Plastics piping systems for water supply and for drainage and sewerage under pressure — Polyethylene (PE) — Part 1: General

This document specifies the general aspects of polyethylene (PE) compounds for the manufacture of pressure pipes and fittings (mains and service pipes) for buried or above ground applications, intended for the conveyance of: — water for human consumption; — raw water prior to treatment; — drainage and sewerage under pressure; — vacuum sewer systems; — water for other purposes. This document also specifies the test parameters and requirements for the test methods referred to in this document. In conjunction with other parts of the ISO 4427 series, this document is applicable to PE pipes and fittings, their joints and to joints with components made of PE and other materials, intended to be used under the following conditions: a) a maximum allowable operating pressure (PFA) up to and including 25 bar[1]; b) an operating temperature of 20 °C as the reference temperature. NOTE 1 For other operating temperatures, guidance is given in Annex A. The ISO 4427 series covers a range of maximum allowable operating pressures and gives requirements concerning colours. NOTE 2 It is the responsibility of the purchaser or specifier to make the appropriate selections from these aspects, taking into account their particular requirements and installation practices or codes. [1] 1 bar = 0,1 MPa = 105 Pa; 1 MPa = 1 N/mm2.

Systèmes de canalisations en plastique destinés à l'alimentation en eau et aux branchements et collecteurs d'assainissement sous pression — Polyéthylène (PE) — Partie 1: Généralités

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
05-Aug-2019
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
06-Aug-2019
Completion Date
06-Aug-2019
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 4427-1
Second edition
2019-08
Plastics piping systems for water
supply and for drainage and sewerage
under pressure — Polyethylene (PE) —
Part 1:
General
Systèmes de canalisations en plastique destinés à l'alimentation
en eau et aux branchements et collecteurs d'assainissement sous
pression — Polyéthylène (PE) —
Partie 1: Généralités
Reference number
ISO 4427-1:2019(E)
ISO 2019
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 4427-1:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
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Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
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Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 4427-1:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

3.1 Geometrical terms ................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

3.2 Material terms ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

3.3 Terms related to material characteristics ........................................................................................................................ 5

3.4 Terms related to service conditions ..................................................................................................................................... 6

3.5 Terms related to joints ..................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.1 Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5 Material .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.1 Material of the component ........................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.2 Compound ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.2.1 Additives and pigments ............................................................................................................................................. 8

5.2.2 Colour ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.3 Physical characteristics of the compound ....................................................................................................................... 9

5.3.1 Characteristics of the compound in the form of granules ............................................................ 9

5.3.2 Characteristics of the compound in the form of pipe ....................................................................10

5.4 Fusion compatibility .......................................................................................................................................................................12

5.5 Classification and designation ................................................................................................................................................13

6 Effects on water quality ..............................................................................................................................................................................13

Annex A (informative) Pressure reduction coefficient ...................................................................................................................14

Annex B (informative) Resistance to rapid crack propagation ..............................................................................................15

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................17

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 4427-1:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 138, Plastics pipes, fitting and valves for

the transport of fluids, Subcommittee SC 2, Plastics pipes and fittings for water supplies.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 4427-1:2007), which has been technically

revised. It also incorporates Technical Corrigendum ISO 4427-1:2007/Cor 1:2008 and Amendment

ISO 4427-1:2007/Amd 1:2015.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are:
— update of the normative references;
— technical consistency with ISO 4437-1 (see Reference [1] in the Bibliography).
A list of all parts in the ISO 4427 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 4427-1:2019(E)
Introduction

The ISO 4427 series of standards are a set of system standards that specify the requirements for a

piping system and its components when made from polyethylene (PE). The piping system is intended

to be used in buried or above ground applications, for the conveyance of water for human consumption,

raw water prior to treatment, drainage and sewerage under pressure, vacuum sewer systems, and

water for other purposes.

In respect of potential adverse effects on the quality of water intended for human consumption caused

by the products covered by the ISO 4427 series, it does not provide information on the restriction on

the use of products.

NOTE Guidance for assessment of conformity can be found in Reference [2] in the Bibliography.

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 4427-1:2019(E)
Plastics piping systems for water supply and for drainage
and sewerage under pressure — Polyethylene (PE) —
Part 1:
General
1 Scope

This document specifies the general aspects of polyethylene (PE) compounds for the manufacture of

pressure pipes and fittings (mains and service pipes) for buried or above ground applications, intended

for the conveyance of:
— water for human consumption;
— raw water prior to treatment;
— drainage and sewerage under pressure;
— vacuum sewer systems;
— water for other purposes.

This document also specifies the test parameters and requirements for the test methods referred to in

this document.

In conjunction with other parts of the ISO 4427 series, this document is applicable to PE pipes and

fittings, their joints and to joints with components made of PE and other materials, intended to be used

under the following conditions:
a) a maximum allowable operating pressure (PFA) up to and including 25 bar ;
b) an operating temperature of 20 °C as the reference temperature.
NOTE 1 For other operating temperatures, guidance is given in Annex A.

The ISO 4427 series covers a range of maximum allowable operating pressures and gives requirements

concerning colours.

NOTE 2 It is the responsibility of the purchaser or specifier to make the appropriate selections from these

aspects, taking into account their particular requirements and installation practices or codes.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 3, Preferred numbers — Series of preferred numbers
ISO 472, Plastics — Vocabulary

ISO 1043-1, Plastics — Symbols and abbreviated terms — Part 1: Basic polymers and their special

characteristics
5 2
1) 1 bar = 0,1 MPa = 10 Pa; 1 MPa = 1 N/mm .
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 4427-1:2019(E)

ISO 1133-1, Plastics — Determination of the melt mass-flow rate (MFR) and melt volume-flow rate (MVR)

of thermoplastics — Part 1: Standard method

ISO 1167-1:2006, Thermoplastics pipes, fittings and assemblies for the conveyance of fluids — Determination

of the resistance to internal pressure — Part 1: General method

ISO 1167-2, Thermoplastics pipes, fittings and assemblies for the conveyance of fluids — Determination of

the resistance to internal pressure — Part 2: Preparation of pipe test pieces

ISO 1183-1, Plastics — Methods for determining the density of non-cellular plastics — Part 1: Immersion

method, liquid pycnometer method and titration method

ISO 1183-2, Plastics — Methods for determining the density of non-cellular plastics — Part 2: Density

gradient column method

ISO 4427-2, Plastics piping systems for water supply, and for drainage and sewerage under pressure —

Polyethylene (PE) — Part2: Pipes

ISO 4427-3, Plastics piping systems for water supply, and for drainage and sewerage under pressure —

Polyethylene (PE) — Part 3: Fittings

ISO 6259-1, Thermoplastics pipes — Determination of tensile properties — Part 1: General test method

ISO 6259-3, Thermoplastics pipes — Determination of tensile properties — Part 3: Polyolefin pipes

ISO 6964, Polyolefin pipes and fittings — Determination of carbon black content by calcination and

pyrolysis — Test method

ISO 9080, Plastics piping and ducting systems — Determination of the long-term hydrostatic strength of

thermoplastics materials in pipe form by extrapolation

ISO 11357-6, Plastics — Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) — Part 6: Determination of oxidation

induction time (isothermal OIT) and oxidation induction temperature (dynamic OIT)

ISO 11413, Plastics pipes and fittings — Preparation of test piece assemblies between a polyethylene (PE)

pipe and an electrofusion fitting

ISO 11414, Plastics pipes and fittings — Preparation of polyethylene (PE) pipe/pipe or pipe/fitting test

piece assemblies by butt fusion

ISO 12162, Thermoplastics materials for pipes and fittings for pressure applications — Classification,

designation and design coefficient

ISO 13477, Thermoplastics pipes for the conveyance of fluids — Determination of resistance to rapid crack

propagation (RCP) — Small-scale steady-state test (S4 test)

ISO 13478, Thermoplastics pipes for the conveyance of fluids — Determination of resistance to rapid crack

propagation (RCP) — Full-scale test (FST)

ISO 13479, Polyolefin pipes for the conveyance of fluids — Determination of resistance to crack

propagation — Test method for slow crack growth on notched pipes

ISO 13953, Polyethylene (PE) pipes and fittings — Determination of the tensile strength and failure mode of

test pieces from a butt-fused joint

ISO 13954, Plastics pipes and fittings — Peel decohesion test for polyethylene (PE) electrofusion assemblies

of nominal outside diameter greater than or equal to 90 mm
ISO 15512, Plastics — Determination of water content

ISO 16871, Plastics piping and ducting systems — Plastics pipes and fittings — Method for exposure to

direct (natural) weathering
2 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 4427-1:2019(E)

EN 12099, Plastics piping systems — Polyethylene piping materials and components — Determination of

volatile content
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 3, ISO 472 and ISO 1043-1 and

the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http: //www .iso .org/obp
3.1 Geometrical terms
3.1.1
nominal size
DN/OD
numerical designation of the size of a component related to the outside diameter

Note 1 to entry: It is a convenient round number approximately equal to the manufacturing dimension in

millimetres (mm). It is not applicable to components designated by thread size.
3.1.2
nominal outside diameter
specified outside diameter assigned to a nominal size DN/OD
Note 1 to entry: Nominal outside diameter is expressed in millimetres.
3.1.3
outside diameter at any point

value of the measurement of the outside diameter through its cross-section at any point of the pipe,

rounded to the next greater 0,1 mm
3.1.4
mean outside diameter

value of the measurement of the outer circumference of the pipe or spigot end of a fitting in any cross-

section divided by π (= 3,142), rounded to the next greater 0,1 mm
3.1.5
minimum mean outside diameter
em,min

minimum value for the mean outside diameter as specified for a given nominal size

3.1.6
maximum mean outside diameter
em,max

maximum value for the mean outside diameter as specified for a given nominal size

3.1.7
out-of-roundness
ovality

difference between the maximum and the minimum outside diameters in the same cross-section of a

pipe or spigot
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 4427-1:2019(E)
3.1.8
nominal wall thickness

numerical designation of the wall thickness of a component, which is a convenient round number,

approximately equal to the manufacturing dimension in millimetres (mm)

Note 1 to entry: For thermoplastics components conforming to the different parts of the ISO 4427 series, the

value of the nominal wall thickness, e , is identical to the specified minimum wall thickness at any point, e .

n min
3.1.9
wall thickness at any point

wall thickness at any point around the circumference of a component rounded to the next greater 0,1 mm

Note 1 to entry: The symbol for the wall thickness of the fittings body at any point is E.

3.1.10
minimum wall thickness at any point
min

minimum value for the wall thickness at any point around the circumference of a component, as

specified
3.1.11
maximum wall thickness at any point
max

maximum value for the wall thickness at any point around the circumference of a component, as

specified
3.1.12
mean wall thickness

arithmetical mean of a number of measurements of the wall thickness, regularly spaced around the

circumference and in the same cross-section of a component, including the measured minimum and the

measured maximum values of the wall thickness in that cross-section
3.1.13
pipe series
dimensionless number for pipe designation conforming to ISO 4065

Note 1 to entry: The relationship between the pipe series, S, and the standard dimension ratio, SDR, is given by

the following formula from ISO 4065 (see Bibliography [3]):
SDR1−
S =
3.1.14
standard dimension ratio
SDR

numerical designation of a pipe series, which is a convenient round number, approximately equal to the

dimension ratio of the nominal outside diameter, d , and the nominal wall thickness, e

n n
3.1.15
tolerance

permitted variation of the specified value of a quantity, expressed as the difference between the

permitted maximum and the permitted minimum value
4 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 4427-1:2019(E)
3.1.16
wall thickness tolerance

permitted difference between the wall thickness at any point, e, and the nominal wall thickness, e

Note 1 to entry: e ≤ e ≤ e + t .
n n y
3.2 Material terms
3.2.1
virgin material

compound in the form of granules that has not been subjected to use or processing other than that

required for its manufacture and to which no reprocessed or recycled materials have been added

3.2.2
own reprocessed material

material prepared from clean, rejected and unused pipes, fittings, or valves, including trimmings from

the production of pipes, fittings, or valves, that is reprocessed in a manufacturer's plant after having

been previously processed by the same manufacturer in the production of components by, for example,

injection-moulding or extrusion
3.2.3
compound

homogenous extruded mixture of base polymer (PE) and additives, i.e. anti-oxidants, pigments, carbon

black, UV-stabilizers, at a dosage level necessary for the processing and use of components conforming

to the requirements of this document
3.2.4
base polymer

polymer produced by the material supplier for the manufacture of the compound according to this

document.
3.2.5
fusion compatibility

ability of two similar or dissimilar polyethylene (PE) materials to be fused together to form a joint

which conforms to the performance requirements of this document
3.3 Terms related to material characteristics
3.3.1
lower confidence limit of the predicted hydrostatic strength
LPL

quantity, with the dimensions of stress, which represents the 97,5 % lower confidence limit of the

predicted hydrostatic strength at a temperature θ and time t
Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in Megapascals.
3.3.2
minimum required strength
MRS

value of σ at 20 °C and 50 years, rounded down to the next smaller value of the R10 series when σ

LPL LPL

is below 10 MPa, or to the next lower value of the R20 series when σ is 10 MPa or greater

LPL
[4]

Note 1 to entry: The R10 series conforms to ISO 3 and the R20 series conforms to ISO 497 .

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 4427-1:2019(E)
3.3.3
design coefficient

coefficient with a value greater than 1 which takes into consideration service conditions as well

as properties of the components of a piping system other than those represented in the lower

confidence limit
3.3.4
design stress

allowable stress for a given application at 20 °C, that is derived from the MRS by dividing it by the

design coefficient C, i.e.
MRS
σ =
Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in Megapascals.
3.3.5
melt mass-flow rate
MFR

value relating to the viscosity of the molten material at a specified temperature and load

Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in grams per 10 min (g/10 min).
3.4 Terms related to service conditions
3.4.1
nominal pressure

numerical designation used for reference purposes related to the mechanical characteristics of the

component of a piping system

Note 1 to entry: For plastic piping systems conveying water, it corresponds to the allowable operating pressure

(PFA) in bar, which can be sustained with water at 20 °C with a design basis of 50 years, and based on the

minimum design coefficient:
20×MRS
PN=
C×−SDR 1

Note 2 to entry: Research on long term performance prediction of PE water distribution systems shows a possible

service life of at least 100 years, see Bibliography [5] and [6].
3.4.2
allowable operating pressure
PFA

maximum hydrostatic pressure that a component is capable of withstanding continuously in service

Note 1 to entry: See Annex A.
3.5 Terms related to joints
3.5.1
electrofusion joint

joint between a PE socket or saddle electrofusion fitting and pipe or fitting with spigot ends, made by

heating the electrofusion fittings by the Joule effect of the heating element incorporated at their jointing

surfaces, causing the material adjacent to them to melt and the pipe and fitting surfaces to fuse

6 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 4427-1:2019(E)
3.5.2
butt fusion joint

joint made by heating the planed ends of matching surfaces by holding them against a flat heating plate

until the PE material reaches fusion temperature, quickly removing the heating plate and pushing the

two softened ends against one another
3.5.3
mechanical joint

joint made by assembling a PE pipe to another PE pipe, or any other element using a fitting that generally

includes a compression part, to provide for pressure integrity, leaktightness and resistance to end loads

3.5.4
socket fusion joint

joint made by heating the socket ends of matching surfaces by holding them against a flat heating plate

until the PE material reaches fusion temperature, quickly removing the heating plate and pushing the

two softened ends against one another
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
4.1 Symbols
For the purposes of this document, the following symbols apply.
C design coefficient
d outside diameter (at any point)
d mean outside diameter
d maximum mean outside diameter
em,max
d minimum mean outside diameter
em,min
d nominal outside diameter
E wall thickness (at any point) of a fitting body
e wall thickness (at any point) around the circumference of a component
e mean wall thickness
e maximum wall thickness (at any point)
max
e minimum wall thickness (at any point)
min
e nominal wall thickness
t wall thickness tolerance
σ design stress
σ lower confidence limit of the predicted hydrostatic strength
LPL

NOTE Symbols d , e, e and e in this document are equivalent to d , e , e and e , respectively,

e min max ey y y,min y,max
used in ISO 11922-1 (see Bibliography [7]).
4.2 Abbreviated terms
For the purposes of this document, the following abbreviated terms apply.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO 4427-1:2019(E)
DN/OD nominal size, outside diameter related
LPL lower predicted limit
MFR melt mass-flow rate
MRS minimum required strength
PE polyethylene
PFA allowable operating pressure
PN nominal pressure
S pipe series
SDR standard dimension ratio
5 Material
5.1 Material of the component

The material described in this document is a compound, which shall be supplied in the form of granules,

suitable for the production of pipes complying with ISO 4427-2 or fittings complying with ISO 4427-3.

NOTE Since PE 40 is not commonly used for pressure applications, it is the intention of ISO/TC 138/SC 2 to

withdraw all references to this compound at the next revision of the ISO 4427 series (all parts).

5.2 Compound
5.2.1 Additives and pigments

The compound shall be made by the material producer by adding to the polyethylene base polymer only

those additives and pigments (e.g. carbon black) necessary for the manufacture of pipes and fittings

conforming to ISO 4427-2 or ISO 4427-3, as applicable, and for their fusibility, storage, and use.

All additives and pigments shall be uniformly dispersed.

The carbon black used in the production of black compound shall have an average (primary) particle

size of 10 nm to 25 nm.
5.2.2 Colour
The colour of the compound shall be either black or blue.

NOTE 1 Compounds with other colours than black and blue are only intended for identification purposes,

(stripes).

Blue compound shall only be used for products in contact with water intended for human consumption.

Yellow and orange compound is not allowed for products according to the ISO 4427 series (all parts).

NOTE 2 Yellow and orange colour are used for gas applications, in accordance with the ISO 4437 series

(all parts).
8 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 4427-1:2019(E)
5.3 Physical characteristics of the compound
5.3.1 Characteristics of the compound in the form of granules

In the form of granules, the compound which is used for the manufacture of pipes and fittings shall have

characteristics conforming to the requirements given in Table 1.

Unless otherwise specified by the applicable test method, the test pieces shall be conditioned at

(23 ± 2) °C before testing in accordance with Table 1.
Table 1 — Characteristics of PE compound in the form of granules
Characteristic Requirements Test parameters Test method
Parameter Value
Compound density ≥930 kg/m Test temperature 23 °C
ISO 1183-1 or
Number of test pieces Shall conform
ISO 1183-2
to ISO 1183-1 or
ISO 1183-2
Carbon black (2,0 to 2,5) % (by mass) Shall conform to ISO 6964 ISO 6964
content
Carbon black Grade ≤ 3 Preparation of test Free ISO 18553
c d
dispersion pieces
Rating of dispersion A1,
Number of test pieces Shall conform to
A2, A3, or B
ISO 18553
Pigment dispersion Grade ≤ 3 Preparation of test Free ISO 18553
pieces
Rating of dispersion A1,
A2, A3, or B
Number of test pieces Shall conform to
ISO 18553
Volatile content ≤350 mg/kg Number of test pieces 1 EN 12099
f b
Water content ≤300 mg/kg Number of test pieces 1 ISO 15512
(Equivalent to
<0,03 % by mass)
Oxidation ≥20 min Test temperature 210 °C ISO 11357-6
induction time
Number of test pieces 3
(Thermal stability)
Test atmosphere Oxygen
Melt mass-flow rate 0,20 ≤ MFR ≤ 1,40 g/10 min Loading mass 2,16 kg ISO 1133-1
(MFR) for PE 40
Test temperature 190 °C
Maximum deviation
of ±20 % of the
Time 10 min
nominated value
Number of test pieces Shall conform to
ISO 1133-1
Melt mass-flow rate 0,20 ≤ MFR ≤ 1,40 Loading mass 5 kg ISO 1133-1
h,i
(MFR) for PE80 and g/10 min
Test temperature 190 °C
PE 100
Maximum deviation
Time 10 min
of ±20 % of the
Number of test pieces Shall conform to
nominated value
ISO 1133-1
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 9
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ISO 4427-1:2019(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Characteristic Requirements Test parameters Test method
Parameter Value
Conformity to these requirements shall be proved by the compound producer.

The number of test pieces given indicates the number required to establish a value for the characteristic

described in Table 1. The number of test pieces required for factory production control and process control

should be listed in the manufacturer’s quality plan. Guidance on assessment of conformity can be found in

[2]
CEN/TS 12201-7 .
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