Cranes — Safety requirements for loader cranes

ISO 15442:2012 specifies the minimum requirements for the design, calculation, examination and testing of hydraulic powered loader cranes and their mountings onto chassis or static foundations. It is not applicable to loader cranes used on board ships or floating structures or to articulated boom system cranes designed as a total integral part of special equipment such as forwarders.

Appareils de levage à charge suspendue — Exigences de sécurité pour les grues de chargement

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
06-Nov-2012
Current Stage
9093 - International Standard confirmed
Start Date
07-Mar-2018
Completion Date
07-Mar-2018
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 15442
Second edition
2012-11-15
Cranes — Safety requirements for
loader cranes
Appareils de levage à charge suspendue — Exigences de sécurité pour
les grues de chargement
Reference number
ISO 15442:2012(E)
ISO 2012
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 15442:2012(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2012

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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ISO 15442:2012(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.1 Definitions ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 Terminology .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

4 Safety requirements and/or protective measures ............................................................................................................ 7

4.1 Calculation of rated capacity ....................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.2 Structural calculation ........................................................................................................................................................................ 8

4.3 Stress analysis .......................................................................................................................................................................................12

4.4 Mechanical arrangements ..........................................................................................................................................................12

4.5 Hydraulic system ................................................................................................................................................................................14

4.6 Limiting and indicating devices ............................................................................................................................................16

4.7 Controls ......................................................................................................................................................................................................19

4.8 Control stations ...................................................................................................................................................................................20

4.9 Electrical systems and related phenomena.................................................................................................................22

4.10 Installation ...............................................................................................................................................................................................22

5 Verification of the safety requirements and/or measures ....................................................................................24

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................24

5.2 Testing and test procedures .....................................................................................................................................................27

6 Information for use .........................................................................................................................................................................................30

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................30

6.2 Manuals ......................................................................................................................................................................................................30

6.3 Marking ......................................................................................................................................................................................................33

Annex A (informative) List of significant hazards................................................................................................................................38

Annex B (informative) Examples of configurations and mountings .................................................................................41

Annex C (informative) Explanatory notes ....................................................................................................................................................46

Annex D (informative) Examples of movements to be prevented in event of overload ................................47

Annex E (normative) Additional requirements for cableless controls and control systems ..................49

Annex F (normative) Symbols for working and setting-up functions .............................................................................51

Annex G (informative) Control system — Preferred vertical layout for controls operated from

the ground ................................................................................................................................................................................................................52

Annex H (informative) Control systems — Horizontal layout order ................................................................................54

Annex I (informative) Control levers for high seats and remote controls ..................................................................57

Annex J (normative) Cabins fitted on chassis-mounted loader cranes up to load moment of

250 kN · m .................................................................................................................................................................................................................59

Annex K (informative) Examples of raised control stations .....................................................................................................61

Annex L (normative) Raised control stations — Handrails and handholds, ladders and steps ..........64

Annex M (informative) Installation of loader cranes on chassis ..........................................................................................67

Annex N (normative) User information pertaining to noise ....................................................................................................73

Annex O (informative) Stress history parameter s and stress history classes S...................................................74

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................76

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 15442:2012(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International

Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting.

Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies

casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 15442 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 96, Cranes, Subcommittee SC 6, Mobile cranes.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 15442:2005), which has been

technically revised.
iv © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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ISO 15442:2012(E)
Introduction
This document is a type-C standard as stated in ISO 12100.

The machinery concerned and the extent to which hazards, hazardous situations or hazardous events

are covered are indicated in the Scope of this document.

When requirements of this type-C standard are different from those which are stated in type-A or B standards,

the requirements of this type-C standard take precedence over the requirements of the other standards for

machines that have been designed and built according to the requirements of this type-C standard.

Even though a loader crane mounted on a chassis may be considered as a particular type of mobile

crane, with very few exceptions International Standards developed for mobile cranes do not currently

include specific requirements for loader cranes.
This International Standard
— identifies specific safety requirements for loader cranes,

— when applicable, refers to existing International Standards which contain provisions that can be

applied to loader cranes,

— promotes loader crane safety by both identifying specific requirements and referring to existing

applicable standards, so that incorporating all such provisions into the design and use of loader

cranes will guard against and minimize injury to workers and damage to equipment,

— facilitates the work of everyone in the field of loader cranes (designers, supervisors and other

personnel, as well as people directly or indirectly responsible for their safe use and maintenance)

who needs to consult currently available International Standard for loader cranes, and

— contributes to the further international harmonization of loader crane standards.

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 15442:2012(E)
Cranes — Safety requirements for loader cranes
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies the minimum requirements for the design, calculation, examination

and testing of hydraulic powered loader cranes and their mountings onto chassis or static foundations.

It is applicable to all new loader cranes manufactured one year after its publication. It is not the intent of

this International Standard to require the retrofitting of existing loader cranes.

It is not applicable to loader cranes used on board ships or floating structures or to articulated boom

system cranes designed as a total integral part of special equipment such as forwarders.

It deals with all significant hazards, hazardous situations or hazardous events relevant to loader

cranes, with the exception of hazards related to the lifting of persons, when used as intended and under

conditions of misuse which are reasonably foreseeable by the manufacturer. See Annex A for a list of the

significant hazards.

NOTE The use of cranes for the lifting of persons may be subject to specific national regulations.

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 3744, Acoustics — Determination of sound power levels and sound energy levels of noise sources using

sound pressure — Engineering methods for an essentially free field over a reflecting plane

ISO 3864-1, Graphical symbols — Safety colours and safety signs — Part 1: Design principles for safety signs

and safety markings
ISO 4302, Cranes — Wind load assessment
ISO 4306-1, Cranes — Vocabulary — Part 1: General
ISO 4310, Cranes — Test code and procedures
ISO 4413, Hydraulic fluid power — General rules relating to systems

ISO 5353, Earth-moving machinery, and tractors and machinery for agriculture and forestry — Seat index point

ISO 7752-1, Cranes — Control layout and characteristics — Part 1: General principles

ISO 8566-1, Cranes — Cabins and control stations — Part 1: General
ISO 8566-2, Cranes — Cabins — Part 2: Mobile cranes

ISO 11201, Acoustics — Noise emitted by machinery and equipment — Determination of emission sound

pressure levels at a work station and at other specified positions in an essentially free field over a reflecting

plane with negligible environmental corrections
ISO 10245-1, Cranes — Limiting and indicating devices — Part 1: General
ISO 11660-1, Cranes — Access, guards and restraints — Part 1: General
ISO 11660-2, Cranes — Access, guards and restraints — Part 2: Mobile cranes
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 15442:2012(E)

ISO 12100:2010, Safety of machinery — General principles for design — Risk assessment and risk reduction

ISO 13849-1, Safety of machinery — Safety-related parts of control systems — Part 1: General principles

for design

ISO 13854, Safety of machinery — Minimum gaps to avoid crushing of parts of the human body

ISO 13857, Safety of machinery — Safety distances to prevent hazard zones being reached by upper and

lower limbs
ISO 20332, Cranes — Proof of competence of steel structures

IEC 60068-2-64, Environmental testing — Part 2: Test methods — Test Fh: Vibration, broad-band random

(digital control) and guidance

IEC 60204-32:2008, Safety of machinery — Electrical equipment of machines — Part 32: Requirements for

hoisting machines

IEC 61000-6-2, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) — Part 6-2: Generic standards — Immunity for

industrial environments

IEC 61000-6-4, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) — Part 6: Generic standards — Section 4: Emission

standard for industrial environments
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 4306-1, ISO 12100 and the

following apply.
3.1 Definitions
3.1.1
loader crane

powered crane comprising a column that slews about a base, and a boom system that is attached to the

top of the column and which is usually fitted on a vehicle (including trailer) and designed for loading and

unloading the vehicle

[SOURCE: ISO 4306-2:2012, 5.2, modified — Note 3 is not included in the source definition.]

NOTE 1 ISO 3833:1977 defines commercial vehicle as a motor vehicle which, on account of its design and

appointments, is used mainly for conveying goods, and which may also tow a trailer. An example of one type of

commercial vehicle equipped with a loader crane is shown in ISO 4306-2:2012, Figure 9.

NOTE 2 A loader crane installed on another type of vehicle or on a static base is still considered a loader crane.

NOTE 3 Annex B gives examples of boom system configurations and installations.
3.1.1.1
recycling crane

loader crane specifically designed, manufactured and equipped with a grapple for loading/unloading of

recycling materials (e.g. scrap metal)

NOTE Recycling cranes are designed to operate at higher speeds and with higher dynamic loads than other

types of loader crane and these differences are reflected in some of the requirements of this International Standard.

3.1.1.2
timber crane

loader crane specifically designed, manufactured and equipped with a grapple for loading/unloading of

unprepared timber (e.g. tree trunks, branches)
NOTE 1 The operator controls the crane from a high seat or from a cabin.
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ISO 15442:2012(E)

NOTE 2 Timber cranes are designed to operate at higher speeds and with higher dynamic loads than other types

of loader crane and these differences are reflected in some of the requirements of this International Standard.

3.1.2
articulated movement
movement of boom members pivoting about a pin joint
3.1.3
base
housing incorporating anchoring points and bearings for the slewing column
3.1.4
boom
structural member in the boom system of the loader crane
3.1.4.1
hydraulic boom extension

part of the boom which is capable of hydraulic telescopic movement to vary its length

3.1.4.2
manual boom extension
part of the boom which can be manually extended or retracted
3.1.4.3
boom system
complete system, consisting of booms, boom extensions and cylinders
3.1.5
column
structural member which supports the boom system
3.1.6
control system

interface between the operating levers and the actuating components which provide movements of

the loader crane
3.1.7
control station
position from which the loader crane may be operated
3.1.7.1
raised control station

control station at a height above the ground level, comprising a high seat attached to the column of the

loader crane or a platform positioned above the base of the loader crane
NOTE See Annex K.
3.1.8
crane inclination

angle between the slewing axis and a vertical line, due to working on slanted or uneven ground

3.1.9
danger zone
hazard zone

any space within and/or around machinery in which a person can be exposed to a hazard

[SOURCE: ISO 12100:2010, 3.11.]
3.1.10
dead load

force due to masses of fixed and movable crane parts which act permanently on the structure while the

crane is being used
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ISO 15442:2012(E)
3.1.11
dynamic pressure

pressure in a hydraulic system component or part of hydraulic system caused by dynamic forces on

actuators when handling the load
3.1.12
fixed load lifting attachment

equipment from which the net load may be suspended and which is fitted directly to the boom head as

an integral part of the crane
3.1.13
flow-sensitive check valve
valve which stops the flow when a pre-set pressure drop level is exceeded
3.1.14
gross load

sum of payload, lifting attachments and if applicable a portion of the hoist rope

3.1.15
high seat
control station connected to the column, consequently rotating with the crane
3.1.16
hoist

machine for lifting and lowering suspended loads over predetermined distances, using ropes, chains or belts

3.1.17
hydraulic line rupture
failure of a hydraulic line which results in a loss of pressure in the line
3.1.18
load holding valve

valve which is normally closed and is opened by an external force to enable flow of fluid out of a

hydraulic actuator
3.1.19
main relief valve
valve which limits the pressure supplied to the hydraulic system of the crane
3.1.20
maximum working load
maximum load that may be lifted
NOTE It is the largest load appearing in the load plate.
3.1.21
maximum working pressure
maximum pressure in pump circuit or individual working function
3.1.22
net lifting moment
rated capacity multiplied by outreach
3.1.23
non-fixed load lifting attachment

lifting accessory which can be fitted directly or indirectly to the hook or any other coupling device of a

crane by the user without affecting its integrity
3.1.24
outreach

horizontal distance between the axis of rotation of the column and point of load attachment

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ISO 15442:2012(E)
3.24.1.1
hydraulic outreach

outreach which can be obtained with hydraulically actuated parts of the boom system

3.1.25
payload

load which is lifted by the crane and suspended from the non-fixed load-lifting attachment(s) or, if such

an attachment is not used, directly from the fixed load-lifting attachment(s)
3.1.26
port relief valve
valve which limits the pressure supplied to a hydraulic actuator
3.1.27
pressure relief valve

valve which automatically relieves the hydraulic oil to the tank when the pressure exceeds a specified value

3.1.28
rated capacity

load that the crane is designed to lift for a given operating condition (e.g. configuration, position of the load)

3.1.29
rated capacity indicator

device which gives, within tolerance limits specified in 4.6.3.2, at least a continuous indication that the

rated capacity is exceeded, and another continuous indication (on certain crane types) of the approach

to the rated capacity
3.1.30
rated capacity limiter

system that automatically prevents the crane from handling loads in excess of its rated capacity

NOTE See also Annex C.
3.1.32
setting-up function
crane function used to prepare the crane for lifting
3.1.33
sink rate

distance in a given time at which the load lowers due to internal leakage of hydraulic components

3.1.34
slewing
rotational movement of the column and boom system about the axis of the column
3.1.35
stabilizer

aid to the supporting structure connected to the base of the crane or to the chassis to provide stability,

without lifting the chassis from the ground
3.1.35.1
stabilizer extension

part of the stabilizer capable of extending the stabilizer leg laterally from the transport position to the

operating position
3.1.35.2
stabilizer leg

part of the stabilizer capable of contacting the ground to provide the required stability

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ISO 15442:2012(E)
3.1.36
static foundation
fixed support incorporating mounting points for a crane
3.1.37
total lifting moment
sum of net lifting moment and the moment produced by dead loads
3.2 Terminology
See Figure 1.
6 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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ISO 15442:2012(E)
Key
1 base 12 2nd manual boom extension
2 stabilizer extension 13 load hook
3 stabilizer leg 14 controls
4 slewing mechanism 15 stabilizer foot
5 column 16 3rd boom attachment
6 1st boom 17 3rd boom
7 1st boom cylinder 18 3rd boom cylinder
8 2nd boom 19 3rd hydraulic boom extension
9 2nd boom cylinder 20 3rd boom extension cylinders
10 2nd hydraulic boom extension 21 load hook
11 2nd boom extension cylinders 22 3rd manual boom extension
Boom systems consist of items 6 to 12 plus items 16 to 22, as applicable.
Figure 1 — Main parts of loader crane
4 Safety requirements and/or protective measures

Machinery shall comply with the safety requirements and/or protective measures of this clause.

In addition, the machine shall be designed according to the principles of ISO 12100 for relevant but not

significant hazards which are not dealt with by this International Standard.
4.1 Calculation of rated capacity
The rated capacity shall be calculated from the following:
a) the working pressure in the cylinders;
b) the area of the load-carrying cylinders;
c) the kinematics;
d) dead loads;
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ISO 15442:2012(E)
e) load combinations;
f) hoist loads.
For the purpose of the calculations, rated capacity is equal to gross load.
4.2 Structural calculation
4.2.1 Information to be given in the calculation
The following information shall be given in the calculation:
a) type of crane and method of operation;
b) the assumed number of all load or working cycles;

c) details of the load-carrying system reflecting actual service conditions, including outline drawings

and principal dimensions;
d) the assumed loading conditions, including maximum crane inclination;

e) the governing hoisting class, hoist drive class and stress history classes or stress history parameters;

f) the material for the individual components and joints;

g) the shapes, dimensions and static cross-section values of all load-carrying members;

h) the analyses, separately for the individual structural components and essential connections.

4.2.2 Dynamic factors
4.2.2.1 Hoisting and gravity effects of the mass of the crane

The dynamic effects due to vibrations of the structure when raising or lowering a load shall be included

in the loading by applying the factor, ϕ , to the gravitational forces due to the masses of the crane. It shall

be used for the design of the crane structure itself and its supports. For load combinations A1, B1 and C1,

the value of ϕ shall be the lowest of the two values 1,1 and ϕ , expressed as
1 2
φφ=min,()11; (1)
For load combinations A2 and B2, the value of ϕ shall be 0,95.

Although generally ϕ = 1,1, it shall not exceed the value of ϕ (see 4.2.2.2) when ϕ is less than 1,1.

1 2 2
4.2.2.2 Hoisting and gravity effects of the gross load

In the case of hoisting or grounding a load as well as starting or stopping a vertical motion, the vibration

effects shall be included in the loading by multiplying the gravitational force due to the mass of the hoist

load by a factor, ϕ .
Factor ϕ shall be taken as
φφ=+βν× (2)
22minh2

ϕ and β are given in Table 1 for the appropriate hoisting class. Loader cranes are assigned to

2,min 2

hoisting classes HC1 and HC2 in accordance with their dynamic and elastic characteristics:

— HC1 for crane mounted on a chassis or structures of equivalent flexibility;
— HC2 for rigidly mounted cranes.
8 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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ISO 15442:2012(E)

Rigidly mounted cranes equipped with a device that limits the peak pressure (e.g. an accumulator) in

the first boom cylinder may be assigned to HC1.
Table 1 — Values of β and ϕ
2 2,min
Hoisting class of appliance β ϕ
2 2,min
HC 1 0,17 1,05
HC 2 0,34 1,10

ν is the steady vertical hook speed, in metres per second, related to the lifting attachment. Values of ν

h h
are given in Table 2.
Table 2 — Values of ν
Type of hoist drive and its operation method
Load combination
HD1 HD4 HD5
A1, B1 v 0,5v v = 0
h,max h,max h
C1 v v 0,5v
h,max h,max h,max
HD1 is the hoist drive can only be operated at a fixed speed
HD4 is the start of the lift is performed with continuously increasing speed

HD5 is the hoist drive control is automatic and ensures that the speed influence on the dynamic force is negligible

ν is the maximum vertical hook speed
h,max

In load combinations A1 and B1, ν is the maximum vertical hook speed that is given by any single

h,max
hydraulic drive action.

In load combination C1, ν is the maximum vertical hook speed from all articulation hydraulic drives

h,max
acting simultaneously.

NOTE 1 In load combinations A and B it is assumed that the dynamic peaks from simultaneous movements

do not coincide. The unlikely event that the dynamic peaks coincide and are superimposed is covered by load

combination C1.

NOTE 2 Dynamic factor ϕ can be calculated using rigid body kinetics or determined by experimental means.

4.2.2.3 Effect of sudden release of a part of the gross load

For cranes that release or drop a part of the gross load as a working procedure during intended use,

such as when grabs or magnets are used, the peak dynamic effect on the crane can be simulated by

multiplying the gross load by a factor, ϕ , the value of which is given by
Δm×−1 β
φ = (3)
where
m is the mass of the gross load;
∆m is the released or dropped part of the gross load;
β = 0,5 for cranes equipped with grabs or similar slow-release devices;
β = 1,0 for cranes equipped with magnets or similar rapid-release devices.
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ISO 15442:2012(E)
4.2.2.4 Effects caused by acceleration/deceleration of the slewing drive

Dynamic factor ϕ shall have the value 1,05 for hook duty and 1,3 for bucket or grapple duty.

4.2.3 Loads and forces
4.2.3.1 General
The following loads and forces shall be taken into account:
a) regular loads:
1) dead loads (3.10);
2) gross loads (3.14);
3) dynamic forces;
4) centrifugal forces;
b) occasional loads:
1) in-service wind loads;
2) other climatic and environmental effects such as temperature, snow and ice;
3) loads on stairways, platforms and hand rails;
c) exce
...

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