Information technology — Computer graphics, image processing and environmental data representation — Mixed and augmented reality (MAR) reference model

This document defines the scope and key concepts of mixed and augmented reality, the relevant terms and their definitions and a generalized system architecture that together serve as a reference model for mixed and augmented reality (MAR) applications, components, systems, services and specifications. This architectural reference model establishes the set of required sub-modules and their minimum functions, the associated information content and the information models to be provided and/or supported by a compliant MAR system. The reference model is intended for use by current and future developers of MAR applications, components, systems, services or specifications to describe, compare, contrast and communicate their architectural design and implementation. The MAR reference model is designed to apply to MAR systems independent of specific algorithms, implementation methods, computational platforms, display systems and sensors or devices used. This document does not specify how a particular MAR application, component, system, service or specification is designed, developed or implemented. It does not specify the bindings of those designs and concepts to programming languages or the encoding of MAR information through any coding technique or interchange format. This document contains a list of representative system classes and use cases with respect to the reference model.

Technologies de l'information — Infographie, traitement de l'image et représentation des données environnementales — Modèle de référence en réalité mixte et augmentée

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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 18039
First edition
2019-02
Information technology — Computer
graphics, image processing and
environmental data representation —
Mixed and augmented reality (MAR)
reference model
Technologies de l'information — Infographie, traitement de l'image
et représentation des données environnementales — Modèle de
référence en réalité mixte et augmentée
Reference number
ISO/IEC 18039:2019(E)
ISO/IEC 2019
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 18039:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 18039:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ................................................................................................................................ 1

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4 Mixed and augmented reality (MAR) domain and concepts ................................................................................... 4

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 MAR continuum ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5 MAR reference model usage example ............................................................................................................................................. 7

5.1 Designing an MAR application or service ........................................................................................................................ 7

5.2 Deriving an MAR business model ........................................................................................................................................... 7

5.3 Extending existing or creating new standards for MAR ...................................................................................... 7

6 MAR reference system architecture ................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.1 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.2 Viewpoints .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

6.3 Enterprise viewpoint ......................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.3.2 Classes of actors ............................................................................................................................................................10

6.3.3 Business model of MAR systems .....................................................................................................................11

6.3.4 Criteria for successful MAR systems ............................................................................................................12

6.4 Computational viewpoint ...........................................................................................................................................................12

6.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................12

6.4.2 Sensors: pure sensor and real world capturer ....................................................................................12

6.4.3 Context analyser: recognizer and tracker ...............................................................................................13

6.4.4 Spatial mapper ................................................................................................................................................................14

6.4.5 Event mapper .................. .................................................... .............................................................................................14

6.4.6 MAR execution engine ..............................................................................................................................................15

6.4.7 Renderer ..............................................................................................................................................................................15

6.4.8 Display and user interface ....................................................................................................................................16

6.4.9 MAR system API ............................................................................................................................................................17

6.5 Information viewpoint ..................................................................................................................................................................17

6.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................17

6.5.2 Sensors ..................................................................................................................................................................................17

6.5.3 Recognizer ..........................................................................................................................................................................18

6.5.4 Tracker ...................................................................... .............................................................................................................19

6.5.5 Spatial mapper ................................................................................................................................................................19

6.5.6 Event mapper .................. .................................................... .............................................................................................19

6.5.7 Execution engine ...........................................................................................................................................................20

6.5.8 Renderer ..............................................................................................................................................................................20

6.5.9 Display and user interface ....................................................................................................................................20

7 MAR component classification framework ............................................................................................................................21

8 MAR system classes ........................................................................................................................................................................................22

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................22

8.2 MAR Class V — Visual augmentation systems..........................................................................................................22

8.2.1 Local recognition and tracking .........................................................................................................................22

8.2.2 Local registration, remote recognition and tracking .....................................................................23

8.2.3 Remote recognition, local tracking and registration .....................................................................24

8.2.4 Remote recognition, registration and composition ........................................................................26

8.2.5 MAR Class V-R: visual augmentation with 3D environment reconstruction ............27

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ISO/IEC 18039:2019(E)

8.3 MAR type 3DV: 3D video systems ........................................................................................................................................27

8.3.1 Real-time, local-depth estimation, condition-based augmentation .................................27

8.3.2 Real-time, local-depth estimation, model-based augmentation ..........................................28

8.3.3 Real-time, remote depth estimation, condition-based augmentation ............................29

8.3.4 Real-time, remote-depth estimation, model-based augmentation ...................................30

8.3.5 Real-time, multiple remote user reconstructions, condition-based

augmentation ...................................................................................................................................................................31

8.4 MAR Class G: points of interest (POI) — GNSS-based systems ..................................................................32

8.4.1 Content-embedded POIs ........................................................................................................................................32

8.4.2 Server-available POIs ................................................................................................................................................33

8.5 MAR type A: audio systems .......................................................................................................................................................34

8.5.1 Local audio recognition .................. .........................................................................................................................34

8.5.2 Remote audio recognition .....................................................................................................................................35

8.6 MAR type 3DA: 3D audio systems .......................................................................................................................................36

8.6.1 Local audio spatialization .....................................................................................................................................36

9 Conformance ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................37

10 Performance ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................38

11 Safety .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................38

12 Security........................................................................................................................................................................................................................39

13 Privacy ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................39

14 Usability and accessibility .......................................................................................................................................................................39

Annex A (informative) AR-related solutions and technologies and their relation to the MAR

reference model .................................................................................................................................................................................................41

Annex B (informative) Use case examples and coverage by the MAR reference model ...............................45

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................60

iv © ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 18039:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that

are members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through

technical committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of

technical activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other

international organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also

take part in the work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see http: //patents .iec .ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 24, Computer graphics, image processing and environmental data representation.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
© ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/IEC 18039:2019(E)
Introduction
This document contains annexes:

— Annex A gives examples of existing MAR solutions and technologies and how they fit into the MAR

reference model.

— Annex B gives examples of representative MAR systems and how their architecture maps to the

MAR reference model.
vi © ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 18039:2019(E)
Information technology — Computer graphics, image
processing and environmental data representation —
Mixed and augmented reality (MAR) reference model
1 Scope

This document defines the scope and key concepts of mixed and augmented reality, the relevant terms

and their definitions and a generalized system architecture that together serve as a reference model for

mixed and augmented reality (MAR) applications, components, systems, services and specifications.

This architectural reference model establishes the set of required sub-modules and their minimum

functions, the associated information content and the information models to be provided and/or

supported by a compliant MAR system.

The reference model is intended for use by current and future developers of MAR applications,

components, systems, services or specifications to describe, compare, contrast and communicate

their architectural design and implementation. The MAR reference model is designed to apply to MAR

systems independent of specific algorithms, implementation methods, computational platforms, display

systems and sensors or devices used.

This document does not specify how a particular MAR application, component, system, service or

specification is designed, developed or implemented. It does not specify the bindings of those designs

and concepts to programming languages or the encoding of MAR information through any coding

technique or interchange format. This document contains a list of representative system classes and

use cases with respect to the reference model.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Terms and definitions
3.1.1
augmentation

virtual object (3.1.24) data (computer-generated, synthetic) added on to or associated with target

physical object (3.1.15) data (live video, real world image) in an MAR scene (3.1.9)

Note 1 to entry: This equally applies to physical object data added on to or associated with target virtual object data.

3.1.2
augmented reality

type of mixed reality system (3.1.13) in which virtual world (3.1.25) data are embedded and/or registered

with the representation of physical world (3.1.16) data
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ISO/IEC 18039:2019(E)
3.1.3
augmented virtuality system

type of mixed reality system (3.1.13) in which physical world (3.1.16) data are embedded and/or

registered with the representation of virtual world (3.1.25) data
3.1.4
display

device by which rendering results are presented to a user using various modalities such as visual,

auditory, haptics, olfactory, thermal, motion

Note 1 to entry: In addition, any actuator can be considered display if it is controlled by MAR system.

3.1.5
feature

primitive geometric element (e.g. points, lines, polygons, colour, texture, shapes) and/or attribute of a

given (usually physical) object used in its detection, recognition and tracking
3.1.6
MAR event

trigger resulting from the detection of a condition relevant to MAR content and augmentation (3.1.1)

EXAMPLE Detection of a marker.
3.1.7
MAR execution engine

collection of hardware and software elements that produce the result of combining components that

represent on the one hand the real world and its objects, and on the other those that are virtual,

synthetic and computer generated
3.1.8
MAR experience
human visualization and interaction of an MAR scene (3.1.9)
3.1.9
MAR scene

observable spatio-temporal organization of physical and virtual objects (3.1.24) which is the result of an

MAR scene representation (3.1.10) being interpreted by an MAR execution engine (3.1.7) and which has at

least one physical (3.1.15) and one virtual object
3.1.10
MAR scene representation

data structure that arranges the logical and spatial representation of a graphical scene, including the

physical (3.1.15) and virtual objects (3.1.24) that are used by the MAR execution engine (3.1.7) to produce

an MAR scene (3.1.9)
3.1.11
marker

metadata embedded in or associated with a physical object (3.1.15) that specifies the location of a super-

imposed object
3.1.12
MAR continuum

spectrum spanning physical and virtual realities according to a proportional composition of physical

and virtual data representations
[1]
Note 1 to entry: Originally proposed by Milgram et al. .
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ISO/IEC 18039:2019(E)
3.1.13
mixed reality system
mixed and augmented reality system

system that uses a mixture of representations of physical world (3.1.16) data and virtual world (3.1.25)

data as its presentation medium
3.1.14
natural feature

feature (3.1.5) that is not artificially inserted for the purpose of easy detection/recognition/tracking

3.1.15
physical object
real object
object that exists in the real world
3.1.16
physical world
physical reality spatial organization of multiple physical objects (3.1.15)
3.1.17
point of interest
single or collection of target locations

Note 1 to entry: Aside from location data, a point of interest is usually associated with metadata such as identifier

and other location specific information.
3.1.18
recognizer

MAR component (hardware and software) that processes sensor (3.1.19) output and generates MAR

events (3.1.6) based on conditions indicated by the content creator
3.1.19
sensor

device that returns detected values related to detected or measured condition or property

Note 1 to entry: Sensor may be an aggregate of sensors.
3.1.20
spatial registration

establishment of the spatial relationship or mapping between two models, typically between virtual

object (3.1.24) and target physical object (3.1.15)
3.1.21
target image
target object (3.1.22) represented by a 2D image
3.1.22
target object

physical (3.1.15) or virtual object (3.1.24) that is designated, designed or chosen to allow detection,

recognition and tracking, and finally augmentation (3.1.1)
3.1.23
tracker

MAR component (hardware and software) that analyses signals from sensors (3.1.19) and provides

some characteristics of tracked entity (e.g. position, orientation, amplitude, profile)

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ISO/IEC 18039:2019(E)
3.1.24
virtual object

computer-generated entity that is designated for augmentation (3.1.1) in association with a physical

object (3.1.15) data representation

Note 1 to entry: In the context of MAR, it usually has perceptual (e.g. visual, aural) characteristics and, optionally,

dynamic reactive behaviour.
3.1.25
virtual world
virtual environment

spatial organization of multiple virtual objects (3.1.24), potentially including global behaviour

3.2 Abbreviated terms
Abbreviated term Definition
API Application program interface
AR Augmented reality
AVH Audio, visual, haptic
GNSS Global navigation satellite system
MAR Mixed and augmented reality
MAR-RM Mixed and augmented reality reference model
MR Mixed reality
POI Points of interest
PTAM Parallel tracking and mapping
SLAM Simultaneous localization and mapping
UI User interface
VR Virtual reality
4 Mixed and augmented reality (MAR) domain and concepts
4.1 General

MAR refers to a spatially coordinated combination of media/information components that represent

on the one hand the real world and its objects, and on the other those that are virtual, synthetic and

computer generated. The virtual component can be represented and presented in many modalities

(e.g. visual, aural, touch, haptic, olfactory) as illustrated in Figure 1. The figure shows an MAR system

in which a virtual fish is augmented above a real world object (registered by using markers), visually,

aurally and haptically.
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ISO/IEC 18039:2019(E)

SOURCE Magic Vision Lab, University of South Australia, reproduced with the permission of the authors

Figure 1 — The concept of MAR as a combination of representations of physical objects and

computer mediated virtual objects in various modalities (e.g. text, voice and force feedback)

Through such combinations, the physical (or virtual) object can be presented in an information-

rich fashion through augmentation with the virtual (or real) counterpart. Thus, the idea of

spatially-coordinated combination is important for highlighting the mutual association between the

physical and virtual worlds. This is also often referred to as registration and can be done in various

dimensions. The most typical registration is spatial, where the position and orientation of a real object

are computed and used to control the position and orientation of a virtual object. Temporal registration

can also occur when the presence of a real object is detected and a virtual object is to be displayed.

Registration can have various precision performances; it can vary in its degree of tightness (as

illustrated in Figure 2). For example, in the spatial dimension, it can be measured in terms of distance

or angles; in the temporal dimension, in terms of milliseconds.
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ISO/IEC 18039:2019(E)
[2]

NOTE Virtual brain imagery tightly registered on a real human body image is shown on the left-hand side

[3]

and tourist information overlaid less tightly over a street scene is shown on the right-hand side.

Figure 2 — The notion of registration precision at different degrees
[4]

An MAR system refers to real-time processing . For example, while a live close-captioned broadcast

would qualify as an MAR service, an offline production of a subtitled movie would not.

4.2 MAR continuum

Since an MAR system or its contents combines real and virtual components, an MAR continuum can

be defined according to the relative proportion of the real and virtual, encompassing the physical

reality (“All physical, no virtual”) on one end and the VR (“All virtual, no physical”) on the other end

[1]

(as illustrated in Figure 3). A single instance of a system at any point on this continuum that uses a

mixture of both real and virtual presentation media is called an MR system. In addition, for historical

reasons, MR is often synonymously or interchangeably used with AR, which is actually a particular

type of MR (see Clause 7). In this document, the term “mixed and augmented reality” is used to avoid

such confusion and emphasize that the same model applies to all combinations of real and digital

components along the continuum. The two extreme ends in the continuum (the physical reality and the

VR) are not in the scope of this document.
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ISO/IEC 18039:2019(E)
[1]

Figure 3 — The MAR (or reality-virtuality) continuum : definition of different types of MR

according to the relative portion between the real world representation and the virtual

Two notable types of MAR or points in the continuum are the AR and augmented virtuality. An AR

system is a type of mixed reality system in which the medium representing the virtual objects is

embedded into the medium representing the physical world (e.g. video). In this case, the physical reality

makes up a larger proportion of the final composition than the computer-generated information. An

augmented virtuality system is a type of MR system in which the medium representing physical objects

(e.g. video) is embedded into the computer-generated information (as illustrated in Figure 3).

5 MAR reference model usage example
5.1 Designing an MAR application or service
The MAR reference model is a reference guide in designing an MAR service and dev
...

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