Information technology -- Computer graphics, image processing and environmental data representation -- Material property and parameter representation for model-based haptic simulation of objects in virtual, mixed and augmented reality (VR/MAR)

This document specifies: —   physical and material parameters of virtual or real objects expressed to support comprehensive haptic rendering methods, such as stiffness, friction and micro-textures; —   a flexible specification of the haptic rendering algorithm itself. It supplements other standards that describe scene or content description and information models for virtual and mixed reality, such as ISO/IEC 19775 and ISO/IEC 3721-1.

Technologies de l'information -- Infographie, traitement d'images et représentation des données environnementales -- Propriété matérielle et représentation des paramètres pour la simulation haptique basée sur un modèle d'objets en réalité virtuelle, mixte et augmentée

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
30-Nov-2021
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
26-Oct-2021
Completion Date
26-Oct-2021
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ISO/IEC TS 23884:2021 - Information technology -- Computer graphics, image processing and environmental data representation -- Material property and parameter representation for model-based haptic simulation of objects in virtual, mixed and augmented reality (VR/MAR)
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TECHNICAL ISO/IEC TS
SPECIFICATION 23884
First edition
2021-12
Information technology — Computer
graphics, image processing and
environmental data representation
— Material property and parameter
representation for model-based haptic
simulation of objects in virtual, mixed
and augmented reality (VR/MAR)
Technologies de l'information — Infographie, traitement d'images
et représentation des données environnementales — Propriété
matérielle et représentation des paramètres pour la simulation
haptique basée sur un modèle d'objets en réalité virtuelle, mixte et
augmentée
Reference number
ISO/IEC TS 23884:2021(E)
© ISO/IEC 2021
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ISO/IEC TS 23884:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC TS 23884:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................. 1

3.1 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................. 2

4 Overview: Material properties for haptic simulation .................................................................................................. 2

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Stiffness ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

4.3 Friction .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.4 Object texture .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5 Material property representation 1: extended material node ........................................................................... 6

6 Haptic rendering node ...................................................................................................................................................................................7

7 Conformity ........................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................... 8

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

iii
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC TS 23884:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance

are described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria

needed for the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in

accordance with the editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives or

www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see https://patents.iec.ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html. In the IEC, see www.iec.ch/understanding-standards.

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 24, Computer graphics, image processing and environmental data representation.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards

body. A complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html and

www.iec.ch/national-committees.
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC TS 23884:2021(E)
Introduction

Both virtual reality (VR) and mixed and augmented reality (MAR) employ virtual, synthetic and

computer-generated objects in their respective scenes, and they are rendered not only visually but in

other modalities in order to provide rich user experience based on realism, presence and augmentation.

VR and MAR applications are increasingly using haptic feedback to allow the user to interact physically

with the virtual or real objects and provide higher realism and elevated experience. That is, the input

from and output to the user may be delivered kinaesthetically (i.e. force feedback) through physical

simulation and the resulting force rendered through mechanical haptic devices. Note that the

interacting virtual or real object may be situated in virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR) and

augmented virtuality (AVR) – namely, across all types of MAR.

A correct and effective rendering of forces requires the relevant physical description of the materials

of the objects involved in the physical interaction and simulation. In addition, depending on the needs

of the application, different haptic rendering algorithms may be employed. Conventional standards for

virtual and mixed reality have lacked constructs for expressing such material properties or algorithmic

details and thereby supporting a comprehensive, faithful and flexible haptic rendering. For example,

most current standard 3D graphic or virtual object representations can only describe material

properties for visual rendering (e.g. for lighting effects and shading).

This document also provides definitions for terms related to material properties and physical

simulation in the context of the haptic rendering and its algorithms.

The target audience of this document are mainly VR and MAR system developers and content designers

interested in specifying and using haptic interaction. This document provides a basis for application

standards for any VR and MAR applications and content representation that uses haptic modality for

input and output.

However, this document establishes the information model. It does not promote or propose to use a

specific language, file format, algorithm, device, implementation method or standard. The model is

intended to be considered as the minimal basic model that can be extended for other purposes in actual

implementation.

The content of this document is derived from ISO/IEC 18039, which, among other things, specifies the

possible inclusion of haptic feedback (and associated devices) in experiential VR and MAR contents

(and systems). The specification can be one important component in ISO/IEC 3721-1 , whose purpose

is to lay out and specify the information model for various essential MAR content components and their

relationships. While ISO/IEC 3721-1 lays the foundation and overall framework, it does not go into all

the details (e.g. material or haptic properties of an object). As haptic feedback may be used in purely

virtual environments as well, this document also relates to ISO/IEC 19775-1.

1) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/IEC DIS 3721-1:2021.

© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/IEC TS 23884:2021(E)
Information technology — Computer graphics, image
processing and environmental data representation —
Material property and parameter representation for
model-based haptic simulation of objects in virtual, mixed
and augmented reality (VR/MAR)
1 Scope
This document specifies:

— physical and material parameters of virtual or real objects expressed to support comprehensive

haptic rendering methods, such as stiffness, friction and micro-textures;
— a flexible specification of the haptic rendering algorithm itself.

It supplements other standards that describe scene or content description and information models for

virtual and mixed reality, such as ISO/IEC 19775 and ISO/IEC 3721-1.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1.1
dynamic friction
friction that changes dynamically under certain external conditions
3.1.2
friction
tangential force emanating from the contact between two objects
3.1.3
haptic
kinaesthetic, force feedback and tactile feedback
3.1.4
haptic device

apparatus that delivers computer-simulated forces and torque to a human user for sensation, and also

receives input in the form of force and torque to be conveyed to the computer simulation of virtual and

mixed reality environment for emulating physical interaction
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC TS 23884:2021(E)
3.1.5
haptic modality
modality synonymous to the haptic sensation
3.1.6
haptic rendering

computing the amount of forces and torques occurring at the interaction point, based on the physical

simulation and interaction of the virtual and mixed reality world, and reflecting them to the user

through the haptic device
3.1.7
physical interaction

interaction, real or virtual, between a user and object(s) that involves the use of forces and torques via

contact
3.1.8
physical simulation

simulating the dynamic physical phenomena in the virtual and mixed reality environment based on the

environment description and given physical laws, and in the process, computing the relevant parameter

values, such as the amount of forces and torques
3.1.9
stiffness

rigidity of an object and the extent to which the object resists deformation in response to an applied

force
3.1.10
surface texture
micro surface texture
micro-scaled protrusion pattern on the surface of an object
3.2 Abbreviated terms
AR augmented reality
FFT fast Fourier transform
MAR mixed and augmented reality
VR virtual reality
4 Overview: Material properties for haptic simulation
4.1 General

Haptic rendering in the context of VR or MAR simulation refers to computing for the proper force or

torque to be exerted by the haptic device at a given point in the VR or MAR space (e.g. magnitude and

direction), see Figure 1.
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
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