Box pallets -- Principal requirements and test methods

ISO 13194:2011 specifies the definitions, principal requirements and test methods for box pallets of all materials. It applies to box pallets, including post pallets and cage pallets, but is not intended to apply to tank and silo pallets as defined in ISO 445. It also applies to box pallets which can be stacked and handled by forklift trucks or pallet trucks, but excludes other lifting devices. ISO 13194:2011 addresses the performance of the box pallet only, and not its contents.

Palettes boîtes -- Exigences principales et méthodes d'essais

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
16-Aug-2011
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
08-Aug-2011
Completion Date
17-Aug-2011
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 13194
First edition
2011-09-01
Box pallets — Principal requirements and
test methods
Palettes boîtes — Exigences principales et méthodes d'essais
Reference number
ISO 13194:2011(E)
ISO 2011
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ISO 13194:2011(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2011

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56  CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2011 – All rights reserved
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ISO 13194:2011(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................... v

1  Scope ...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2  Normative references ............................................................................................................................ 1

3  Terms and definitions ........................................................................................................................... 1

4  Symbols and abbreviated terms .......................................................................................................... 6

5  Requirements ......................................................................................................................................... 6

6  Test methods ......................................................................................................................................... 8

7  Marking ................................................................................................................................................. 20

8  Test report ............................................................................................................................................ 20

Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................................... 21

© ISO 2011 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 13194:2011(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 13194 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 51, Pallets for unit load method of materials

handling.
iv © ISO 2011 – All rights reserved
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ISO 13194:2011(E)
Introduction

This International Standard provides definitions and specifies principal requirements and test methods for box

pallets, excluding tank and silo pallets as defined in ISO 445. It is performance-based, i.e. no minimum values

are fixed. It reflects ISO 8611-1 in this respect. Box pallets are tested in accordance with the claimed

performances.

This International Standard evaluates performances in relation to the load capacity of a box pallet carrying a

uniformly distributed load used as test load and called the nominal load. However, it is recognized that the

maximum working load for a box pallet could vary with the type of load carried and that, for a specific type of

load, the maximum working load can be smaller or larger than the nominal load of a box pallet. Therefore, the

allowable maximum load for a given design of box pallet varies according to the characteristics of the type of

load carried.
© ISO 2011 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 13194:2011(E)
Box pallets — Principal requirements and test methods
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies the definitions, principal requirements and test methods for box pallets of

all materials. It applies to box pallets, including post pallets and cage pallets, but is not intended to apply to

tank and silo pallets as defined in ISO 445. It also applies to box pallets which can be stacked and handled by

forklift trucks or pallet trucks, but excludes other lifting devices.

This International Standard addresses the performance of the box pallet only, and not its contents.

2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO 445, Pallets for materials handling — Vocabulary

ISO 6780, Flat pallets for intercontinental material handling — Principal dimensions and tolerances

ISO 8611-2:2011, Pallets for materials handling — Flat pallets — Part 2: Performance requirements and

selection of tests

ISO 2206, Packaging — Complete, filled transport packages — Identification of parts when testing

ISO 2234, Packaging — Complete, filled transport packages and unit loads — Stacking tests using a static

load

ISO 2244, Packaging — Complete, filled transport packages and unit loads — Horizontal impact tests

ISO 2247, Packaging — Complete, filled transport packages and unit loads — Vibration tests at fixed low

frequency

ISO 2248, Packaging — Complete, filled transport packages — Vertical impact test by dropping

EN 13382, Flat pallets for materials handling — Principal dimensions
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
pallet with superstructure

pallet with a fixed superstructure or a rigid, self-supporting container that can be mechanically attached to the

pallet and which contributes to the strength of the pallet
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ISO 13194:2011(E)
3.2
box pallet
bulk container pallet

pallet with solid or close boarded sides, one or more of which can have hinged or removable gates for access

as defined in ISO 445, whether fixed, collapsible or demountable
NOTE 1 See Figure 1.
NOTE 2 A box pallet can be fitted with a lid.
Figure 1 — Examples of box pallets
3.3
fixed box pallet
box pallet with sides permanently and rigidly fixed to the deck
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ISO 13194:2011(E)
3.4
collapsible box pallet
box pallet with sides hinged to the deck
NOTE See Figure 2.
Figure 2 — Examples of collapsible box pallets
3.5
demountable box pallet
box pallet with removable sides
NOTE See Figure 3.
Figure 3 — Example of demountable box pallet
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ISO 13194:2011(E)
3.6
post pallet

pallet having posts to permit stacking, and fitted with either removable rails or gates

NOTE See Figure 4.
Figure 4 — Examples of post pallets
3.7
cage pallet

pallet with mesh, rodded or barred sides, one or more of which can have a hinged or removable gate for

access
NOTE See Figure 5.
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ISO 13194:2011(E)
Figure 5 — Examples of cage pallets
3.8
nominal load

lowest safe load which may be permitted to carry in the box pallet, assuming a uniformly distributed load and

expressed in kilograms
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ISO 13194:2011(E)
3.9
nominal stacking load
lowest safe load which can be placed in the box pallet resting on the ground

NOTE The nominal stacking load is expressed in kilograms and, if appropriate, in the number of box pallets which

can be stacked on the one resting on the ground. In the latter case, the following abbreviation is used: 1/1 (stack of two

box pallets), 2/1 (stack of three box pallets), etc. It assumes a uniformly distributed load.

3.10
test load

load applied during test in or on the box pallet in order to simulate storage and transport conditions

3.11
tare weight
weight of the box pallet without contents
3.12
ballast

either the actual product to be transported or a product having the same physical characteristics, in which

case the test certificate is only valid for such product; or a dummy ballast of type 1, sand, or type 2, plastic

granules
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms

F Force applied parallel to the length of the box pallet in the lift truck stacking test, in newtons

F Force applied parallel to the width of the box pallet in the lift truck stacking test, in newtons

F Force required to commence movement
g 9,81 ms
H Height of the box pallet in metres
l Length of the box pallet in metres
L Length of free span in metres
n Number of box pallets to be stacked on top of box pallet submitted to tests
w Width of the box pallets in metres
W Pallet weight in kilograms
 Coefficients of static friction
5 Requirements
5.1 Materials

The material from which a box pallet is made is not limited by this International Standard. The materials are

typically metal, plastic, wood, composite, or paper-based materials. When a box pallet is constructed of

multiple materials, the selection of conditioning and duration of test shall be based on that material which will

govern the results of the test.
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ISO 13194:2011(E)
5.2 Dimensions, stacking load and test load
5.2.1 Stacking devices
Box pallets shall be designed or equipped in order to allow stacking.
5.2.2 Dimensions

The structure shall allow handling from the bottom using fork trucks and/or pallet trucks with entries

conforming to ISO 6780 or EN 13382, as appropriate. In addition, the height of the box pallet shall not exceed

twice the smallest base dimension to improve stability of the product.
5.2.3 Nominal load — Nominal stacking load

The value of the nominal load and the nominal stacking load shall be given in the manufacturer’s

specifications or marked on the product. The manufacturer may also stipulate a value before the test.

NOTE The maximum number of stacks will be varied depending on materials and designs of box pallets to ensure

stability of stacked box pallets.
5.2.4 Test load

The test load may be the actual product to be transported or a simulation of this actual product, for example

sand, plastic granules or fluids.

Unless otherwise specified, the test load, consisting of receptacles filled with type 1 or type 2 ballast, shall be

spread uniformly and shall occupy more than 80 % of the capacity of the box pallet.

5.3 Conditioning and duration of test
5.3.1 Conditioning

When moisture or temperature conditioning is relevant, such conditions shall be maintained during the test.

When several materials are used, the most sensitive condition shall be used. The detailed conditioning for all

materials shall be in accordance with Clause 4 of ISO 8611-2:2011.
5.3.2 Duration of tests

The duration of tests shall be as set out in Table 1, which is in accordance with ISO 8611-2:2011, Table 4.

Table 1 — Full load duration for bending and stacking tests
Box pallet material Test period (h) Relaxation time (h)
Unprocessed (sawn) timber with metal fastening 2 1
All metal (welded or pressed construction) 2 1
Stacking test 48 2
Where plastics or plastic parts dictate overall
performance
Bending test 24 2
Paper-based and processed wood where these materials dictate overall
24 1
performance
Pallet assembled using adhesive to connect major component 24 1
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ISO 13194:2011(E)
5.3.3 Number of replicates

The number of box pallets required for the tests is at least three for each test.

NOTE The full range of tests can be done on the same sample if the effects of the tests are clearly identified.

It is necessary to ensure that the box pallet subjected to the tests is complete and, when appropriate, fitted

with the accessories (cover, toggle-fasteners, etc.) expected to be used as if it were ready for use.

6 Test methods
6.1 Test No. 1 — Bending test
6.1.1 Test purpose

The purpose of this test is to determine the bending stiffness of the box pallet in racking situations.

6.1.2 Test procedure
a) The test load shall be 1,5 times the nominal load.
b) Place the box pallet in position (see Figure 6).

c) Apply a load of 10 % of the test load uniformly distributed over the base of the box pallet, and apply up to

the full test load.

d) The deflections, y, shall be measured at points A [maximum of y at A1 (B1), A2 (B2)] as shown in Figure 6.

e) Remove the test load from the box pallet.
f) Allow relaxation of the test sample according to Table 1.
6.1.3 Performance requirements

a) Under the full load, the deflection measured shall be less than or equal to 2 % of the L (L ).

1 2

b) After the relaxation period, the deflection measured shall be less than or equal to 0,7 % of the L (L ).

1 2
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ISO 13194:2011(E)
Dimensions in millimetres
1 1
L L
L L
Key
1 test load
2 support 1
3 support 2
Figure 6 — Bending test for uniformly distributed load
6.2 Test No. 2 — Stacking test
6.2.1 Test purpose

The purpose of this test is to determine the ability of the box pallet to withstand the local effects of widely

varying payloads in a block stacking.
6.2.2 Calculations
6.2.2.1 Standard calculation — Equation (1)
The test load shall be calculated in accordance with the following equation:
test load  1,5  n  (tare weight  nominal load) (1)
where
n is the number of box pallets to be stacked on top of a box pallet.
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ISO 13194:2011(E)
6.2.2.2 Collapsible box pallets — Equation (2)

The test load for collapsible box pallets shall be calculated in accordance with the following equation:

test load  1,5  n  tare weight (2)
where
n is the number of box pallets to be stacked on
...

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