Internet of Things (IoT) —- Integration of IoT and DLT/blockchain: Use cases

This document identifies and collects use cases for the integration of the DLT/blockchain within IoT systems, applications, and/or services. The use cases presented in this document use the IoT use case template

Internet des objets (IoT) — Intégration de l'IoT et des DLT/de la chaîne de blocs : cas d'utilisation

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
11-Nov-2021
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
12-Nov-2021
Completion Date
12-Nov-2021
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ISO/IEC TR 30176:2021 - Internet of Things (IoT) —- Integration of IoT and DLT/blockchain: Use cases
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ISO/IEC TR 30176
Edition 1.0 2021-11
TECHNICAL
REPORT
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inside
Internet of things (IoT) – Integration of IoT and DLT/blockchain: Use cases
ISO/IEC TR 30176:2021-11(en)
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ISO/IEC TR 30176
Edition 1.0 2021-11
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Internet of things (IoT) – Integration of IoT and DLT/blockchain: Use cases
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 33.020 ISBN 978-2-8322-1037-5

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – ISO/IEC TR 30176:2021 © ISO/IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 5

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ....................................................................................... 7

5 Use case scenarios ......................................................................................................... 7

5.1 General ................................................................................................................... 7

5.2 Use cases ............................................................................................................... 7

6 Description of use case ................................................................................................... 9

6.1 Agricultural product tracing ..................................................................................... 9

6.1.1 Scope and objectives of use case .................................................................... 9

6.1.2 Narrative of use case ....................................................................................... 9

6.1.3 Actors: people, components, systems, integrated systems, applications

and organizations .......................................................................................... 10

6.1.4 Issues: legal contracts, legal regulations, and constraints .............................. 11

6.1.5 Reference standards and/or standardization committees ............................... 11

6.1.6 Relation with other known use cases ............................................................. 11

6.1.7 General remarks ............................................................................................ 11

6.1.8 Data security, privacy and trustworthiness ..................................................... 11

6.1.9 Conformity aspects ........................................................................................ 11

6.1.10 User requirements and interactions with other actors ..................................... 11

6.1.11 Drawing of use case ...................................................................................... 12

6.1.12 Data flow diagram of use case ....................................................................... 12

6.1.13 Sequence diagram of use case ...................................................................... 13

6.2 Financial services for fish farming ......................................................................... 14

6.2.1 Scope and objectives of use case .................................................................. 14

6.2.2 Narrative of use case ..................................................................................... 15

6.2.3 Actors: people, components, systems, integrated systems, applications

and organizations .......................................................................................... 15

6.2.4 Issues: legal contracts, legal regulations, and constraints .............................. 16

6.2.5 Reference standards and/or standardization committees ............................... 16

6.2.6 Relation with other known use cases ............................................................. 16

6.2.7 General remarks ............................................................................................ 16

6.2.8 Data security, privacy and trustworthiness ..................................................... 16

6.2.9 Conformity aspects ........................................................................................ 17

6.2.10 User requirements and interactions with other actors ..................................... 17

6.2.11 Drawing of use case ...................................................................................... 17

6.2.12 Data flow diagram of use case ....................................................................... 18

6.2.13 Sequence diagram of use case ...................................................................... 19

6.3 Chattel mortgage services .................................................................................... 21

6.3.1 Scope and objectives of use case .................................................................. 21

6.3.2 Narrative of use case ..................................................................................... 21

6.3.3 Actors: people, components, systems, integrated systems, applications

and organizations .......................................................................................... 21

6.3.4 Issues: legal contracts, legal regulations, and constraints .............................. 22

6.3.5 Reference standards and/or standardization committees ............................... 22

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ISO/IEC TR 30176:2021 © ISO/IEC 2021 – 3 –

6.3.6 Relation with other known use cases ............................................................. 22

6.3.7 General remarks ............................................................................................ 22

6.3.8 Data security, privacy and trustworthiness ..................................................... 22

6.3.9 Conformity aspects ........................................................................................ 23

6.3.10 User requirements and interactions with other actors ..................................... 23

6.3.11 Drawing of use case ...................................................................................... 23

6.3.12 Data flow diagram of use case ....................................................................... 24

6.3.13 Sequence diagram(s) of use case .................................................................. 25

6.4 Distributed energy trading ..................................................................................... 26

6.4.1 Scope and objectives of use case .................................................................. 26

6.4.2 Narrative of use case ..................................................................................... 26

6.4.3 Actors: people, components, systems, integrated systems, applications

and organizations .......................................................................................... 27

6.4.4 Issues: legal contracts, legal regulations, and constraints .............................. 28

6.4.5 Reference standards and/or standardization committees ............................... 28

6.4.6 Relation with other known use cases ............................................................. 28

6.4.7 General remarks ............................................................................................ 28

6.4.8 Data security, privacy and trustworthiness ..................................................... 28

6.4.9 Conformity aspects ........................................................................................ 29

6.4.10 User requirements and interactions with other actors ..................................... 29

6.4.11 Drawing of use case ...................................................................................... 29

6.4.12 Data flow diagram of use case ....................................................................... 30

6.4.13 Sequence diagram(s) of use case .................................................................. 31

6.5 Automated parking payment service...................................................................... 33

6.5.1 Scope and objectives of use case .................................................................. 33

6.5.2 Narrative of use case ..................................................................................... 33

6.5.3 Actors: people, components, systems, integrated systems, applications

and organizations .......................................................................................... 33

6.5.4 Issues: legal contracts, legal regulations, and constraints .............................. 34

6.5.5 Reference standards and/or standardization committees ............................... 34

6.5.6 Relation with other known use cases ............................................................. 34

6.5.7 General remarks ............................................................................................ 34

6.5.8 Data security, privacy and trustworthiness ..................................................... 34

6.5.9 Conformity aspects ........................................................................................ 35

6.5.10 User requirements and interactions with other actors ..................................... 35

6.5.11 Drawing of use case ...................................................................................... 35

6.5.12 Data flow diagram of use case ....................................................................... 36

6.5.13 Sequence diagram(s) of use case .................................................................. 37

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 39

Figure 1 – General overview of smart agriculture .................................................................. 12

Figure 2 – Data flow diagram of agricultural product tracing .................................................. 13

Figure 3 – Sequence diagram of agricultural product tracing ................................................. 14

Figure 4 – The financial risks without collaboration ............................................................... 18

Figure 5 – Financial risks minimized through the collaboration of multiple participants ......... 18

Figure 6 – Data flow diagram of financial service for fish farming .......................................... 19

Figure 7 – Sequence diagram of the financial service for fish farming ................................... 20

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– 4 – ISO/IEC TR 30176:2021 © ISO/IEC 2021
Figure 8 – Stakeholders and their relationships in chattel mortgage monitoring

financial services .................................................................................................................. 24

Figure 9 – Data flow diagram of chattel mortgage service ..................................................... 25

Figure 10 – Sequence diagram of the chattel asset financial service ..................................... 25

Figure 11 – Architecture for P2P energy trading .................................................................... 30

Figure 12 – Data flow diagram based on hierarchical cyber enhancement framework

for energy trading ................................................................................................................. 31

Figure 13 – Sequence diagram for the energy trading process .............................................. 32

Figure 14 – Involved parties and their relationships in the automated parking payment

service .................................................................................................................................. 36

Figure 15 – Data flow diagram of the automated parking payment service ............................ 37

Figure 16 – Sequence diagram of the automated parking payment service ........................... 37

Table 1 – Summary of use case scenarios .............................................................................. 8

Table 2 – Actors for agricultural product tracing .................................................................... 10

Table 3 – Data security, privacy and trustworthiness for agricultural product tracing ............. 11

Table 4 – Steps of the agricultural product tracing ................................................................ 14

Table 5 – Actors for financial services for fish farmers .......................................................... 16

Table 6 – Data security, privacy and trustworthiness for financial services for fish

farmers ................................................................................................................................. 17

Table 7 – Steps of the financial service for fish farming ........................................................ 20

Table 8 – Actors for chattel mortgage services...................................................................... 22

Table 9 – Data security, privacy and trustworthiness for chattel mortgage services ............... 23

Table 10 – Steps of the financial service for chattel mortgage service ................................... 26

Table 11 – Actors for distributed energy trading .................................................................... 28

Table 12 – Data security, privacy and trustworthiness for distributed energy trading ............. 29

Table 13 – Steps of the distributed energy trading ................................................................ 32

Table 14 – Actors for the automated parking payment service .............................................. 34

Table 15 – Data security, privacy and trustworthiness for the automated parking

payment service .................................................................................................................... 35

Table 16 – Steps of the automated parking payment service ................................................. 38

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ISO/IEC TR 30176:2021 © ISO/IEC 2021 – 5 –
INTERNET OF THINGS (IoT) –
INTEGRATION OF IoT AND DLT/BLOCKCHAIN: USE CASES
FOREWORD

1) ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

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9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this ISO/IEC document may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC and ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

IEC TR 30176 has been prepared by subcommittee 41: Internet of Things and Digital Twin, of

ISO/IEC joint technical committee 1: Information technology. It is a Technical Report.

The text of this Technical Report is based on the following documents:
Draft Report on voting
JTC1-SC41/220A/DTR JTC1-SC41/241A/RVDTR

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this Technical Report is English.

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1, available at
www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs and www.iso.org/directives.

IMPORTANT – The "colour inside" logo on the cover page of this document indicates

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– 6 – ISO/IEC TR 30176:2021 © ISO/IEC 2021
INTRODUCTION

Distributed ledger technology (DLT) provides the capability of a distributed ledger, which is

shared across a set of DLT nodes and synchronized among DLT nodes using a consensus

mechanism. Blockchain is a kind of DLT, which uses confirmed blocks organized in an

append-only, sequential chain using cryptographic links. Blockchain is designed to be tamper

resistant and to create final, definitive and immutable ledger records. Either DLT or

blockchain can be quoted and used in terms of technology realization for application

scenarios. Each participant in a blockchain and DLT network has their own tamper-resistant

replica of transaction records associated with the participants who are individuals or

organizations. Blockchain and DLT can be applied to solutions involving IoT systems which

contain sensors, actuators, tags and readers, wearable devices, and service platforms, all of

which are networked.

Through the analysis of the IoT involving the DLT and blockchain technology, the DLT and

blockchain technology can help in solving the problems of IoT, especially those existing in the

physical system, such as device digital identity, data source trustworthiness, key data

forensics, data rights and interests, data assets and value exchange, etc. At the same time,

the IoT also provides an important commercial application scenario for DLT and blockchain,

and promotes entity and virtual economy combination. The integration of the IoT system with

the DLT and blockchain technology can achieve complementary advantages and bring new

business opportunities.

In fact, the integration of IoT system with DLT and blockchain can enable the creation of

better solutions for many business sectors, particularly where those solutions involve

information associated with physical entities, and where the solution spans many

organizations with the need for trusted information to be shared by those organizations.

The solutions that can be provided by the integration are important for the business sectors

such as agriculture, industry, healthcare, pharmaceuticals, environmental protection,

transportation, security, finance, insurance, object tracing, supply chain, smart grid, and smart

cities. This document is focused on collecting use cases in some of these sectors.

This document has been prepared based on the applications of IoT and DLT/blockchain

technology with the template of IoT use cases.
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ISO/IEC TR 30176:2021 © ISO/IEC 2021 – 7 –
INTERNET OF THINGS (IoT) –
INTEGRATION OF IoT AND DLT/BLOCKCHAIN: USE CASES
1 Scope

This document identifies and collects use cases for the integration of the DLT/blockchain

within IoT systems, applications, and/or services.
The use cases presented in this document use the IoT use case template.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
No terms and definitions are listed in this document.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
APP application
DLT distributed ledger technology
HMI human–machine interface
5 Use case scenarios
5.1 General

Use cases presented in this document depict typical use cases involving blockchain/DLT and

IoT systems, applications, and/or services; however, this document is not intended to be an

exhaustive list of all realizations.
5.2 Use cases

Table 1 summarizes the use case scenarios in this document along with the key actors in

each scenario.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – ISO/IEC TR 30176:2021 © ISO/IEC 2021
Table 1 – Summary of use case scenarios
Use case Name of use Short description Actors
number case scenario
1 Agricultural The agricultural product tracing Various sensor nodes, IoT
product provides the digital capability of gateways, agricultural product

tracing recording and tracing the entire process monitoring platform, APP, product

of the agricultural product, from sowing, testing agency, sellers, logistics
cultivating and growing, harvesting, service provider, and agricultural
storage, transportation, and so on, to product consumers.
the end users. All the data associated
with the entire process are collected
and stored by the IoT and blockchain
technologies to protect from and
prevent any tampering of the data,
which ensures the brand name, quality,
and more importantly the tracing of the
agricultural products.
2 Financial Financial services, such as insurance Sensor nodes for fish farm

services for services and loans, are provided to fish monitoring, oxygen controllers,

fish farming farmers by collaboration between IoT gateways, aquaculture
financial institutions and high-tech monitoring platform with
companies. The business collaboration blockchain, APP, financial service
model initiates the innovative way of portal, banks, insurance
financial services for fish farming, companies, fish farmers.
which is enabled by the IoT and
blockchain technology.
3 Chattel This use case describes how to Sensor nodes for the chattel
mortgage integrate IoT system with authorized asset monitoring, IoT gateway,
services device and platform integrated with chattel mortgage monitoring
blockchain to monitor the real-time platform with blockchain, APP,
status of chattel asset in the warehouse financial service portal, banks.
and during transportation, and provide
the authorized data to the relevant
stakeholders such as banks, chattel
asset owners, chattel asset monitoring
organizations, etc., so as to prevent
fraudulent activities and reduce
unnecessary high risks in providing
chattel mortgage services.
4 Distributed A blockchain-based trading Smart meter, aggregator (EAG)

energy trading infrastructure offers a distributed with blockchain, wallet, energy

platform that enables peer-to-peer seller, energy buyer.
trading of energy between consumers
and prosumers in a secure manner. The
identity privacy and security of
transaction is higher in the distributed
platform compared to the traditional
system, in which the energy transaction
is usually performed through the central
platform which is vulnerable to security
threats.
Automated Automated parking payment is a new Smart devices for the parking
parking way for users to pay a parking toll vehicles, IoT gateway, parking
payment without manual payment and without management platform with
service use of a smart phone. This use case blockchain, wallet, parking
will give the main idea of what the manager, parking user.
seamless payment is and how to realize
the seamless parking payment by
automatically calculating and paying
parking fees. The entire process is
automatically realized by authorized
devices, platform integrated with
blockchain, wallet, and smart contracts.
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ISO/IEC TR 30176:2021 © ISO/IEC 2021 – 9 –
6 Description of use case
6.1 Agricultural product tracing
6.1.1 Scope and objectives of use case
The main scope of this use case includes:

• the advantages gained over the traditional agricultural product when the IoT and

blockchain technologies are applied; and

• how the IoT and blockchain technologies are used in the agricultural product's tracing

system.
The objectives of this use case are to:
• clarify the requirements for tracing the agricultural products;

• provide the general descriptions of an IoT system integrated with blockchain technology;

and

• improve the online functionality, the end-to-end processes, and the reliability of the

management of agricultural products.
6.1.2 Narrative of use case
6.1.2.1 Short description

The agricultural product tracing provides the digital capability of recording and tracing the

entire process of the agricultural product, from sowing, cultivating and growing, harvesting,

storage, transportation, and so on, to the end users. All the data associated with the entire

process are collected and stored by the IoT and blockchain technologies to protect from and

prevent any tampering of the data, which ensures the brand name, quality, and more

importantly the tracing of the agricultural products.
6.1.2.2 Complete description

The agricultural product tracing lowers food safety risks and protects the reputation of the

agricultural product's brand name and qu
...

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