Intelligent transport systems (ITS) — Location referencing for geographic databases — Part 1: General requirements and conceptual model

The ISO 17572 series specifies location referencing methods (LRMs) that describe locations in the context of geographic databases and will be used to locate transport-related phenomena in an encoder system as well as in the decoder side. The ISO 17572 series defines what is meant by such objects and describes the reference in detail, including whether or not components of the reference are mandatory or optional, and their characteristics. The ISO 17572 series specifies two different LRMs: pre-coded location references (pre-coded profile) and dynamic location references (dynamic profile). The ISO 17572 series does not define a physical format for implementing the LRM. However, the requirements for physical formats are defined. The ISO 17572 series does not define details of the Location Referencing System (LRS), i.e. how the LRMs are to be implemented in software, hardware, or processes. ISO 17572-1:2014 specifies the following general LRM-related sections: -requirements of a location referencing method; -conceptual data model for location referencing methods; -inventory location referencing methods; -examples of conceptual model use; -description of selected UML elements; -comparison of definitions with ISO/TC 211; -introduction to the TPEG physical format.

Systèmes intelligents de transport (SIT) — Localisation pour bases de données géographiques — Partie 1: Exigences générales et modèle conceptuel

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Publication Date
04-Jan-2015
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9599 - Withdrawal of International Standard
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 17572-1
Second edition
2015-01-15
Intelligent transport systems (ITS) —
Location referencing for geographic
databases —
Part 1:
General requirements and
conceptual model
Systèmes intelligents de transport (SIT) — Localisation pour bases de
données géographiques —
Partie 1: Exigences générales et modèle conceptuel
Reference number
ISO 17572-1:2015(E)
ISO 2015
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ISO 17572-1:2015(E)
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© ISO 2015

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ii © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO 17572-1:2015(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2.1 General terms ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

4 Objectives and requirements for a location referencing method ..................................................................... 8

4.1 Objectives for an optimal location referencing method ...................................................................................... 8

4.2 Requirements of the location referencing method .................................................................................................. 9

5 Conceptual data model for location referencing methods ....................................................................................10

5.1 Role of conceptual model ............................................................................................................................................................10

5.2 Components of conceptual model .......................................................................................................................................10

5.3 Description of the conceptual model ................................................................................................................................10

5.4 Location categories ..........................................................................................................................................................................11

5.5 Conceptual model of a road network................................................................................................................................12

5.6 Conceptual model of area locations ...................................................................................................................................13

Annex A (informative) Inventory of location referencing methods ..................................................................................15

Annex B (informative) Examples of location referencing methods in use (mapping to

conceptual data model for location referencing systems) .....................................................................................19

Annex C (informative) Description of UML expression elements ........................................................................................21

Annex D (informative) Comparison of definitions with TC 211 ............................................................................................23

Annex E (informative) TPEG2 UML modelling and physical format representations ....................................25

Annex F (informative) TPEG2 location referencing container ...............................................................................................27

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................28

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 17572-1:2015(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT), see the following URL: Foreword — Supplementary information.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 204, Intelligent transport systems.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 17572-1:2008), which has been

technically revised.

ISO 17572 consists of the following parts, under the general title Intelligent transport systems (ITS) —

Location referencing for geographic databases:
— Part 1: General requirements and conceptual model
— Part 2: Pre-coded location references (pre-coded profile)
— Part 3: Dynamic location references (dynamic profile)
iv © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO 17572-1:2015(E)
Introduction

A location reference (LR) is a unique identification of a geographic object. In a digital world, a real-world

geographic object can be represented by a feature in a geographic database. An example of a commonly

known location reference is a postal address of a house. Examples of object instances include a particular

exit ramp on a particular motorway, a road junction or a hotel. For efficiency reasons, location references

are often coded. This is especially significant if the location reference is used to define the location for

information about various objects between different systems. For intelligent transport systems (ITS),

many different types of real-world objects will be addressed. Amongst these, Location Referencing of

the road network, or components thereof, is a particular focus.

Communication of a location reference for specific geographic phenomena, corresponding to objects in

geographic databases, in a standard, unambiguous manner is a vital part of an integrated ITS system

in which different applications and sources of geographic data will be used. Location referencing

methods (LRM, methods of referencing object instances) differ by applications, by the data model used

to create the database or by the enforced object referencing imposed by the specific mapping system

used to create and store the database. A standard location referencing method allows for a common

and unambiguous identification of object instances representing the same geographic phenomena in

different geographic databases produced by different vendors, for varied applications and operating on

multiple hardware/software platforms. If ITS applications using digital map databases are to become

widespread, data reference across various applications and systems has to be possible. Information

prepared on one system, such as traffic messages, has to be interpretable by all receiving systems. A

standard method to refer to specific object instances is essential to achieving such objectives.

Japan, Korea, Australia, Canada, the US, and European ITS bodies are all supporting activities of Location

Referencing. Japan has developed a link specification for VICS. In Europe, the RDS-TMC traffic messaging

system has been developed. In addition, methods have been developed and refined in the EVIDENCE

and AGORA projects based on intersections identified by geographic coordinates and other intersection

descriptors. In the US, standards for Location Referencing have been developed to accommodate several

different location referencing methods.

This International Standard provides specifications for location referencing for ITS systems (although

other committees or standardization bodies can subsequently consider extending it to a more generic

context). In addition, this edition does not deal with public transport location referencing; this issue will

be dealt with in a later edition.
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 17572-1:2015(E)
Intelligent transport systems (ITS) — Location referencing
for geographic databases —
Part 1:
General requirements and conceptual model
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies location referencing methods (LRMs) that describe locations

in the context of geographic databases and will be used to locate transport-related phenomena in an

encoder system as well as in the decoder side. This International Standard defines what is meant by such

objects and describes the reference in detail, including whether or not components of the reference are

mandatory or optional, and their characteristics.
This International Standard specifies two different LRMs:
— pre-coded location references (pre-coded profile);
— dynamic location references (dynamic profile).

This International Standard does not define a physical format for implementing the LRM. However, the

requirements for physical formats are defined.

This International Standard does not define details of the Location Referencing System (LRS), i.e. how

the LRMs are to be implemented in software, hardware, or processes.
This part of ISO 17572 specifies the following general LRM-related sections:
— requirements of a location referencing method;
— conceptual data model for location referencing methods;
— inventory location referencing methods (see Annex A);
— examples of conceptual model use (see Annex B);
— description of selected UML elements (see Annex C);
— comparison of definitions with ISO/TC 211 (see Annex D);
— introduction to the TPEG physical format (see Annex E and Annex F).

It is consistent with other International Standards developed by ISO/TC 204 such as ISO 14825.

2 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
2.1 General terms

NOTE As part of the general intent to harmonize this International Standard with the ISO/TC 211 family of

Geographic Information Systems International Standards, a comparison between terms and definitions of this

International Standard and of ISO/TC 211 International Standards is included in Annex D.

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ISO 17572-1:2015(E)
2.1.1
accuracy

measure of closeness of results of observations, computations, or estimates to the true values or the

values accepted as being true
2.1.2
area
two-dimensional, geographical region on the surface of the earth

Note 1 to entry: An area can be represented as an implicit area or an explicit area.

2.1.3
area location

two-dimensional location, representing a geographical region on the surface of the earth

2.1.4
attribute
characteristic property of an entity like a real-world feature

Note 1 to entry: It allows the identification of that feature by its attributes. An attribute has a defined type and contains

a value. Attributes can be either simple, i.e. consisting of one atomic value, or composite (see composite attribute).

2.1.5
coordinate

one of an ordered set of N numbers designating the position of a point in N-dimensional space

Note 1 to entry: N would be 1, 2, or 3.
2.1.6
complex intersection

intersection that consists at least of two or more junctions and one or more road elements

2.1.7
composite attribute
complex attribute
attribute consisting of two or more atomic values and/or attributes
2.1.8
datum

set of parameters and control points used to accurately define the three-dimensional shape of the earth

Note 1 to entry: The corresponding datum is the basis for a planar coordinate reference system.

2.1.9
descriptor
characteristic of a geographic object, usually stored in an attribute
EXAMPLE Road names or road numbers.
2.1.10
digital map database

structured set of digital and alphanumeric data portraying geographic locations and relationships of

spatial features

Note 1 to entry: Typically, such structures represent, but are not limited to, the digital form of hard copy maps.

For example, drawings can be imported into a Geographic Information System (GIS) and considered as a form

of digital map.
2.1.11
dynamic location reference

location reference generated on-the-fly based on geographic properties in a digital map database

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ISO 17572-1:2015(E)
2.1.12
explicit area

two-dimensional face on the surface of the earth, with a specified outline either being a simple geometric

figure or an irregular outline/polygon
2.1.13
face

two-dimensional element bounded by a closed sequence of edges not intersecting themselves

Note 1 to entry: The face is the atomic two-dimensional element.
2.1.14
implicit area

selection of road segments to be referenced belonging to a certain area (subnetwork)

Note 1 to entry: One implicit area can be built up of multiple subnetworks that are geographically connected.

2.1.15
international terrestrial reference frame
ITRF
realization of the ITRS

Note 1 to entry: The ITRF94 reference frame is consistent with WGS84 at the 5 cm level, and therefore is equivalent

to WGS84 for ITS applications.
2.1.16
international terrestrial reference system
ITRS

reference system for the earth derived from precise and accurate space geodesy measurements, not

restricted to GPS Doppler measurements, which is periodically tracked and revised by the international

earth rotation service
2.1.17
intersection
crossing and/or connection of two or more roads

Note 1 to entry: In GDF, an intersection is a level 2 representation of a junction which bounds a road or a ferry. It

is a complex feature, composed of one or more level 1 junctions, road elements, and enclosed traffic areas. The

definition is different from GDF because the location referencing system refers to real-world objects rather than

a database definition as defined in GDF.

Note 2 to entry: Crossings can be at-grade or grade-separated. Crossings that are grade-separated where no

connection between the road segments exists, are excluded from this definition.
2.1.18
junction
elementary element in the road network, connecting two or more road elements

Note 1 to entry: In GDF terms, it is a level 1 feature that bounds a road element or ferry connection. Junctions that

represent real crossings are at least trivalent (having three roads connected). A bivalent junction can only be

defined in case an attribute change occurs along the road (e.g. road name change). A junction is also coded at the

end of a dead-end road, to terminate it.
2.1.19
linear location
location that has a one-dimensional character
EXAMPLE A road segment.
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ISO 17572-1:2015(E)
2.1.20
link
edge

direct topological connection between two nodes that has a unique link ID in a given digital map database

Note 1 to entry: A link can contain additional intermediate coordinates (shape points) to better represent the

shape of curved features. A link can be directed or undirected.
2.1.21
link identifier
link ID
identifier that is uniquely assigned to a link

Note 1 to entry: A link identifier can be arbitrary or can be assigned by convention, to ensure that no multiple

occurrences of the same identifier will be used within one instance of a network or map database.

2.1.22
link location

location identifiable by a part of the road network database having one identifier or having a uniquely

identifiable combination of attributes throughout the continuous stretch
Note 1 to entry: One link location can consist of multiple links.
2.1.23
location
simple or compound geographic object to be referenced by a location reference

Note 1 to entry: A location is matched to database objects by location definitions, which specify what is meant

by a particular location. Without any explicit remark, it is meant to be a linear stretch in terms of topology in the

database network without any loops or discontinuities in between (linear location). It might also be only a point

in the network as a specialization of a linear stretch with length zero. In addition to that, a location can also be

a set of road elements representing an area. This area is expressible by a polygon or a list of linear locations. For

further description of different categories of locations, refer to 5.4.
2.1.24
location definition

actual delineation of exactly what is meant (and, therefore, what is not meant) by a particular location

within a specific database

Note 1 to entry: It is the precise location definition of the database object, or set of database objects, which is referenced.

EXAMPLE The GDF road elements that make up a particular instance of an ALERT-C location.

2.1.25
location reference
reference
label which is assigned to a location

Note 1 to entry: With a single LRM, one reference shall define unambiguously and exactly one location in the

location referencing system. The reference is the string of data which is passed between different implementations

of a location referencing system to identify the location.
2.1.26
location referencing method
LRM
methodology of assigning location references to locations
2.1.27
location referencing system
LRS

complete system by which location references are generated, according to a location referencing method,

and communicated, including standards, definitions, software, hardware, and databases

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ISO 17572-1:2015(E)
2.1.28
matching

translating a location reference to a specific object in a given map database to attempt recognition of the

same identified object in both the sender’s and the receiver’s map database

Note 1 to entry: Matching is seen as a subsequent part to the method of decoding a location reference adhering to

the defined LRM.
2.1.29
node

zero-dimensional element that is a topological junction of two or more edges or an end point of an edge

Note 1 to entry: A node is created for topologically significant points, such as simple intersections of roads or

other linear features including boundaries but also for locations such as electric beacons, kilometre-posts, or

sensors detecting traffic flows, being significant points specified in a map.
2.1.30
node identifier
identifier assigned to a node

Note 1 to entry: A node identifier can be arbitrary, or can be assigned by convention, to ensure that multiple

occurrences of the same identifier will not occur within one network or within the universe of similar networks

or databases.
2.1.31
outlined area

explicit area with an outline defined by segments being either polylines or linear locations

2.1.32
point
zero-dimensional element that specifies geometric location
Note 1 to entry: One coordinate pair or triplet specifies the location.
2.1.33
point location
location that has a zero-dimensional character
EXAMPLE A simple crossing.
2.1.34
precision

exactness of the measurement of a data value or of the storage allocated to a measured data value

Note 1 to entry: Alternatively, the closeness of measurements of the same phenomenon repeated under exactly

the same conditions and using the same techniques.
2.1.35
pre-coded location reference

location reference using a unique identifier that is agreed upon in both sender and receiver system to

select a location from a set of pre-coded locations
2.1.36
quad tree

hierarchical data structure which, on a next lower level, subdivides a given area into four quadrants of

the same size where any level has knowledge of its four sublevels and its parent level

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ISO 17572-1:2015(E)
2.1.37
relationship
semantic or topological interrelation or dependency between locations in the LRS

Note 1 to entry: Relationships can exist between locations in the LRS. These relationships will generally be

structured to allow more sophisticated use of the location reference, such as a topological or hierarchical structure.

For example, a county location can be defined as an aggregate of several city locations or a long stretch of road can

be an aggregate of several smaller road segments. Referencing the county can be easier than referencing all the

cities which make up the county. This allows scalability and ease of use in the LRSs using the LRM.

2.1.38
resolution
smallest unit which can be represented fixing a limit to precision and accuracy
2.1.39
road

part of the road network which is generally considered as a whole and which can be addressed by a

single identification like a road name or road number throughout

Note 1 to entry: In general, it is a connection within the road network, with or without crossings, which functionally

can be considered as a unity. A road with multiple (associated) carriageways can be considered as one road. (Note

that, in the context of this part of ISO 17572, the term also covers the natural language term street).

Note 2 to entry: The subsequent parts of this International Standard intentionally do not make direct use of this

term because under different circumstances it might not be possible to define exactly where a road ends. For this

reason, reference will be made to artificial but more-precisely-definable road elements or road sections of the

road network.
2.1.40
road crossing
location where two or more roads connect or intersect

Note 1 to entry: A road crossing can be “simple”, corresponding to one junction, or “complex”, including internal

road elements and junctions.
2.1.41
road element

linear section of the road network which is designed for vehicular movement having a junction at each end

Note 1 to entry: It serves as the smallest unit of the road network at GDF level 1 that is independent.

2.1.42
road section

road segment that is bounded by two intersections and has the same attributes throughout

Note 1 to entry: Generally, the two intersections are different, only in some specific cases are the intersections the

same, e.g. a tear-drop street or slip roads inside of complex intersections.
2.1.43
road segment
part of a road, having its start and end along that road

Note 1 to entry: Important difference between a road section and road segment is that the segment does not

necessarily end at intersections.
2.1.44
shape point
intermediate coordinate pair to represent the shape of curved features
2.1.45
simple geometric area
explicit area with an outline defined by a simple geometric figure
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ISO 17572-1:2015(E)
2.1.46
simple object access protocol
SOAP

protocol providing a platform-independent way for applications to communicate with each other

over the Internet

Note 1 to entry: SOAP technology relies on XML to define the format of the information and then adds the necessary

HTTP headers to send it. Standardization is done within IETF: http://www.ietf.org/rfc.

2.1.47
subnetwork

plurality of road segments lying in geographical or topological conjunction to each other

2.1.48
synchronization markup language
SyncML
data synchronization protocol

Note 1 to entry: A data synchronization protocol defines the workflow for communication during a data

synchronization session when the mobile device is connected to the network. The protocol supports naming and

identification of records, common protocol commands to synchronize local and network data, and can support

identification and resolution of synchronization conflicts.
2.1.49
topology
properties of spatial configuration invariant under continuous transformation

Note 1 to entry: In a digital map database, this means the logical relationships among map features. It can be used

to characterize spatial relationships such as connectivity and adjacency.
2.1.50
world geodetic system of 1984
WGS84

earth-centred global reference frame, including an earth model, based on satellite and terrestrial data

Note 1 to entry: It contains primary parameters that define the shape, angular velocity, and the earth mass of an

earth ellipsoid, and secondary parameters that define a gravity model of the earth. Primary parameters are used

to derive latitude-longitude coordinates (horizontal datum).
3 Abbreviated terms
AGORA Implementation of Global Location Referencing Approach
(Name of a European project 2000–2002)
ALERT-C Advice and problem Location for European Road Traffic-Compact
CAD computer-aided design
EVIDENCE Extensive Validation of Identification Concepts in Europe
(Name of a European project 1998–1999)
GCId generic component identifier
GDF Geographic Data File
GIS Geographic Information System
GPS Global Positioning System
IETF Internet Engineering Task Force
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ISO 17572-1:2015(E)
ILOC intersection location
ITS intelligent transport systems
LR location referencing (or reference)
LRC location reference container
POI point of interest
RDS Radio Data System
TPEG Transport Protocol Expert Group
TMC Traffic Message Channel
TTI Traffic and Traveller Information
UML Unified Modelling Language
UTM Universal Transverse Mercator
VICS Vehicle Information and Communication System

NOTE This International Standard uses UML to express specific circumstances. As such, the graphical

elements are used to express specific constraints and structural relationships. A full definition can be found in

the UML standard ISO/IEC 19501. However, a short introduction of used elements is given in Annex C.

4 Objectives and requirements for a location referencing method
4.1 Objectives for an optimal location referencing method

ITS applications have different objectives regarding location referencing, which from their contradictory

nature, cannot be fulfilled completely. In theory, a best location referencing method would require every

LRS to have at a given time the same, completely accurate map and all locations would be identifiable

without any additional computational effort. Even though this is not achievable, the following goals

should guide the definition and optimization of a location referencing method. The circumstances of the

specific location referencing system can give different weight to the following goals.

The first goal therefore states that processing power in any case is a cost factor to be minimized.

O-1. The LRM should be simple enough to be implemented in a resource- and performance-

efficient way.

Secondly, location referencing implies at least two systems communicating with each other.

Communication also causes costs and therefore needs to be minimized.
O-2. The LRM should not unduly add to the volume of data to be transferred.

The aim to use the exact location, both in the sender and the receiver system, is the reason of referring

to it. In many cases, it will be up to the receiver to decode the location reference as well as possible. To

help the receiv
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