Information technology -- Computer graphics and image processing -- Image Processing and Interchange (IPI) -- Functional specification

Technologies de l'information -- Infographie et traitement de l'image -- Traitement de l'image et échange (IPI) -- Spécification fonctionnelle

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Status
Published
Publication Date
15-Feb-1995
Current Stage
9020 - International Standard under periodical review
Start Date
15-Jul-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD
12087-3
First edition
1995-02-15
Information technology - Computer
graphics and image processing - Image
Processing and Interchange (IPI) -
Functional specification -
Part 3:
Image Interchange Facility (HF)
Technologies de I’information - Infographie et traitement de I’image -
- Spkcifica tion fonctionnelle -
Traitement de I’image et behange (/PI)
Partie 3: Accessoires pour I’khange d’images (HF)
Reference number
ISO/1 EC 12087-3: 1995(E)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 12087-3: 1995(E)
Contents

Foreword ...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

Introduction
. . 1

Scope ...................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

Normative references

...............................................................................................................

Definitions and abbreviations

.................................................................................................................................

3.1 Defini tions

3.2 Abbreviations .............................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................

The IPI-IIF architecture
.................................................................... 6
4.1 The IPI-IIF Data Format and the IPI-IIF Gateway
..............................................................
4.2 Interworking between IPI-IIF Gateway and IPI-PIKS

...........................................................................................................

5 The IIF data format (IIF-DF)

..................................................................................................

5.1 Basic features of the IIF-DF
..................................................................... 9
S.l.1 Objects that are expressed in the IIF-DF

.............................................................................................................

51.2 Syntax notation

..........................................................................................

5.1.3 Encoding of Syntax entities
.......................................
51.4 Rules that are not formally expressed within the IIF Syntax

...............................................................................................

5.2 Structure of the IIF-DF Syntax

5.2.1 Overall structure ..........................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................

5.2.2 Image structures

5.2.3 Placement of Pixel fields .............................................................................................

...............................................................................................

5.2.4 Encoding of Pixel fields
.......................................................... 14
5.2.5 Attributes, annotations, and image-related data

.................................................................................................

5.3 Syntax entities of the IIF-DF

5.3.1 Entities for the description of the entire IIF-DF ..........................................................

..........................................................................
5.3.2 Entities for the description of images
................................
5.3.3 Entities for the description of the representation of Pixel values
........................................................ 59
5.3.4 Entities for the description of image-related data
............................................................ 79
5.3.5 Entities for the description of image attributes
111

5.3.6 Entities for the description of image annotations ........................................................

......................................................... 114
5.3.7 Entities for the description of basic data objects
0 ISO/IEC 1995

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronie,

or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without Permission in writing from the publisher.

ISO/IEC Copyright Office 0 Case Postale 56 0 CH- 12 11 Geneve 20 0 Switzerland
Printed in Switzerland
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 12087=3:1995(E)
121

6 IPI-HF Conformance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

121

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.1 Standardized profiles for the IIF-DF
122

...................................................................................

6.1.1 Full PIKS Profile of the IIF-DF
125

6.1.2 Foundation Profile of the IIF-DF .................................................................................

128

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.2 Registered profiles for the IIF-DF
128

....................................................................................

6.2.1 Application-specific semantics
129

6.2.2 Constraining methods ..................................................................................................

130

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.3 Extension methods
131

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7 IPI-IIF Gateway functionality
131

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7.1 Basic categories of IPI-IIF Gateway functions
131

7.1 .l Gateway control and error handling ............................................................................

132

...................................................................................

7.1.2 Import and export functionality
132

7.1.3 Parse and generate functionality ..................................................................................

133
..............................................................................
7.1.4 Data structure access functionality
134
...................................................................
7.1.5 Data structure manipulation functionality
134

7.1.6 Compression and decompression functionality ...........................................................

137
..............................................................................
7.1.7 Application-oriented functionality
137

7.2 IPI-IIF gateway-intemal tables ..............................................................................................

138

....................................................................................

7.3 Survey of IPI-IIF Gateway functions
.................................................................... 139
7.4 IPI-IIF Gateway functionality by manual pages
193

............................................................................................

7.5 PIKS-IIF interworking protocol
Annexes
................................................. 194
A List of IIF-DF Syntax entities and component names (normative)
208
.......................................................
B List of IPI-IIF Gateway function-caused errors (informative)
................................................................... 210
C Typical IIF image interchange scenario (informative)
212

.....................................................................................

D Examples of IIF-DF images (informative)
213

D.l Simple binary image .............................................................................................................

214
..........................................................................
D.2 Colour image with colourimetric attributes
216

...........................................................................................................................

D.3 Tiled image
218
..............................................
E Example program for the use of the IPI-IIF Gateway (informative)
221

............................................................................................

F IIF-DF Syntax diagrams (informative)
243

...................................................................................................................................

G Bibliography
. . .
111
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 12087-3: 1995(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for S tandardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) forrn the specialized System for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are members

of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical committees,

established by the respective organization, to deal with particular fields of technical activity. ISO and IEC

technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international organizations,

govemmental and non-govemmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the work.

In the field of international technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee, ISO/IEC

JTC 1. Draft International Standards adopted by the joint technical committee are circulated to national

bodies for voting. Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the

national bodies casting a vote.

International Standard ISO/IEC 12087-3 was prepared by the Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1,

Information technology.

ISOIIEC 12087 initially consists of three Parts, under the general title Information technology -

- Image Processing and Interchange (IPI) - Functional
Computer graphics and image processing
specification:
Part I: Common architecture for imaging
- Part 2: Programmer’s imaging kernel System application program interface
- Part 3: Image Interchange Facility (IIF)

Annex A forms an integral part of this part of ISO/IEC 12087. Annexes B to G are for information only.

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 12087=3:1995(E)
Introduction

ISO/IEC 12087-1 establishes the conceptual and architectural framework for ISO/IEC 12087. In particular,

it defines the types of all image data objects, image-related data objects, and attributes that may be

interchanged by means of the IPI-IIF.

ISO/IEC 12087-2 establishes the specification of the Programmer’s Imaging Kerne1 System (IPI-PIKS).

ISO/IEC 12087-3 provides a data format specification and an application program interface specification.

The IIF data format may be used for image data interchange in open, heterogeneous environments. It may

also serve as a local file format for imaging applications, especially in conjunction with ISO/IEC 12087-2.

In future, the IIF data format could be used by telecommunication Standards. Examples are future Versions

of File Transfer, Access, and Management (FTAM), ISO/IEC 8571; the Message Oriented Text

Interchange Systems (MOTIS), ISO/IEC 10021 (also known as Message Handling System (MHS), CCITT

Recommendation X.400). Thus the IIF data format could become part of application-oriented OS1

communications protocols.

Within the IIF data format (IIF-DF), compressed images may be specified and interchanged. For this

purpose, the following Standards are referenced:
- CCITT Rets. T.4 and T.6 (Facsimile)
- ISO/IEC 11544 (JBIG)
- ISO/IEC 10918 (JPEG)
- ISO/IEC 11172 (MPEG-1)

Image data streams that conform to the encoded representation of compressed image data specified by

these Standards may be included in the IIF-DF. For instance, a time series image tan be represented as an

array of time slices, each of which is encoded according to the JPEG Standard. Furthermore, the IIF-DF

allows images to be represented through the combination of compressed Parts with uncompressed parts. It

is also possible to use multiple compression methods within a Single IIF-DF-conformant image. For

instance, a colour image tan be represented as tiled images whereby some tiles are encoded according to

the lossy mode of the JPEG Standard and others according to the lossless mode. For detailed information

conceming compressed data streams and compression/decompression functionality, refer to 5.3.3 and

7.1.6, respectively.

There are various possibilities for interaction and data exchange between the IPI-PIKS domain and the IPI-

IIF domain. Both domains are controlled by the application via application program interfaces (APIS). For

a detailed description of the interworking between the IPI-PIKS and the IPI-IIF refer to clause 4 (the IPI-

IIF architecture) and clause 7 (the IPI-IIF Gateway functionality). For a description of the relation between

the types of objects that may be interchanged by means of the IPI-IIF and those types of objects that may

be processed by the IPI-PIKS, refer to clause 6 (the profiles for the IIF data format). Refer also to ISO/IEC

12087- 1.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 12087-3: 1995(E)
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD 0 ISO/IEC ISO/IEC 12087=3:1995(E)
Information technology - Computer graphics and image
processing - Image Processing and Interchange (IPI) -
Functional specification -
Part 3:
Image Interchange Facility (IIF)
1 Scope

This part of ISO/IEC 12087 facilitates the interchange of digital images. For this purpose, conceptual,

architectural, and functional definitions of the Image Interchange Facility (IPI-IIF) are established.

ISO/IEC 12087-3 consists of two major Parts, the:

a) IIF data format (IIF-DF) definition (by means of a formal Syntax, described according to the

Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN. 1) -- refer to clause 5), and the

b) IIF Gateway definition (by means of a manual page description of the functionality of an

Application Program Interface (API) -- refer to clause 7).

An IPI-IIF-conformant implementation has to fulfill the functionality specification of the IIF Gateway, as

outlined in clause 7. Besides the IIF Gateway, there may be information processing Systems (Software such

as parsers, generators, etc.) which read and/or write the IIF-DF.

The IPI-IIF is based on the definitions described in ISO/IEC 12087-1, the “Common Architecture for

Imaging”. The IPI-IIF, as a whole, may be characterized briefly as follows:

By means of the IIF data format and Gateway, image data objects and image-related data objects

are transported to and from application environments.

By means of the full PIKS Profile of the IPI-IIF data format (i.e., a formst for data interchange

between IPI-IIF and IPI-PIKS), image data objects and image-related data objects are imported to

and exported from the Programmer’s Imaging Kerne1 System (IPI-PIKS), defined in ISO/IEC

12087-2.

The IPI-IIF facilitates the storage of image data objects and image-related data objects in a variety

of pre-defined storage modalities, including different periodicity organizations, such as pixel-

interleaving or band-interleaving.

This part of ISO/IEC 12087 defines Syntax of image data (and image-related data) streams. The

encoding of IIF data types is defined in ISO/IEC 12089. See also 5.3.3.

The IPI-IIF supports a concept of standardized conforrnance profiles. Initially, three conformance

profiles are defined within ISO/IEC 12087.

An IIF data stream may be stored in devices such as file Systems. An IIF data stream may be

interchanged and communicated in data networks (e.g., LANs and WANs) or in other data

communication facilities. All low-level data storage and transfer is delegated, for instance, to the

operating System of the target hardware.

The IIF Gateway performs compression and decompression of image data objects using

standardized compression and decompression techniques. These techniques are referenced in this

part of ISO/IEC 12087. See 1.4.5 and 5.3.3 and 7.5 for further definition.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 12087-3: 1995(E)

j) The IIF Gateway is accessible via an API to perform image interchange functions. See clause 7 for

a definition of IIF Gateway functionality.

Reference shall be made to this part of ISO/IEC 12087, and its definitions shall be employed, whenever

images are interchanged, according to the IPI-IIF, among different imaging applications environments or

among imaging devices. The IPI-IIF is applicable to seenarios requiring the interchange of digital images,

as outlined in Annex C.

The use of the IIF data format as a superset of the functionality of most of the existing image interchange

formats solves the Problem of application-independent syntactical and semantical interpretation and

understanding of image data.

The IPI-IIF is applicable to image interchange in and among different application domains. The following

application areas have been considered:
Medical imaging
Remote sensing
Publishing
Industrial Vision
Computer graphics arts
Computer animation
Scientific visualization
Mission planning
Document processing
Outdoor Scene Surveillance

The limiting of the IPI-IIF scope to certain application domains is a matter of profiling. This is treated in

clause 6.

NOTE - Whether an image interchange format may also be regarded as a device format, depends on the (local)

processing power of the device itself. Thus a conceptually “high-level” format which has become an industrial

Standard page description language for desktop electronie publishing, tan be regarded as a device format. The IPI-

IIF may well be considered a device format if, for instance, there is an IPI-IIF-compatible Printer which is able to

receive, process, and hardcopy an image according to the IPI-IIF. In the same sense, it is reasonable to design IPI-

IIF-compatible image sources, e.g. IPI-IIF Camera Systems.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISOAEC 12087-3:1995(E)
2 Normative references

The following Standards contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of

this part of ISO/IEC 12087. At the time of publication, the editions indicated were valid. All Standards are

subject to revision, and Parties to agreements based on this part of ISO/IEC 12087 are encouraged to

investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the Standards indicated below. Members

of IEC and ISO maintain registers of currently valid International Standards.

ISO 2022: 1986, Information processing - ISO 7-bit and B-bit coded Character sets - Code extension

techniques.

ISO/IEC 8613: 1994, Information processing Systems - Text and ofice Systems - Open Document

Architecture (ODA) and Interchange Format (ODIF).

ISO/IEC 8632: 1992, Information processing systems - Computer graphics - Metafile for the storage and

transfer of picture description information.

ISO/IEC 8824: 1990, Information technology - Open Systems Interconnection - SpeciJication of Abstract

Syntax Notation One (ASN.1).

ISO/IEC 8825: 1990, Information technology - Open Systems Interconnection - Specijication of Basic

Encoding Rules for Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1).

ISO/IEC 8879: 1986, Information processing Systems - Text and ofice Systems - Standard Generalized

Markup Language (SGML).

ISOIIEC 9069: 1988, Information processing Systems - SGML support facilities - SGML Document

Interchange Format (SDIF).
Framework and taxonomy of International
ISO/IEC TR 1 OOOO- 1: 1990, Information technology -
Standardized Profiles - Part 1: Framework.
Framework and taxonomy of International
ISOIIEC TR 10000-2: 1994, Information technology -
Standardized Profiles - Part 2: Principles and taxonomy for OSI Profiles.
Distribu ted o@ce application
ISO/IEC 1003 1- 1: 1991, Information technology - Text and ofice Systems -
model- Part 1: General model.

ISO/IEC 1003 l-2: 1991, Information technology - Text and ofice Systems - Distributed ofice application

model- Part 2: Distinguished Object reference and associated procedures.

ISO/IEC IO9 18- 1: 1994, Information technology - Digital compression and coding of continuous- tone still

Part 1: Requirements and guidelines.
images -

ISO/IEC 10918-2: To be published., Information technology - Digital compression and coding of

continuous-tone still images - Part 2: Compliance testing.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 12087-3: 1995(E)
Coding of moving pictures and associated audio for
ISO/IEC 11172-1: 1993, Information technology -
digital storage media up to about 1,5 Mbitls - Part 1: Systems.
Coding of moving pictures and associated audio for
ISOLEC 11172-2: 1993, Information technology -
digital storage media up to about 1,5 Mbitls - Part 2: Video.
Coding of moving pictures and associated audio for
ISO/IEC 11172-3: 1993, Information technology -
digital storage media up to about 1,5 Mbitls - Part 3: Audio.
Coded representation of picture and audio information -
ISO/IEC 11544: 1993, Information technology -
Progressive bi-level image compression.
Computer graphics and image processing - Image
ISO/IEC 12087- 1: 1995, Information technology -
- Part 1: Common architecture for imaging.
Processing and Interchange (IPI) - Functional speciflcation

‘), Information technology - Computer graphics and image processing - Encoding for

ISO/IEC 12089:-

the Image Processing and Interchange Standard (IPI) - Encoding for the Image Interchange Facility (IIF).

CCITT Rec. G.7 11(1984), Coding of analogue Signals by pulse code modulation.

CCITT Rec. G.721(1984), 32 Kbitls Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation (ADPCM).

CCITT Rec. T.4( 1988), Standardization of Group 3 Facsimile Apparatus for Document Transmission.

CCITT Rec. T.6( 1988), Facsimile Coding Schemes and Coding Control Functions for Group 4 Facsimile

Apparatus.

CCITT Rec. T.30( 1988), Procedures for Document Facsimile Transmission in the General Switched

Telephone Network.
NOTES

All normative references which are common to Parts 1 to 3 of ISO/IEC 12087 are included in ISO/IEC

12087- 1. In ISO/IEC 12087-3, only the IIF-specific references are listed.

2 References to documents which are neither ISO/IEC Standards nor CCITT Recommendations are given in

Annex G.

3 Some ISO Standards are technically aligned with CCITT Recommendations, in particular the ASN.1

Standard (ISO Standards 8824/8825 and CCITT Rets. X.208/X.209). The differentes between the International

Standard definitions and the CCITT definitions are quite small, and should not affect interoperability between

implernentations written against either document. Within this part of ISO/IEC 12087, the ISO Standards are

referenced whenever possible.
1) To be published.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 12087-3: 1995(E)
3 Definitions and Abbreviations
3.1. Definitions

For the purpose of this part of ISO/IEC 12087, the definitions given in ISO/IEC 12087-1 apply.

3.2. Abbreviations
Application Program Interface
API
Abstract Syntax Notation One
ASN. 1
BER Basic Encoding Rules
Comite Consultatif International Telegraphique et Telephonique
CCITT
CGM Computer Graphits Metafile
Discrete Cosine Transform
DCT
DOAM Distributed Office Application Model
Distinguished Object Reference
DOR
FOD Interchange Format and Representation Profile of Office Documents
FTAM File Transfer, Access and Management
Image Interchange Facility - Data Format
IIF-DF
IPI Image Processing and Interchange
IPI - Common Architecture for Imaging
IPI-CA1
IPI-IIF IPI - Image Interchange Facility
IPI-PIKS IPI - Programmer’s Imaging Kerne1 System
Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group
JBIG
JPEG Joint Photographit Experts Group
LAN Local Area Network
Message Handling System
MHS
MOTIS Message-Oriented Text Interchange Systems
MPEG Moving Pictures Experts Group
Open Document Architecture
ODA
Open Systems Interconnection
OS1
Packed Encoding Rules
PER
SGML Document Interchange Format
SDIF
Standard Generalized Markup Language
SGML
Wide Area Network
WAN
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 12087-3: 1995(E)
4 The IPI-IIF Architecture
4.1 The IPI-IIF Data Format and the IPI-IIF Gateway

As outlined in clause 1, the IPI-IIF consists of the specification of a data format and the specification of

functionality. The data format is called Image Interchange Facility Data Format (IIF-DF). It is described in

clause 5. Clause 6 describes conformance profiles for the IIF-DF.

The functional component of the IPI-IIF is called IPI-IIF Gateway. It is described in clause 7. The IPI-IIF

Gateway functions are called by an application program via a specific API (Application Program

Interface). Concerning data interchange, it provides functionality for

the import of image data to and export of image data from application, as well as

b) the import of image data to and export of image data from the IPI-PIKS.

Part of the IPI-IIF Gateway functionality deals with the differing complexity of the IPI-IIF data types

(clause 6 of ISO/IEC 12087- 1) and the IPI-PIKS data types (clause 5 of ISO/IEC 12087- 1). The IPI-IIF

data types are defined according to the (generic) IPI data types that are introduced in clause 4 and form a

superset of the IPI-PIKS data types. The IPI-IIF data types support compound and heterogeneous image

structures of arbitrary hierarchical organization whereas the IPI-PIKS data types support five-dimensional

images with limited heterogeneity. The IPI-IIF Gateway provides a general mechanism - called

attachdetach functionality - to combine simpler IIF structures into more complex ones, and extract simpler

structures from more complex ones. Hence, this functionality represents the interface between the IPI-IIF

data types (that are interchangeable by means of the IPI-IIF) and the IPI-PIKS data types (that tan be

processed by the IPI-PIKS, but also interchanged by the IPI-IIF).
The IPI-IIF Gateway function classes are:

c) Gateway control functionality: These functions are used to open and close the IPI-IIF Gateway, to

inquire about its Status, and to handle errors.

Import and export functionality: These functions allow for the import and export of image and

image-related data to and from the IPI-IIF Gateway via the application program.

) Parse and generate functionality: These functions allow for the translation between IPI-IIF data

streams (according to the IPI-IIF data format) and IPI-IIF gateway-intemal data structures that are

accessible and manipulable via IPI-IIF Gateway functions of category f) and g), respectively.

) Data structure access functionality: These functions allow for the access of parsed image data

structures. This includes tree traverse, inquiry, put value, and get value functions.

Data structure manipulation functionality: These functions allow for the manipulation of image

structures. Create, delete, attach, and detach functions are provided.

Compression and decompression functi .onality: Functions are provided for the compression and

decompression of Pixel fields according to the Standards listed in section 1.4.3.

i) Application-oriented functionality: This category encompasses functions which perform at the

same time multiple functional Steps according to categories c) to h). Seen from the application,

these functions are located on a higher (and thus more application-oriented) level.

The specification of the functions is given in clause 7.
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 12087-3: 1995(E)
4.2 Interworking between IPI-IIF Gateway and IPI-PIKS

The interworking (i.e. data flow and function calls) of the IIF Gateway and the IPI-PIKS for image data

interchange is depicted in Figure 1. The diagram Shows three domains, called the “application domain,” the

“IIF Gateway domain,” and the “IPI-PIKS domain.” These “domains” indicate whether a certain function or

data structure is part of the IPI-PIKS, the IIF Gateway, or the application program, respectively. The

arrows between (squeezed) Ovals indicate the data flow. Possible interworking situations include:

a) The imaging application program uses only an IIF Gateway, but no IPI-PIKS: The application

program may import and export image data which is interchanged using the IIF data stream. On

the other hand, the application program has the capability to process image data by means of

application-private imaging functions.
b) The imaging application program uses a
...

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