Software engineering — Software life cycle processes — Maintenance

This document provides guidance for the maintenance of software, based on the maintenance process and its activities and tasks defined in ISO/IEC/IEEE 12207:2017, 6.4.13. Moreover, this document describes the maintenance process in greater detail and establishes definitions for the various types of maintenance. This includes maintenance for multiple software products with the same maintenance resources. “Maintenance” in this document means software maintenance unless otherwise stated. The document does not address the operation of software and the operational functions, e.g. backup, recovery, system administration, which are normally performed by those who operate the software. However, it does include the related disposal process defined in ISO/IEC/IEEE 12207:2017, 6.4.14. This document is written primarily for managers, maintenance organizations, quality managers, users and acquirers of systems containing software. Many of the activities and tasks discussed in this document apply equally to maintenance services, as well as to maintained software products. For example, in a COTS intensive system, maintenance services are performed to sustain the product in operations. While the scope of this document is software maintenance, hardware and hardware costs are important considerations for maintenance.

Ingénierie du logiciel — Processus du cycle de vie du logiciel — Maintenance

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
20-Jan-2022
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
03-Nov-2021
Completion Date
02-Nov-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/
STANDARD IEC/IEEE
14764
Third edition
2022-01
Software engineering — Software life
cycle processes — Maintenance
Ingénierie du logiciel — Processus du cycle de vie du logiciel —
Maintenance
Reference number
ISO/IEC/IEEE 14764:2022(E)
© ISO/IEC 2022
© IEEE 2022
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC/IEEE 14764:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2022
© IEEE 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO or IEEE at the

respective address below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8 3 Park Avenue, New York
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva NY 10016-5997, USA
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org Email: stds.ipr@ieee.org
Website: www.iso.org Website: www.ieee.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
© IEEE 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC/IEEE 14764:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

1.1 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

1.2 Purpose ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

1.3 Field of application .............................................................................................................................................................................. 1

1.4 Limitations ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................. 2

3.1 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................. 5

4 Conformance ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

5 Application of this document ........................................................................................................................................... .......................5

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2 Maintenance process ........................................................................................................................................................................ 6

5.3 Organization of this document ................................................................................................................................................. 6

6 Maintenance process ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.1 Maintenance activities and tasks........................................................................................................................................... 7

6.1.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

6.1.2 Maintenance strategy .................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.1.3 Maintenance planning ................................................................................................................................................ 10

6.1.4 Maintenance plans and procedures ............................................................................................................... 10

6.1.5 Maintenance requirements review ................................................................................................................. 11

6.1.6 Maintenance changes impact analysis .........................................................................................................12

6.1.7 Maintenance measurements ................................................................................................................................. 13

6.1.8 Replacement elements monitoring of quality and availability ..............................................13

6.1.9 Maintenance and logistics results management ................................................................................. 14

6.2 Problem and modification analysis................................................................................................................................... 14

6.2.1 Problem and modification analysis task .................................................................................................... 14

6.2.2 MR/PR feasibility review ......................................................................................................................................... 15

6.2.3 MR/PR replication or verification ................................................................................................................... 15

6.2.4 MR/PR implementation............................................................................................................................................. 16

6.2.5 MR/PR reviewing and recording ...................................................................................................................... 16

6.2.6 MR/PR approval............................................................................................................................................................... 16

6.2.7 MR/PR additional analysis recording .......................................................................................................... 17

6.2.8 MR/PR implementation using technical processes .......................................................................... 17

6.2.9 MR/PR review of modified system ................................................................................................................. 17

6.2.10 MR/PR approval and implementation ......................................................................................................... 18

7 Software disposal ............................................................................................................................................................................................18

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 18

7.2 Disposal strategy ............................................................................................................................................................................... 19

7.2.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 19

7.2.2 Disposal strategy items ............................................................................................................................................. 19

7.2.3 Disposal tasks .................................................................................................................................................................... 19

7.2.4 Disposal notification .................................................................................................................................................... 19

7.2.5 Disposal notification tasks ..................................................................................................................................... 19

7.2.6 Post-disposal tasks ........................................................................................................................................................ 20

7.2.7 Archiving records ........................................................................................................................................................... 20

8 Implementation considerations .......................................................................................................................................................20

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 20

8.2 Types of maintenance .................................................................................................................................................................... 21

iii
© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
© IEEE 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/IEC/IEEE 14764:2022(E)

8.3 Agreements for maintenance ................................................................................................................................................. 21

8.4 Tools for maintenance ................................................................................................................................................................... 22

8.5 Software maintenance measurement ............................................................................................................................. 22

8.6 Definition of process ...................................................................................................................................................................... 23

8.7 Early involvement in development .................................................................................................................................... 23

8.7.1 General .....................................................................................................................................................................................23

8.7.2 Maintenance organization functions ............................................................................................................ 23

8.7.3 Maintenance organization involvement ..................................................................................................... 23

8.8 Applying life cycle processes to strengthen maintainability ......... ............................................................ 23

8.8.1 General .....................................................................................................................................................................................23

8.8.2 Maintainability and the technical processes ......................................................................................... 24

8.8.3 Maintainability and specific activities in the technical processes ..................................... 24

8.9 Records and information items ............................................................................................................................................29

9 Software maintenance plan ..................................................................................................................................................................30

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................30

9.1.1 Overview ................................................................................................................................................................................30

9.1.2 Identification and control of the plan ...........................................................................................................30

9.1.3 Scope of maintenance .................................................................................................................................................30

9.1.4 Designation of maintenance organization ............................................................................................... 31

9.1.5 References ............................................................................................................................................................................. 31

9.1.6 Definitions ............................................................................................................................................................................. 31

9.1.7 Processes ................................................................................................................................................................................ 31

9.1.8 Organization and maintenance activities ................................................................................................. 32

9.1.9 Resources ............................................................................................................................................................................... 33

9.1.10 Estimate of maintenance costs ........................................................................................................................... 33

9.1.11 Training ...................................................................................................................................................................................34

9.1.12 Software maintenance control requirements .......................................................................................34

9.1.13 Maintenance records and reports ...................................................................................................................34

9.2 Resource analysis .............................................................................................................................................................................34

9.2.1 General .....................................................................................................................................................................................34

9.2.2 Personnel resources ..................................................................................................................................................... 35

9.2.3 Environment resources ............................................................................................................................................. 35

9.2.4 Financial resources ....................................................................................................................................................... 35

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................36

IEEE Notices and Abstract..........................................................................................................................................................................................37

© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
© IEEE 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/IEC/IEEE 14764:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed

for the different types of ISO/IEC documents should be noted. This document was drafted in

accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives or

www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs).

IEEE Standards documents are developed within the IEEE Societies and the Standards Coordinating

Committees of the IEEE Standards Association (IEEE-SA) Standards Board. The IEEE develops its

standards through a consensus development process, approved by the American National Standards

Institute, which brings together volunteers representing varied viewpoints and interests to achieve the

final product. Volunteers are not necessarily members of the Institute and serve without compensation.

While the IEEE administers the process and establishes rules to promote fairness in the consensus

development process, the IEEE does not independently evaluate, test, or verify the accuracy of any of

the information contained in its standards.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document are in the Introduction

and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents) or the IEC list of patent

declarations received (see https://patents.iec.ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html. In the IEC, see www.iec.ch/understanding-standards.

ISO/IEC/IEEE 14764 was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 7, Systems and software engineering, in cooperation with the Systems and Software

Engineering Standards Committee of the IEEE Computer Society, under the Partner Standards

Development Organization cooperation agreement between ISO and IEEE.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO/IEC 14764:2006), which has been

technically revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— alignment of the standard with ISO/IEC/IEEE 12207:2017 and updates to other ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7

standards;
— introduction of modern approaches to “maintenance”.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards

body. A complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html and

www.iec.ch/national-committees.
© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
© IEEE 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/IEC/IEEE 14764:2022(E)
Introduction

This document provides guidance on the software maintenance process. Maintenance is a technical

process in the life cycle of a software product, as described in ISO/IEC/IEEE 12207. The maintenance

process contains the activities and tasks of the maintenance organization. This document is the result

of the harmonization of ISO/IEC 14764 and IEEE Std 1219, and the update for ISO/IEC/IEEE 12207:2017.

Because maintenance consumes a major share of a software life cycle financial resources, it should be

an important project consideration.

During operation of the software, problems may be detected that were not detected during verification,

validation and acceptance. Therefore, a maintenance effort is needed to cope with these problems.

This maintenance effort also covers software improvements needed to meet new or modified user

requirements. Software maintenance is commonly needed when upgrading system components, such as

operating systems and databases, as well as when changes are made to external software and systems’

interfaces. Software maintenance is typically a significant portion of life cycle costs, even when a part

of the system under maintenance includes COTS software.

Software maintenance organizations uses a number of specific tools, methods, and techniques. This

document does not specify how to implement or perform the activities and tasks in the software

maintenance process since these are dependent upon the formal agreement and organizational

requirements. Maintenance is required on all types of software, whatever the technology, technique, or

tool used to create it.
© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
© IEEE 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC/IEEE 14764:2022(E)
Software engineering — Software life cycle processes —
Maintenance
1 Scope
1.1 Overview

This document provides guidance for the maintenance of software, based on the maintenance process

and its activities and tasks defined in ISO/IEC/IEEE 12207:2017, 6.4.13. Moreover, this document

describes the maintenance process in greater detail and establishes definitions for the various types

of maintenance. This includes maintenance for multiple software products with the same maintenance

resources. “Maintenance” in this document means software maintenance unless otherwise stated.

The document does not address the operation of software and the operational functions, e.g. backup,

recovery, system administration, which are normally performed by those who operate the software.

However, it does include the related disposal process defined in ISO/IEC/IEEE 12207:2017, 6.4.14.

This document is written primarily for managers, maintenance organizations, quality managers, users

and acquirers of systems containing software.

Many of the activities and tasks discussed in this document apply equally to maintenance services,

as well as to maintained software products. For example, in a COTS intensive system, maintenance

services are performed to sustain the product in operations.

While the scope of this document is software maintenance, hardware and hardware costs are important

considerations for maintenance.
1.2 Purpose

This document provides guidance on the maintenance process. It identifies how the maintenance

process can be invoked during acquisition and operation. This document also emphasizes the following

in the maintenance process: the maintainability of software products; the need for maintenance service

models; and the need for a maintenance strategy.
1.3 Field of application

This document is intended to provide guidance for the planning for and maintenance of software

products or services, whether performed internally or externally to an organization. It is not intended

to apply to the operation of the software.

This document is intended to provide guidance for two-party situations and can be equally applied

where the two parties are from the same organization. This document is intended to also be used by a

single party as self-imposed tasks (ISO/IEC/IEEE 12207).

This document is not intended for software products that are “throw-away” or a “short-term” solution.

This document is intended for self-imposition by organizations that develop off-the-shelf software

products to maintain such products. Maintenance is applied to computer programs, code, data,

documents, and records. It is intended to apply to software products created during the development of

the software product. This can include, for example, the test software, test databases, the software test

environment (STE), or the software engineering environment (SEE).

This document is intended for use in all maintenance efforts, regardless of the life cycle model (e.g.

incremental, waterfall, evolutionary, spiral, agile, continuous iterative development). This document is

not restricted by size, complexity, criticality, reliability, or application of the software product.

© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
© IEEE 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/IEC/IEEE 14764:2022(E)
1.4 Limitations

This document describes the framework of the maintenance process but does not specify the details of

how to implement or perform the activities and tasks included in the process.

In this document, there are a number of lists. None of these is presumed to be exhaustive. They are

intended as examples.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC/IEEE 12207, Systems and Software engineering — Software life cycle processes

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions in ISO/IEC/IEEE 12207 and the following

apply.

ISO, IEC and IEEE maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
— IEEE Standards Dictionary Online: available at https:// dictionary .ieee .org
3.1.1
adaptive maintenance

modification of a software product, performed after delivery, to keep a software product usable in a

changed or changing environment

Note 1 to entry: Adaptive maintenance provides enhancements (3.1.7) necessary to accommodate changes

in the environment in which a software product operates. These changes help keep pace with the changing

environment, e.g. an upgrade to the operating system results in changes in the applications.

3.1.2
additive maintenance

modification of a software product performed after delivery to add functionality or features to enhance

the usage of the product

Note 1 to entry: Additive maintenance may be excluded from the definition of maintenance in the context of

dependability that addresses recovery of a system to previous operational, functional and performance level, e.g.

definition, monitor or measurement of availability, recoverability, or MTBF (mean time between failure).

Note 2 to entry: “Additive maintenance” type is distinguished from “perfective maintenance” (3.1.9) type and

recognized as a different maintenance type to be able to:

— provide additional new functions or features to improve software usability, performance, maintainability

(3.1.6), or other software attributes for the future;

— add functionality or features with relatively large additions or changes on software for improving software

attributes after delivery with identified opportunities to negotiate any of additions or changes on maintenance

strategy, methods, resources, agreements, or service levels between suppliers and acquirers.

Note 3 to entry: Additions or enhancements (3.1.7) can be handled through the maintenance process, while larger

changes can involve a new development effort.
© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
© IEEE 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/IEC/IEEE 14764:2022(E)
3.1.3
correction

change that addresses and implements problem resolutions to recover gaps and to make

software operational enough to meet defined operational requirements

Note 1 to entry: In this document, the term “correction” is mainly used as a maintenance type and to classify

modification requests (MR) (3.1.8).
3.1.4
corrective maintenance

modification of a software product performed after delivery to correct discovered problems

Note 1 to entry: The mod
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC/
DRAFT
STANDARD IEEE/FDIS
14764
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 7
Software engineering — Software life
Secretariat: BIS
cycle processes — Maintenance
Voting begins on:
2021­09­07
Voting terminates on:
2021­11­02
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO­
ISO/IEC/IEEE/FDIS 14764:2021(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN­
ISO/IEC 2021
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. IEEE 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC/IEEE/FDIS 14764:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2021
© IEEE 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO or IEEE at the

respective address below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8 3 Park Avenue, New York
CH­1214 Vernier, Geneva NY 10016­5997, USA
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org Email: stds.ipr@ieee.org
Website: www.iso.org Website: www.ieee.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
ii © IEEE 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC/IEEE/FDIS 14764:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

1.1 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

1.2 Purpose .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

1.3 Field of application .............................................................................................................................................................................. 1

1.4 Limitations .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ................................................................................................................................ 2

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4 Conformance ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5 Application of this document .................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2 Maintenance process ......................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.3 Organization of this document .................................................................................................................................................. 6

6 Maintenance process........................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

6.1 Maintenance activities and tasks ............................................................................................................................................ 7

6.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.1.2 Maintenance strategy .................................................................................................................................................. 9

6.1.3 Maintenance planning ..............................................................................................................................................10

6.1.4 Maintenance plans and procedures .............................................................................................................10

6.1.5 Maintenance requirements review ...............................................................................................................11

6.1.6 Maintenance changes impact analysis .......................................................................................................12

6.1.7 Maintenance measurements ..............................................................................................................................13

6.1.8 Replacement elements monitoring of quality and availability .............................................13

6.1.9 Maintenance and logistics results management ...............................................................................14

6.2 Problem and modification analysis ....................................................................................................................................14

6.2.1 Problem and modification analysis task...................................................................................................14

6.2.2 MR/PR feasibility review .......................................................................................................................................15

6.2.3 MR/PR replication or verification .................................................................................................................15

6.2.4 MR/PR implementation ..........................................................................................................................................16

6.2.5 MR/PR reviewing and recording ....................................................................................................................16

6.2.6 MR/PR approval ............................................................................................................................................................16

6.2.7 MR/PR additional analysis recording .........................................................................................................17

6.2.8 MR/PR implementation using technical processes ........................................................................17

6.2.9 MR/PR review of modified system ...............................................................................................................17

6.2.10 MR/PR approval and implementation .......................................................................................................18

7 Software disposal ..............................................................................................................................................................................................18

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................18

7.2 Disposal strategy ................................................................................................................................................................................19

7.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................19

7.2.2 Disposal strategy items ...........................................................................................................................................19

7.2.3 Disposal tasks ..................................................................................................................................................................19

7.2.4 Disposal notification ..................................................................................................................................................19

7.2.5 Disposal notification tasks ...................................................................................................................................19

7.2.6 Post­disposal tasks ......................................................................................................................................................20

7.2.7 Archiving records .........................................................................................................................................................20

8 Implementation considerations ........................................................................................................................................................20

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................20

8.2 Types of maintenance ....................................................................................................................................................................21

© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
© IEEE 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/IEC/IEEE/FDIS 14764:2021(E)

8.3 Agreements for maintenance ..................................................................................................................................................21

8.4 Tools for maintenance ...................................................................................................................................................................22

8.5 Software maintenance measurement ..............................................................................................................................22

8.6 Definition of process .......................................................................................................................................................................23

8.7 Early involvement in development .....................................................................................................................................23

8.7.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................23

8.7.2 Maintenance organization functions ...........................................................................................................23

8.7.3 Maintenance organization involvement ...................................................................................................23

8.8 Applying life cycle processes to strengthen maintainability ........................................................................23

8.8.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................23

8.8.2 Maintainability and the technical processes.........................................................................................24

8.8.3 Maintainability and specific activities in the technical processes......................................25

8.9 Records and information items .............................................................................................................................................29

9 Software maintenance plan....................................................................................................................................................................30

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................30

9.1.1 Overview ..............................................................................................................................................................................30

9.1.2 Identification and control of the plan .........................................................................................................30

9.1.3 Scope of maintenance ...............................................................................................................................................30

9.1.4 Designation of maintenance organization ..............................................................................................31

9.1.5 References ..........................................................................................................................................................................31

9.1.6 Definitions ..........................................................................................................................................................................31

9.1.7 Processes .............................................................................................................................................................................31

9.1.8 Organization and maintenance activities ................................................................................................32

9.1.9 Resources ............................................................................................................................................................................33

9.1.10 Estimate of maintenance costs .........................................................................................................................33

9.1.11 Training .................................................................................................................................................................................34

9.1.12 Software maintenance control requirements ......................................................................................34

9.1.13 Maintenance records and reports ..................................................................................................................34

9.2 Resource analysis ...............................................................................................................................................................................34

9.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................34

9.2.2 Personnel resources .................. ......................................................................................................................... ........35

9.2.3 Environment resources ...........................................................................................................................................35

9.2.4 Financial resources .....................................................................................................................................................35

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................36

IEEE Notices and Abstract ...........................................................................................................................................................................................37

© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
iv © IEEE 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/IEC/IEEE/FDIS 14764:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non­governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO/IEC documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with

the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives or www .iec .ch/ members

_experts/ refdocs).

IEEE Standards documents are developed within the IEEE Societies and the Standards Coordinating

Committees of the IEEE Standards Association (IEEE­SA) Standards Board. The IEEE develops its

standards through a consensus development process, approved by the American National Standards

Institute, which brings together volunteers representing varied viewpoints and interests to achieve the

final product. Volunteers are not necessarily members of the Institute and serve without compensation.

While the IEEE administers the process and establishes rules to promote fairness in the consensus

development process, the IEEE does not independently evaluate, test, or verify the accuracy of any of

the information contained in its standards.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document are in the Introduction

and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents) or the IEC list of patent

declarations received (see https:// patents .iec .ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html. In the IEC, see www .iec .ch/ understanding ­standards.

ISO/IEC/IEEE 14764 was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 7, Systems and software engineering, in cooperation with the Systems and Software

Engineering Standards Committee of the IEEE Computer Society, under the Partner Standards

Development Organization cooperation agreement between ISO and IEEE.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO/IEC 14764:2006), which has been

technically revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— alignment of the standard with ISO/IEC/IEEE 12207:2017 and updates to other ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7

standards;
— introduction of modern approaches to “maintenance”.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html and www .iec .ch/ national

­committees.
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ISO/IEC/IEEE/FDIS 14764:2021(E)
Introduction

This document provides guidance on the software maintenance process. Maintenance is a technical

process in the life cycle of a software product, as described in ISO/IEC/IEEE 12207. The maintenance

process contains the activities and tasks of the maintenance organization. This document is the result

of the harmonization of ISO/IEC 14764 and IEEE Std 1219, and the update for ISO/IEC/IEEE 12207:2017.

Because maintenance consumes a major share of a software life cycle financial resources, it should be

an important project consideration.

During operation of the software, problems may be detected that were not detected during verification,

validation and acceptance. Therefore, a maintenance effort is needed to cope with these problems.

This maintenance effort also covers software improvements needed to meet new or modified user

requirements. Software maintenance is commonly needed when upgrading system components, such as

operating systems and databases, as well as when changes are made to external software and systems’

interfaces. Software maintenance is typically a significant portion of life cycle costs, even when a part

of the system under maintenance includes COTS software.

Software maintenance organizations uses a number of specific tools, methods, and techniques. This

document does not specify how to implement or perform the activities and tasks in the software

maintenance process since these are dependent upon the formal agreement and organizational

requirements. Maintenance is required on all types of software, whatever the technology, technique, or

tool used to create it.
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FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC/IEEE/FDIS 14764:2021(E)
Software engineering — Software life cycle processes —
Maintenance
1 Scope
1.1 Overview

This document provides guidance for the maintenance of software, based on the maintenance process

and its activities and tasks defined in ISO/IEC/IEEE 12207:2017, 6.4.13. Moreover, this document

describes the maintenance process in greater detail and establishes definitions for the various types

of maintenance. This includes maintenance for multiple software products with the same maintenance

resources. “Maintenance” in this document means software maintenance unless otherwise stated.

The document does not address the operation of software and the operational functions, e.g. backup,

recovery, system administration, which are normally performed by those who operate the software.

However, it does include the related disposal process defined in ISO/IEC/IEEE 12207:2017, 6.4.14.

This document is written primarily for managers, maintenance organizations, quality managers, users

and acquirers of systems containing software.

Many of the activities and tasks discussed in this document apply equally to maintenance services,

as well as to maintained software products. For example, in a COTS intensive system, maintenance

services are performed to sustain the product in operations.

While the scope of this document is software maintenance, hardware and hardware costs are important

considerations for maintenance.
1.2 Purpose

This document provides guidance on the maintenance process. It identifies how the maintenance

process can be invoked during acquisition and operation. This document also emphasizes the following

in the maintenance process: the maintainability of software products; the need for maintenance service

models; and the need for a maintenance strategy.
1.3 Field of application

This document is intended to provide guidance for the planning for and maintenance of software

products or services, whether performed internally or externally to an organization. It is not intended

to apply to the operation of the software.

This document is intended to provide guidance for two-party situations and can be equally applied

where the two parties are from the same organization. This document is intended to also be used by a

single party as self-imposed tasks (ISO/IEC/IEEE 12207).

This document is not intended for software products that are “throw-away” or a “short-term” solution.

It is intended for self-imposition by organizations that develop off-the-shelf software products to

maintain such products. Maintenance is applied to computer programs, code, data, documents, and

records. It is intended to apply to software products created during the development of the software

product. This can include, for example, the test software, test databases, the software test environment

(STE), or the software engineering environment (SEE).

This document is intended for use in all maintenance efforts, regardless of the life cycle model (e.g.

incremental, waterfall, evolutionary, spiral, agile, continuous iterative development). This document is

not restricted by size, complexity, criticality, reliability, or application of the software product.

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ISO/IEC/IEEE/FDIS 14764:2021(E)
1.4 Limitations

This document describes the framework of the maintenance process but does not specify the details of

how to implement or perform the activities and tasks included in the process.

In this document, there are a number of lists. None of these is presumed to be exhaustive. They are

intended as examples.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC/IEEE 12207, Systems and Software engineering — Software life cycle processes

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions in ISO/IEC/IEEE 12207 and the following

apply.

ISO, IEC and IEEE maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
— IEEE Standards Dictionary Online: available at http:// dictionary .ieee .org
3.1.1
adaptive maintenance

modification of a software product, performed after delivery, to keep a software product usable in a

changed or changing environment

Note 1 to entry: Adaptive maintenance provides enhancements (3.1.7) necessary to accommodate changes

in the environment in which a software product operates. These changes help keep pace with the changing

environment, e.g. an upgrade to the operating system results in changes in the applications.

3.1.2
additive maintenance

modification of a software product performed after delivery to add functionality or features to enhance

the usage of the product

Note 1 to entry: Additive maintenance may be excluded from the definition of maintenance in the context of

dependability that addresses recovery of a system to previous operational, functional and performance level, e.g.

definition, monitor or measurement of availability, recoverability, or MTBF (mean time between failure).

Note 2 to entry: “Additive maintenance” type is distinguished from “perfective maintenance” (3.1.9) type and

recognized as a different maintenance type to be able to:

— provide additional new functions or features to improve software usability, performance, maintainability

(3.1.6), or other software attributes for the future;

— add functionality or features with relatively large additions or changes on software for improving software

attributes after delivery without identified opportunities to negotiate any of additions or changes on

maintenance strategy, methods, resources, agreements, or service levels between suppliers and acquirers.

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ISO/IEC/IEEE/FDIS 14764:2021(E)

Note 3 to entry: Additions or enhancements (3.1.7) can be handled through the maintenance process, while larger

changes can involve a new development effort.
3.1.3
correction
chan
...

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