Traceability of finfish products — Specification on the information to be recorded in farmed finfish distribution chains

ISO 12877:2011 specifies the information to be recorded in farmed finfish supply chains in order to establish the traceability of products originating from farmed finfish. It specifies how traded fishery products are to be identified, and the information to be generated and held on those products by each of the food businesses that physically trade them through the distribution chains. It is specific to the distribution for human consumption of farmed finfish and their products, from finfish meal, breeding and finfish farming through to retailers or caterers.

Traçabilité des produits de la pêche — Spécifications relatives aux informations à enregistrer dans les chaînes de distribution des poissons d'élevage

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
07-Aug-2011
Current Stage
9093 - International Standard confirmed
Start Date
23-Dec-2016
Completion Date
04-Mar-2020
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ISO 12877:2011 - Traceability of finfish products -- Specification on the information to be recorded in farmed finfish distribution chains
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 12877
First edition
2011-08-15
Traceability of finfish products —
Specification on the information to be
recorded in farmed finfish distribution
chains
Traçabilité des produits de la pêche — Spécifications relatives aux
informations à enregistrer dans les chaînes de distribution des poissons
d'élevage
Reference number
ISO 12877:2011(E)
ISO 2011
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 12877:2011(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2011

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2011 – All rights reserved
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ISO 12877:2011(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction.........................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................1

2 Normative references............................................................................................................................1

3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................1

4 Abbreviations.........................................................................................................................................2

5 Principle..................................................................................................................................................3

6 Requirements.........................................................................................................................................4

6.1 Identification of the units traded..........................................................................................................4

6.2 Recording of information......................................................................................................................4

6.3 Fish feed production .............................................................................................................................6

6.4 Breeders ...............................................................................................................................................10

6.5 Hatcheries ............................................................................................................................................12

6.6 Fish farms.............................................................................................................................................16

6.7 Live fish transporters..........................................................................................................................20

6.8 Processors ...........................................................................................................................................23

6.9 Transporters and storers....................................................................................................................28

6.10 Traders and wholesalers ....................................................................................................................31

6.11 Retailers and caterers.........................................................................................................................34

6.12 Bringing in supplies from outside the domain.................................................................................36

Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................40

© ISO 2011 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 12877:2011(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 12877 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 234, Fisheries and aquaculture.

iv © ISO 2011 – All rights reserved
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ISO 12877:2011(E)
Introduction

There are increasing demands for detailed information on the nature and origin of food products. Traceability

is becoming a legal and commercial necessity.

The ISO definition of traceability concerns the ability to trace the history, application and location of that which

is under consideration, and for products this can include the origin of materials and parts, the processing

history and the distribution and location of the product after delivery. Traceability includes not only the

principal requirement to be able to physically trace products through the distribution chain, from origin to

destination and vice versa, but also to be able to provide information on what they are made of and what has

happened to them. These further aspects of traceability are important in relation to food safety, quality and

labelling.

The scheme specified in this International Standard does not demand perfect traceability, i.e. that a particular

retail product should be traceable back to a single farm and batch of origin, or vice versa from origin to

destination. Pragmatically, it is recognized that mixing of units is likely to occur at a number of stages in the

distribution chains, e.g. in grading at auction markets prior to sale and in the processing of raw materials into

products. Where such mixing occurs, the food business is transforming the trade units. The requirement for

traceability is that the business records the IDs of the received trade units that may be input to each created

trade unit, and vice versa. The particular product is then traceable back to a finite number of farms and

batches of origin, and vice versa.

Given the enormous variety of fish products and of their distribution chains that operate within and between

different countries, and varying legal requirements, the information specifications cannot itemize all the

information that may possibly be required in every situation. This International Standard provides a generic

basis for traceability. Flexibility is allowed for businesses to record further information, in their own

non-standardized files, but keyed to the same unit IDs.

The information remains in the ownership of the food business that generated it, but is available when

required by law for the purposes of traceability (in the event of a food safety problem) or by commercial

agreement between businesses. The structure, names and content of the information is standardized so that it

can be readily communicated from business to business through the distribution chains, ensuring common

understanding of terms and meanings.

Commercial arrangements for businesses to communicate information through the distribution chains are to

be encouraged, particularly for the information desired by the trade to be visible at the various transaction

points in the chains, but that is not the subject of this International Standard.

This International Standard is designed with electronic representation and communication of data in mind, but

this is not a requirement when using this International Standard. The specifications can be met by paper

systems, although the obvious benefits of business efficiency, including rapid communication, will be lost.

© ISO 2011 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 12877:2011(E)
Traceability of finfish products — Specification on the
information to be recorded in farmed finfish distribution chains
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies the information to be recorded in farmed finfish supply chains in order to

establish the traceability of products originating from farmed finfish. It specifies how traded fishery products

are to be identified, and the information to be generated and held on those products by each of the food

businesses that physically trade them through the distribution chains. It is specific to the distribution for human

consumption of farmed finfish and their products, from finfish meal, breeding and finfish farming through to

retailers or caterers.

NOTE Together with ISO 12875 for captured finfish, this International Standard provides a basis for implementing

chain traceability of finfish.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 8601, Data elements and interchange formats — Information interchange — Representation of dates and

times

ISO 3166-1, Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions — Part 1: Country

codes
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
traceability

ability to trace the history, application or location of that which is under consideration

NOTE 1 When considering a product, traceability can relate to
⎯ the origin of materials and parts,
⎯ the processing history, and
⎯ the distribution and location of the product after delivery.
NOTE 2 Adapted from ISO 9000:2005, definition 3.5.4.
© ISO 2011 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 12877:2011(E)
3.2
Unique Logistic Unit Identifier
ULUI

any composition established for transport and/or storage that needs to be identified and managed through the

supply chain
3.3
Unique Trade Unit Identifier
UTUI

smallest unit which is guaranteed to retain its integrity as it moves from one link of the chain to the next

NOTE UTUI is the smallest unit that is kept whole and undivided with no change in content or label/identification.

4 Abbreviations
In this document, the following abbreviations apply.
EFSIS European Food Safety Inspection Service
ACC Aquaculture Certification Council

EPC Electronic Product Code, a unique number provided by GS1 used to identify instances of trade

items (individual trade units) particularly suited for representation in an RFID chip

FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

FBO Food Business Operator, generic term for someone in the supply chain who processes, sends or

receives relevant trade units or logistic units

GLN Global Location Number, a 13 digit globally unique number provided by GS1 used to identify

parties and physical locations
GMO Genetically Modified Organism
GMP Good Manufacturing Practice

GS1 Global non-profit organization dedicated to the design and implementation of global standards and

solutions to improve the efficiency and visibility of supply and demand chains globally and across

sectors. Previously EAN/UCC

GTIN Global Trade Item Number, a 8-14 digit globally unique number provided by GS1 used to identify

types of trade items (product types)
HACCP Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points
HS Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System
ID Identifier
LU Logistic Unit

RFID Radio-Frequency Identification, the use of an object (typically referred to as an RFID tag) applied

to or incorporated into a product for the purpose of identification and tracking using radio waves

RFMO Regional Fisheries Management Organization

SGTIN Serialized Global Trade Item Number, a unique number provided by GS1 used to identify

instances of trade items (individual trade units) by extending the GTIN
2 © ISO 2011 – All rights reserved
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ISO 12877:2011(E)

SSCC Serial Shipping Container Code, an 18 digit globally unique number provided by GS1 used to

identify logistics units
TU Trade Unit
5 Principle

The fundamental principle of chain traceability is that Trade Units (TU) shall be identified by unique codes (UI).

This code may be globally unique in itself (for instance the GS1 SGTIN or EPC numbers) or it could be unique

in that particular scope only, which means that there should be no other TUs in that part of the chain that may

have the same number. If the scope (the company, the chain, the sector, the country, the product type, or

similar) is assigned a globally unique number, the combination of the globally unique scope number and the

locally unique TU number shall constitute a globally unique identifier for the TU.

NOTE 1 The UTUI term is introduced to indicate a TU identifier which is, or can be made, globally unique.

TUs may be grouped together to make Logistic Units (LUs) or LUs may be grouped together to make higher

level LUs. A fundamental principle of chain traceability is that logistic units shall be identified by a unique code.

This code may be globally unique in itself (for instance the GS1 SSCC code) or it could be unique in that

particular scope only, which means that there should be no other LUs in that part of the chain that may have

the same number. If the scope (the company, the chain, the sector, the country, the product type, or similar) is

assigned a globally unique number, the combination of the globally unique scope number and the locally

unique LU number shall constitute a globally unique identifier for the LU.

NOTE 2 The ULUI term is introduced to indicate a LU identifier which is, or can be made, globally unique.

The key to the operation of this traceability scheme is the labelling of each unit of goods traded, whether of

raw materials or finished products, with a unique ID. This shall be done by the food business that creates each

unit. Businesses that transform units, such as processors who convert the units of raw materials received into

the products dispatched, shall create new units and shall give them new IDs.

As indicated above, the simplest way of implementing UTUIs and ULUIs is to use the GS1 SGTIN/EPC and

SSCC codes. This practice is recommended, but is not mandatory. The central principle behind this

International Standard is that businesses which create TUs or LUs should assign unique numbers to them.

Each of the food businesses that create or physically trade in those units, throughout the distribution chains

from catcher through to retailer or caterer, shall generate and hold the information necessary for traceability.

The information is to be held on paper or electronically, keyed to the unit IDs.

The types of businesses identified in this International Standard for farmed finfish distribution chains are as

follows:
⎯ fish feed production, see 6.3;
⎯ breeders, see 6.4;
⎯ hatcheries, see 6.5;
⎯ fish farms, see 6.6;
⎯ live fish transporters, see 6.7;
⎯ processors, see 6.8;
⎯ transporters and storers, see 6.9;
⎯ traders and wholesalers, see 6.10;
© ISO 2011 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 12877:2011(E)
⎯ retailers and caterers, see 6.11.

Any given farmed finfish distribution chain may be made up of some or all of these components but not

necessarily in the sequence listed.
6 Requirements
6.1 Identification of the units traded

Businesses that bring in supplies of fishery products from outside of the domain of the specifications and trade

them onwards shall identify each unit traded and record associated information elements as indicated in

Table 3 to Table 12.
6.2 Recording of information

To distinguish between the different categories of information, all information elements are classified as either

“shall”, “should” or “may”; for definitions, see Table 1.
Table 1 — Classification of informative elements
Definition Explanation

“shall” This category contains recordings related to “Shall” elements are data elements that it is deemed

identifiers and transformations that are necessary in necessary to record to ensure that traceability is

order to trace the history, application or location of an possible. Data elements relating to product

entity. This means the unique identity of trade and properties are not in this category, even if these

logistic units, as well as the dependencies between properties are essential for other purposes like

the identifiers of inputs and outputs in a process. product documentation or food safety.

“should” This category contains parameters that describe and This includes parameters like “species”, “ID of food

provide supporting information on the units being business”, “production date”, etc. If certification

traced. Common parameters required by law, according to this International Standard is to happen

commercial requirements or good manufacturing in the future, the “should” parameters are to be

practises are recorded, but only where an considered.
established international format or data list for the
value exists.

“may” This category contains parameters that describe and The “may” category is informative only, and it is

provide supporting information on the units being included to enable use and uptake of this

traced. It contains parameters that are not part of the International Standard. If certification according to

“should” category, but that may still be useful or this International Standard is to happen in the future,

relevant to record. It also contains parameters that the recording of “may” parameters are not to be

may be deemed important, but where no established considered when evaluating adherence. The list of

international format or data list exists. “may” elements is not definitive or exclusive, it is by

design extendible, and the threshold for including
new elements in this category is low.

Businesses that physically trade in fishery products shall generate and hold the required information,

appropriate to the type of business, for each of the units traded.
The detailed information requirements are tabulated in Table 2.
4 © ISO 2011 – All rights reserved
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ISO 12877:2011(E)
Table 2 — Information requirements to be recorded by the different businesses
Data
Create/
Food Business Operator (FBO) type Table Receive Transform Dispatch
Produce
prefix
Fish feed producers 3 FFE TU/LU Yes TU/LU TU/LU
Breeders 4 FBR TU/LU TU/LU
Hatcheries 5 FHA TU/LU Yes TU/LU TU/LU
Fish farms 6 FFF TU/LU Yes TU/LU TU/LU
Live fish transporters 7 FTR TU/LU No LU TU/LU
Processors 8 FPR TU/LU Yes TU/LU TU/LU
Transporters and storers 9 FTS TU/LU No LU TU/LU
Traders and wholesalers 10 FTW TU/LU No TU/LU TU/LU
Retailers and caterers 11 FRC TU/LU
Bringing in materials from outside the 12 FOT TU/LU
domain

For the purposes of unique identification to establish an extendable framework for data element identification, each table has been

identified with a three letter alphanumeric code. This code plus three digits is used to give a unique number to each data element.

The information specifications separately tabulate the information to be recorded by each of these types of

business. Some businesses may carry out the functions of more than one of the types listed, for example

distribution businesses may act as wholesalers and as transporters, in which case those businesses shall

record the relevant information requirements for each of the functions carried out.

NOTE 1 This International Standard is limited in scope to the distribution for human consumption of farmed finfish and

their products. The captured and farmed finfish information specifications are substantially the same from processing

onward.

Pragmatically, it is recognized that some supplies of fish products and supplies of ingredients, etc., will come

from outside of the domain and may lack the required IDs and information records. To accommodate this, a

business that brings in fish and materials from outside of the domain is required to generate and hold the key

information necessary for the traceability of the units brought in, and if they are to be traded on, to label those

units with the required IDs.

NOTE 2 These specifications are designed with electronic representation and communication of data in mind, but this

is not a requirement when using this International Standard. The specifications can be met by paper systems, although the

obvious benefits of business efficiency, including rapid communication, will be lost.

Note that the specification is for data to be generated, recorded and stored at the respective link. For all links

except “Breeders”, relevant data shall be generated in a previous link in the supply chain and passed along

with the trade unit/logistic unit.

NOTE 3 In these tabulations, there is no repetition of the information originally recorded to describe the units created

and their history, although businesses receiving those units later in the distribution chain will often need some of that

information. The information is keyed to the unit IDs and can be supplied by commercial agreement between the

businesses without having to re-input the data.

Codes (country prefix) for the names of countries, dependent territories and special areas of geographical

interest shall be given in accordance with ISO 3166-1.
Date and time should be given in the formats specified in ISO 8601.
© ISO 2011 – All rights reserved 5
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May
Should
Shall
ISO 12877:2011(E)
6.3 Fish feed production

For the purposes of this International Standard, fish feed producers are considered to be businesses that

produce fish feed based on an indefinite range of ingredients. They may be considered as an equivalent to the

processors but will be presented as a separate link in this International Standard. Fish feed producers create

new trade units that can range from one feed bag to bulk units of several hundreds of tons passed into the

hands of the next food business.
Table 3 — Detailed information for fish feed production
Categorization
Data element Description Examples
FISH FEED
Country prefix plus unique national
NO - 123467890
identification number for the
Uni Fishfeed
FFE101 Food business ID organization, as well as the name x
1234 Narvik
and address of the food business
Norway
that operates the feed company
Country prefix plus unique national
NO - 123467890
identification number for the
Feed producer Uni Fishfeed dep. 02 1234 Narvik
FFE102 organization, as well as the name x
establishment ID Norway
and address or GLN of the feed
NO02F1234B
plant establishment
Feed producer GMP
FFE103 Names of certification schemes SGS x
certification
Further information elements that
FFE150- (unassigned) describe the organization, linked to x
feed producer establishment ID
FOR EACH UNIT RECEIVED
Identities
ULUI (if received as a logistic unit)
(00) 100653005555555558
FFE201 Unit ID or UTUI (if received as a separate x
978817525.0766.000010272
trade unit)
978817525.0766.000010123
If received as a logistic unit, the IDs

FFE202 Trade unit IDs of the trade units within the logistic 978817525.0766.000010131 x

unit
978817525.0766.000010272
Source
Country prefix plus unique national
identification number for the NO - 123467890
Previous Food Fishmeal A/S, Florø
organization, as well as the name
FFE203 x
Business ID
and address or GLN of food NO SF 123
business that operates fish meal/oil Norway
etc., producer establishment
Date and time of
FFE204 ISO 8601 format 2010-06-20T14:15 x
reception
6 © ISO 2011 – All rights reserved
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May
Should
Shall
ISO 12877:2011(E)
Table 3 (continued)
Categorization
Data element Description Examples
Control checks (either on logistic or separate trade units)
Type of checks and measured
results (organoleptic, physical,
Quality control chemical and microbiological, etc.)
FFE205 Yes, electronic form x
checks or indication if records are available
in electronic form, on paper or are
not available
Production history
Temperature/time log of the Series of temperature (°C)/date

FFE206 Temperature record product holding area for the period and time points in ISO 8601 x

between reception and processing format
Transformation information
978817525.0766.000010123
List of IDs of created trade units
Related created trade
FFE207 that may incorporate part of this 978817525.0766.000010131 x
unit IDs
received trade unit
978817525.0766.000010272
UTUI-1 33 %, 7 250 kg
Fraction (%, kilos) of the received
FFE208 Fractions trade unit that goes into each UTUI-2 33 %, 7 250 kg x
created unit
UTUI-3 33 %, 7 250 kg
Additional data
Further information elements that
FFE250- (unassigned) describe the received trade/logistic x
unit, linked to UTUI/ULUI
FOR EACH NEW TRADE UNIT CREATED
Identity
FFE301 Unit ID UTUI 978817525.0766.000010123 x
Description
Net weight of created trade unit
FFE302 Net weight 10 kg x
(kg)
FFE303 Type of unit Bags, bulk, etc. Bulk x
FFE304 Name/type of product Smolt feed (commercial name) Dynamic blue x
Time of packing/labelling at end of
FFE305 Production date 2010-06-15 x
line, ISO 8601 format
FFE306 Product form Meal, pellets, pellets size, etc. Pellets, 2,5 – 7,0 mm x
List of ingredient names and % by Fat 37 %
FFE307 Composition x
weight Protein 55 %
Any use of GMO or products from
FFE308 GMO GMO in product or raw material; No x
Yes or No
© ISO 2011 – All rights reserved 7
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May
Should
Shall
ISO 12877:2011(E)
Table 3 (continued)
Categorization
Data element Description Examples
Best before or sell by date, as
FFE309 Date of durability Best before 2010-06-30 x
appropriate, ISO 8601 format
Records of further details of
product specification are available
FFE310 Product specification Paper x
in electronic form, on paper or are
not available
SCI - followed by scientific name,
FAO - followed by FAO 3alpha
SCI - Mallotus villosus
code, or
Marine species that
FFE311 FAO - CAP x
went into fish meal
TSN - followed by Taxonomic
TSN - 162035
Serial Number
(may be repeated if several
species)
FAO area/RFMO area for captured
marine fish, or country of origin for
captured fish from inland waters
FFE312 Area/country of origin Spain x
and for farmed fish, or more
specific location (may be several
areas)
Production history
Records of process specification
FFE313 Process specification are available in electronic form, on Paper x
paper or are not available
The business's own IDs of the
FFE314 Production lines IDs A3, B4 x
particular production lines used
Records of HACCP analysis and
critical control point checks are
FFE315 HACCP Paper x
available in electronic form, on
paper or are not available
Type of checks and measured
results (swab tests, etc.) or
FFE316 Hygiene checks indication if records are available in Paper x
electronic form, on paper or are not
available
Temperature/time record or
indication if records are available in
FFE317 Temperature records Electronic x
electronic form, on paper or are not
available
Type of checks and measured
results (organoleptic, physical,
Product quality chemical and microbiological, etc.)
FFE318 Total bacterial count, 106/g x
control checks or indication if records are available
in electronic form, on paper or are
are not available
8 © ISO 2011 – All rights reserved
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May
Should
Shall
ISO 12877:2011(E)
Table 3 (continued)
Categorization
Data element Description Examples
Transformation information
978817525.0766.000010123
Related received List of IDs of received trade units
FFE319 978817525.0766.000010131 x
trade unit IDs that make up this created trade unit
978817525.0766.000010272
UTUI-1 Fraction (25 % 50 kg)
Fraction (%, kilos) of the created
UTUI-2 Fraction (25 % 50 kg)
FFE320 Fractions unit that was made up by each x
UTUI-3 Fraction (25 % 50 kg)
received trade unit
UTUI-4 Fraction (25 % 50 kg)
Additional data
Further information elements
...

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