Graphic technology — Test method for the determination of the binding strength for perfect-bound products — Page-pull test working upwards

ISO 19594:2017 specifies a test method for the determination of the binding strength of perfect-bound products by pulling out single sheets from the book block in an upward direction.

Technologie graphique — Méthodes d'essai pour la détermination de la force de fixation des produits à reliure collée — Essai de traction de page vers le haut

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9093 - International Standard confirmed
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ISO 19594:2017 - Graphic technology -- Test method for the determination of the binding strength for perfect-bound products -- Page-pull test working upwards
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First edition
Graphic technology — Test method
for the determination of the binding
strength for perfect-bound products
— Page-pull test working upwards
Technologie graphique — Méthodes d’essai pour la détermination de
la force de fixation des produits à reliure collée — Essai de traction de
page vers le haut
Reference number
ISO 19594:2017(E)
ISO 2017

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ISO 19594:2017(E)

© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland
All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form
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Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
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ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved

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ISO 19594:2017(E)

Contents Page
Foreword .iv
Introduction .v
1 Scope . 1
2 Normative references . 1
3 Terms and definitions . 1
4 Principle . 2
5 Apparatus . 2
5.1 Material testing system . . 2
5.2 Test fixture . 3
5.2.1 Equipment on the upper traverse . 3
5.2.2 Downholder . 4
6 Test preparation . 5
6.1 General . 5
6.2 Sampling . 6
6.3 Conditioning . 6
6.4 Insertion of the specimen . 6
6.5 Application of the preload . 7
6.6 Fixing the test sheet . 8
6.7 Execution of the pull procedure . 9
6.8 Calculation of the binding strength .10
6.9 Calculation of the coefficient of variation .10
7 Precision .11
8 Report .11
Annex A (informative) Quality levels for the binding strength based on page-pull tests .12
Annex B (informative) Quality levels for the consistency of the binding quality .13
Bibliography .14
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved iii

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ISO 19594:2017(E)

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards
bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out
through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical
committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International
organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.
ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of
electrotechnical standardization.
The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are
described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the
different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the
editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of
patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of
any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or
on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).
Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not
constitute an endorsement.
For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity assessment,
as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the
Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: www . i so .org/ iso/ foreword .html.
The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 130, Graphic technology.
iv © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved

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ISO 19594:2017(E)

Perfect binding is the most frequently used block-binding technique for brochures and books. The page-
pull test, the only established method for the quality assessment of perfect bindings available today,
plays an important role in the process control and quality verification.
The page-pull test has historically been performed using different procedures and devices. Test
results showed significant variations between devices. This document aims to harmonize the testing
procedure, the testing equipment and the evaluation of the test results.
Within a research project, the following essential test parameters were identified as influencing the
test results of page-pull tests :
— test position (front, middle or rear part of the book block);
— specimen alignment in relation to the pull force direction;
— specimen opening and fixing during the page-pull test.
There are many products showing homogeneous test results independent of the test position. However,
there are also products showing differences within the book block, even including sheet-to-sheet
deviations. Therefore, it is recommended that there should be agreement on page-specific test positions
and that these should be communicated with the particular results.
Book blocks show large differences in their opening behaviour. Products with a significant clamp
usually show no differences of the test sheet alignment in different test positions. Products with a good
lay-flat behaviour usually show significant bending of the test sheet in the area of the spine if tested in a
non-centered test position. To avoid known measurement errors, a straight alignment of the test sheet
is essential. A technical means to ensure this is the possibility to tilt the opened book block depending
on the particular test position.
Non-specified loads on specimens need to be avoided to ensure the absence of preliminary stress on
the binding. Therefore, the opening process of the specimen needs to be controlled. The opening angle
of the specimen may be standardized by the shape of a book block opening device. The intensity of the
opening is determined by the force applied during the opening process and the shape of the device.
These settings influence the degree of freedom of movement of the specimen during the page-pull test
procedure and thus the warping of the spine. A too low degree of freedom leads to an unrealistically
frequent occurrence of paper ruptures, while the opposite may lead to a lifting of the whole book block.
The provisions for the opening and fixing of the specimen are realized within this document by the
definition of the shape and the force of a downholder. These settings have a significant influence on the
test results.
The page-pull speed within a reasonable range, shows no significant influence on the test results.
Therefore, in harmonization with ISO 1924-2, the page-pull speed was chosen to be 20 mm/min. This
condition results in a non-linear force development during the test.
The test results need to be evaluated in a consistent manner. An evaluation schema that has been
proven by long industry practice is given in Annex A.
Devices performing the page-pull test by pulling downwards create different measurement values from
those pulling upwards. This results from the different block positioning due to gravity and the mass of
the book block.
The pull test described in this document was developed to ensure a high level of reproducibility and
comparability between laboratories. For internal quality assurance during production, devices with a
lesser degree of comparability may be used.
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Graphic technology — Test method for the determination
of the binding strength for perfect-bound products —
Page-pull test working upwards
1 Scope
This document specifies a test method for the determination of the binding strength of perfect-bound
products by pulling out single sheets from the book block in an upward direction.
2 Normative references
The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content
constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For
undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO 186, Paper and board — Sampling to determine average quality
ISO 187, Paper, board and pulps — Standard atmosphere for conditioning and testing and procedure for
monitoring the atmosphere and conditioning of samples
ISO 2859-1, Sampling procedures for inspection by attributes — Part 1: Sampling schemes indexed by
acceptance quality limit (AQL) for lot-by-lot inspection
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http:// www .iso .org/ obp
binding strength
quality measure of the binding quality of a perfect-bound product
Note 1 to entry: Ratio between the pull-out force of a single sheet and the spine length.
book block
part of a case-bound book or brochure, consisting of a trimmed or untrimmed bound block of sheets,
prior to the application of the book case or cover
glue penetration
uncontrolled and inhomogeneous penetration (several millimetres) of glue between the sheets of a
book block (3.2)
special sheet
sheet of the book block with potentially different properties from those of the majority of the sheets of
that book block (3.2)
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ISO 19594:2017(E)

single test object, consisting either of a perfect-bound book (soft cover), a case-bound book (hard cover)
or a perfect-bound book block (3.2) (intermediate product)
spine length
length of the spine of a book block (3.2), equal to the height of the book block
test fixture
apparatus to fix the specimen (3.5) on the test device during testing
test position
position of the test sheet (3.9) given as a percentage of the total number of pages
test sheet
sheet of the book block (3.2) chosen to be tested according to this document
4 Principle
The binding strength is evaluated by pulling out a single sheet from the book block using a material
testing system and a specified test fixture. The test is performed in such a way that the test sheet is
clamped on the complete fore edge while the opened book block is fixed at the specimen holder with a
specified preload. The test sheet is pulled out upwards by a force acting perpendicular to the binding
edge. The maximum force resulting from the pull-out procedure is measured. The binding strength of
the specimen is calculated by dividing the maximum force by the spine length of the book block.
5 Apparatus
5.1 Material testing system
The material testing system shall be constructed as a twin-column device that shall be able to
perform tensile testing and to apply a preload. It contains an upper moveable traverse, where the force
transducer is located. The horizontal working space of the material testing system is determined by the
maximum spine length of the products tested. A scheme of the material testing system, including the
test fixture (see 5.2), is shown in Figure 1.
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ISO 1959

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