................................................................. 132

7.106 Short-circuit test procedure ................................................................................. 155

7.107 Terminal fault tests ............................................................................................. 157

7.108 Additional short-circuit tests ................................................................................ 161

7.109 Short-line fault tests ............................................................................................ 164

7.110 Out-of-phase making and breaking tests ............................................................. 175

7.111 Capacitive current tests ...................................................................................... 177

7.112 Requirements for making and breaking tests on class E2 circuit-breakers

having a rated voltage above 1 kV up to and including 52 kV .............................. 191

8 Routine tests ............................................................................................................... 192

8.1 General ............................................................................................................... 192

8.2 Dielectric test on the main circuit ........................................................................ 193

8.3 Tests on auxiliary and control circuits ................................................................. 195

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– 4 – IEC 62271-100:2021  IEC 2021

8.4 Measurement of the resistance of the main circuit ............................................... 195

8.5 Tightness test ..................................................................................................... 195

8.6 Design and visual checks .................................................................................... 195

8.101 Mechanical operating tests ................................................................................. 195

9 Guide to the selection of switchgear and controlgear (informative) .............................. 197

9.101 General ............................................................................................................... 197

9.102 Selection of rated values for service conditions ................................................... 199

9.103 Selection of rated values for fault conditions ....................................................... 201

9.104 Selection for electrical endurance in networks of rated voltage above 1 kV

and up to and including 52 kV ............................................................................. 205

9.105 Selection for switching of capacitive loads .......................................................... 205

10 Information to be given with enquiries, tenders and orders (informative) ...................... 205

10.1 General ............................................................................................................... 205

10.2 Information with enquiries and orders ................................................................. 205

10.3 Information to be given with tenders.................................................................... 206

11 Transport, storage, installation, operation instructions and maintenance...................... 208

11.1 General ............................................................................................................... 208

11.2 Conditions during transport, storage and installation ........................................... 208

11.3 Installation .......................................................................................................... 208

11.4 Operating instructions ......................................................................................... 214

11.5 Maintenance ....................................................................................................... 214

11.101 Resistors and capacitors ..................................................................................... 215

12 Safety .......................................................................................................................... 215

13 Influence of the product on the environment ................................................................ 215

Annex A (normative) Calculation of TRVs for short-line faults from rated

characteristics .................................................................................................................... 216

A.1 Basic approach ................................................................................................... 216

A.2 Transient voltage on line side ............................................................................. 219

A.3 Transient voltage on source side ........................................................................ 219

A.4 Examples of calculations ..................................................................................... 223

Annex B (normative) Tolerances on test quantities during type tests .................................. 226

Annex C (normative) Records and reports of type tests...................................................... 235

C.1 Information and results to be recorded ................................................................ 235

C.2 Information to be included in type test reports ..................................................... 235

Annex D (normative) Method of determination of the prospective TRV ............................... 239

D.1 General ............................................................................................................... 239

D.2 Drawing the envelope ......................................................................................... 239

D.3 Determination of parameters ............................................................................... 240

Annex E (normative) Methods of determining prospective TRV waves ............................... 243

E.1 General ............................................................................................................... 243

E.2 General summary of the recommended methods ................................................. 245

E.3 Detailed consideration of the recommended methods ......................................... 246

E.4 Comparison of methods ...................................................................................... 257

Annex F (informative) Requirements for breaking of transformer-limited faults by

circuit-breakers with rated voltage higher than 1 kV ............................................................ 261

F.1 General ............................................................................................................... 261

F.2 Circuit-breakers with rated voltage less than 100 kV ........................................... 262

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 62271-100:2021  IEC 2021 – 5 –

F.3 Circuit-breakers with rated voltage from 100 kV to 800 kV .................................. 264

F.4 Circuit-breakers with rated voltage higher than 800 kV ........................................ 264

Annex G (normative) Use of mechanical characteristics and related requirements ............. 265

Annex H (normative) Requirements for making and breaking test procedures for

metal-enclosed and dead tank circuit-breakers ................................................................... 266

H.1 General ............................................................................................................... 266

H.2 Reduced number of making and breaking units for testing purposes ................... 266

H.3 Tests for single pole in one enclosure ................................................................. 267

H.4 Tests for three poles in one enclosure ................................................................ 270

Annex I (normative) Requirements for circuit-breakers with opening resistors .................... 272

I.1 General ............................................................................................................... 272

I.2 Switching performance to be verified .................................................................. 272

I.3 Insertion time of the resistor................................................................................ 285

I.4 Current carrying performance ............................................................................. 285

I.5 Dielectric performance ........................................................................................ 285

I.6 Mechanical performance ..................................................................................... 285

I.7 Requirements for the specification of opening resistors....................................... 285

I.8 Examples of recovery voltage waveshapes ......................................................... 285

Annex J (normative) Verification of capacitive current breaking in presence of single

or two-phase earth faults .................................................................................................... 292

J.1 General ............................................................................................................... 292

J.2 Test voltage ........................................................................................................ 292

J.3 Test current ........................................................................................................ 292

J.4 Test-duty ............................................................................................................ 293

J.5 Criteria to pass the tests ..................................................................................... 293

Bibliography ........................................................................................................................ 294

Figure 1 – Typical oscillogram of a three-phase short-circuit make-break cycle..................... 29

Figure 2 – Circuit-breaker without switching resistors – Opening and closing operations ....... 30

Figure 3 – Circuit breaker without switching resistors – Close-open cycle ............................. 31

Figure 4 – Circuit-breaker without switching resistors – Reclosing (auto-reclosing) ............... 32

Figure 5 – Circuit-breaker with switching resistors – Opening and closing operations ........... 33

Figure 6 – Circuit-breaker with switching resistors – Close-open cycle .................................. 34

Figure 7 – Circuit-breaker with switching resistors – Reclosing (auto-reclosing) .................... 35

Figure 8 – Determination of short-circuit making and breaking currents, and of

percentage DC component .................................................................................................... 50

Figure 9 – Percentage DC component in relation to the time interval from the initiation

of the short-circuit for the different time constants ................................................................. 51

Figure 10 – Example of wind velocity measurement .............................................................. 82

Figure 11 – Test sequence for low temperature test .............................................................. 84

Figure 12 – Test sequence for high temperature test ............................................................ 85

Figure 13 – Humidity test ...................................................................................................... 87

Figure 14 – Example of reference mechanical characteristics (idealised curve) .................... 91

Figure 15 – Reference mechanical characteristics of Figure 14 with the envelopes

centred over the reference curve (+5 %, –5 %) ..................................................................... 92

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– 6 – IEC 62271-100:2021  IEC 2021

Figure 16 – Reference mechanical characteristics of Figure 14 with the envelope fully

displaced upward from the reference curve (+10 %, –0 %) .................................................... 93

Figure 17 – Reference mechanical characteristics of Figure 14 with the envelope fully

displaced downward from the reference curve (+0 %, –10 %) ............................................... 93

Figure 18 – Equivalent testing set-up for unit testing of circuit-breakers with more than

one separate making and breaking units ............................................................................... 95

Figure 19 – Earthing of test circuits for single-phase short-circuit tests, k = 1,5 ................. 96

Figure 20 – Earthing of test circuits for single-phase short-circuit tests, k = 1,3 ................. 97

Figure 21 – Test circuit for single-phase out-of-phase tests .................................................. 97

Figure 22 – Test circuit for out-of-phase tests using two voltages separated by 120

electrical degrees ................................................................................................................. 98

Figure 23 – Test circuit for out-of-phase tests with one terminal of the circuit-breaker

earthed (subject to agreement of the manufacturer) .............................................................. 98

Figure 24 – Example of prospective test TRV with four-parameter envelope which

satisfies the conditions to be met during type test – Case of specified TRV with four-

parameter reference line ....................................................................................................... 99

Figure 25 – Example of prospective test TRV with two-parameter envelope which

satisfies the conditions to be met during type test: case of specified TRV with two-

parameter reference line ..................................................................................................... 100

Figure 26 – Example of prospective test TRV-waves and their combined envelope in

two-part test........................................................................................................................ 101

Figure 27 – Earthing of test circuits for three-phase short-circuit tests, k = 1,5 ................ 108

Figure 28 – Earthing of test circuits for three-phase short-circuit tests, k = 1,3 ....

...

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