Information technology — Cloud computing — Edge computing landscape

This document examines the concept of edge computing, its relationship to cloud computing and IoT, and the technologies that are key to the implementation of edge computing. This document explores the following topics with respect to edge computing: — concept of edge computing systems; — architectural foundation of edge computing; — edge computing terminology; — software classifications in edge computing, e.g. firmware, services, applications; — supporting technologies, e.g. containers, serverless computing, microservices; — networking for edge systems, including virtual networks; — data, e.g. data flow, data storage, data processing; — management, of software, of data and of networks, resources, quality of service; — virtual placement of software and data, and metadata; — security and privacy; — real time; — mobile edge computing, mobile devices.

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Publication Date
10-Feb-2020
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6060 - International Standard published
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11-Feb-2020
Completion Date
11-Feb-2020
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ISO/IEC TR 23188:2020 - Information technology -- Cloud computing -- Edge computing landscape
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TECHNICAL ISO/IEC TR
REPORT 23188
First edition
2020-02
Information technology — Cloud
computing — Edge computing
landscape
Reference number
ISO/IEC TR 23188:2020(E)
ISO/IEC 2020
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ISO/IEC TR 23188:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC TR 23188:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Edge computing...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 IoT terms ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.3 Real time ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 4

5 Overview of edge computing .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2 Concepts of edge computing ....................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.3 Architectural foundations of edge computing ............................................................................................................. 6

5.4 The relationship of edge computing to cloud computing .................................................................................. 8

5.5 The relationship of edge computing to IoT .................................................................................................................11

6 Networking and edge computing .....................................................................................................................................................12

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................12

6.1.1 Proximity networks ....................................................................................................................................................13

6.1.2 Access networks ............................................................................................................................................................13

6.1.3 Services networks ........................................................................................................................................................13

6.1.4 User networks .................................................................................................................................................................13

6.2 Virtual networks .................................................................................................................................................................................14

7 Hardware considerations for edge computing...................................................................................................................15

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................15

7.2 Hardware capabilities ....................................................................................................................................................................15

8 Software technologies for edge computing............................................................................................................................16

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................16

8.2 Software classifications ................................................................................................................................................................16

8.2.1 Firmware .............................................................................................................................................................................16

8.2.2 Platform software ........................................................................................................................................................17

8.2.3 Services .................................................................................................................................................................................17

8.2.4 Applications ......................................................................................................................................................................17

8.3 Significant software technologies ........................................................................................................................................17

8.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................17

8.3.2 Virtual machines ...........................................................................................................................................................18

8.3.3 Containers...........................................................................................................................................................................18

8.3.4 Serverless computing ...............................................................................................................................................19

8.3.5 Microservices ...................................................................................................................................................................19

9 Deployment models and service capabilities types and service categories for edge

computing .................................................................................................................................................................................................................19

9.1 Deployment models .........................................................................................................................................................................19

9.2 Service model capabilities types ..........................................................................................................................................20

9.3 Service categories ..............................................................................................................................................................................20

10 Data in edge computing ..............................................................................................................................................................................21

10.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................21

10.2 Data flow ...................................................................................................................................................................................................21

10.3 Data storage ............................................................................................................................................................................................23

10.4 Data processing ...................................................................................................................................................................................23

11 Management of edge computing .......................................................................................................................................................24

11.1 Management and orchestration fundamentals ........................................................................................................24

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ISO/IEC TR 23188:2020(E)

11.2 Management plane, control plane and data plane ................................................................................................26

11.3 Cloud-based management and control of edge tier nodes and device tier devices .................28

11.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................28

11.3.2 Control of services from a device ...................................................................................................................28

11.3.3 Management of devices and edge nodes from a cloud service .............................................29

11.4 Orchestration and maintenance ............................................................................................................................................29

11.5 Management of data, rights and resources..................................................................................................................30

11.6 Security and privacy management .....................................................................................................................................30

12 Virtual placement .............................................................................................................................................................................................30

13 Security and privacy in edge computing ...................................................................................................................................31

13.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................31

13.2 Applying foundational security principles ...................................................................................................................32

13.3 Secure nodes and devices ...........................................................................................................................................................32

13.4 Connectivity and network security ....................................................................................................................................33

13.5 Organization of security elements ......................................................................................................................................34

13.6 Privacy and personally identifiable information in edge computing ....................................................36

14 Real time in edge computing .................................................................................................................................................................37

14.1 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................37

14.2 Factors influencing real time system design ..............................................................................................................38

14.3 Design approaches for real time edge computing .................................................................................................41

15 Edge computing and mobile devices .............................................................................................................................................41

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................43

iv © ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC TR 23188:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that

are members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through

technical committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of

technical activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other

international organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also

take part in the work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see http:// patents .iec .ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 38, Cloud computing and distributed platforms.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/IEC TR 23188:2020(E)
Introduction

Edge computing is increasingly used in systems that deal with aspects of the physical world. Edge

computing involves the placement of processing and storage near or at the places where those systems

interact with the physical world, which is where the "edge" exists. One of the trends in this space is the

development of increasingly capable Internet of Things (IoT) devices (sensors and actuators), which

generate more data or new types of data. There is significant benefit from moving the processing and

storing of this data close to the place where the data is generated.

Cloud computing is commonly used in systems that are based on edge computing approaches. This

can include the connection of both devices and edge computing nodes to centralized cloud services.

However, it is the case that the locations in which cloud computing is performed are increasingly

distributed in nature. The cloud services are being implemented in locations that are nearer to the

edge in order to support use cases that demand reduced latency or avoiding the need to transmit large

volumes of data over networks with limited bandwidth.

This document aims to describe edge computing and the significant elements which contribute to the

successful implementation of edge computing systems, with an emphasis on the use of cloud computing

and cloud computing technologies in the context of edge computing, including the virtualization of

compute, storage and networking resources.
1) [27]

It is useful to read this document in conjunction with ISO/IEC TR 30164 , which takes a view of

edge computing from the point of view of IoT systems and the IoT devices which interact with the

physical world.
1) Under development. Current stage 10.99.
vi © ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved
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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/IEC TR 23188:2020(E)
Information technology — Cloud computing — Edge
computing landscape
1 Scope

This document examines the concept of edge computing, its relationship to cloud computing and IoT,

and the technologies that are key to the implementation of edge computing. This document explores the

following topics with respect to edge computing:
— concept of edge computing systems;
— architectural foundation of edge computing;
— edge computing terminology;

— software classifications in edge computing, e.g. firmware, services, applications;

— supporting technologies, e.g. containers, serverless computing, microservices;
— networking for edge systems, including virtual networks;
— data, e.g. data flow, data storage, data processing;

— management, of software, of data and of networks, resources, quality of service;

— virtual placement of software and data, and metadata;
— security and privacy;
— real time;
— mobile edge computing, mobile devices.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 22123-1:— , Information technology — Cloud computing — Part 1: Terminology

ISO/IEC TS 23167, Information technology — Cloud computing — Common technologies and techniques

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 22123-1, ISO/IEC TS 23167

and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
2) To be published.
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ISO/IEC TR 23188:2020(E)
3.1 Edge computing
3.1.1
distributed computing

model of computing in which a set of nodes (3.1.5) coordinates its activities by means of digital messages

passed between the nodes (3.1.5)
3.1.2
edge

boundary between pertinent digital and physical entities (3.2.8), delineated by networked sensors

(3.2.9) and actuators (3.2.1)

Note 1 to entry: Pertinent digital entities means that the digital entities which need to be considered can vary

depending on the system under consideration and the context in which those entities are used. See 5.2 for

more detail.
3.1.3
edge computing

distributed computing (3.1.1) in which processing and storage takes place at or near the edge (3.1.2),

where the nearness is defined by the system's requirements
3.1.4
lightweight node
node (3.1.5) with limited processing, storage and networking capacities
3.1.5
node
networked machine with processing and storage capabilities
3.1.6
edge computing system
system providing functionalities of edge computing (3.1.3)
3.1.7
endpoint
combination of a binding and a network address
[SOURCE: ISO/TR 24097-3:2019, 3.4]
3.2 IoT terms
3.2.1
actuator

IoT device (3.2.4) that changes one or more properties of a physical entity (3.2.8) in response to a

valid input
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 20924:2018, 3.2.2]
3.2.2
Internet of Things
IoT

infrastructure of interconnected entities, people, systems and information resources together with

services which processes and reacts to information from the physical world and virtual world

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 20924:2018, 3.2.1]
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ISO/IEC TR 23188:2020(E)
3.2.3
Internet Protocol
protocol specified in RFC 791 (IP version 4) or in RFC 2460 (IP version 6)
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC TR 21890:2001, 3.4]
3.2.4
IoT device

entity of an IoT system (3.2.6) that interacts and communicates with the physical world through sensing

or actuating

Note 1 to entry: An IoT device (3.2.4) can be a sensor (3.2.9) or an actuator (3.2.1).

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 20924:2018, 3.2.4]
3.2.5
IoT gateway

entity of an IoT system (3.2.6) that connects one or more proximity networks and the IoT devices (3.2.4)

on those networks to each other and to one or more access networks
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 20924:2018, 3.2.6]
3.2.6
IoT system
system providing functionalities of Internet of Things (3.2.2)

Note 1 to entry: IoT system is inclusive of IoT devices (3.2.4), IoT gateways (3.2.5), sensors (3.2.9), and actuators

(3.2.1).
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 20924:2018, 3.2.7]
3.2.7
operational technology

hardware and software that detects or causes a change through the direct monitoring and/or control of

physical devices and systems, processes and events in the organization
3.2.8
physical entity
entity that has material existence in the physical world

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 20924:2018, 3.1.26, modified — Note 1 to entry has been removed.]

3.2.9
sensor

IoT device (3.2.4) that measures one or more properties of one or more physical entities (3.2.8) and

outputs digital data that can be transmitted over a network
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 20924:2018, 3.2.9]
3.3 Real time
3.3.1
real time

processing of data by a computer in connection with another process outside the computer according to

time requirements imposed by the outside process

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 2382:2015, 2122900, modified: words 'pertaining to' removed to improve

substitutability of definition; Notes 1 to 3 to entry have been removed.]
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ISO/IEC TR 23188:2020(E)
3.3.2
real time system
system in which processing meets real time (3.3.1) requirements
3.3.3
hard real time system

real time system (3.3.2) whose operation is incorrect if results are not produced according to specified

timing requirements
3.3.4
soft real time system

real time system (3.3.2) whose operation is degraded if results are not produced according to specified

timing requirements
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
AC Alternating current
ASIC Application-Specific Integrated Circuit
BYOD Bring Your Own Device
CDN Content Distribution Network
CSC Cloud service customer
CSP Cloud service provider
DDoS Distributed Denial of Service
EPG Electronic Programme Guide
EPROM Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
FPGA Field Programmable Gate Array
Gb Gigabyte
GPS Global Positioning System
GPU Graphics Processing Unit
IETF Internet Engineering Task Force
IoT Internet of Things
IP Internet Protocol
IPTV Internet Protocol television
LAN Local Area Network
MDM Mobile Device Management
OS Operating system
PC Personal Computer
PII Personally Identifiable Information
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ISO/IEC TR 23188:2020(E)
RAM Random-access Memory
RFC Request for Comments
ROM Read Only Memory
TPM Trusted Platform Module
VM Virtual Machine
VoIP Voice over Internet Protocol
VPN Virtual Private Network
5 Overview of edge computing
5.1 General

Over time, the forms of computing have varied between centralized and distributed, depending on the

nature and capabilities of the computing devices and of the networks used to connect them.

Mainframe computers represent a form of centralised computing, where the main computer systems

are placed in a data centre, containing processing and storage units. Originally, almost the whole of

the computing system was situated within the data centre. Gradually, time-sharing terminals were

located in remote locations to provide user access to the mainframe systems. Terminals were typically

little more than a display with a keyboard for input and the associated network connection had limited

bandwidth, perhaps involving a dial-up modem.

The personal computer (PC) represents a distributed form of computing. The PC has significant

processing and storage capabilities and can be used very effectively in a standalone mode. However,

PCs are more typically used in a networked mode. Initially, the networks were used for simple

communications such as (text based) email, but as the network bandwidth increased over time,

increasingly sophisticated activities took place, with file transfer and eventually peer-to-peer

capabilities being used.

The availability of higher bandwidth networking encouraged the development of the client-server

application architecture, with the PC used for the client, connected to a centralized server which

performs the main processing and storage of the application. Client applications can include quite

substantial software elements performing significant processing activities. Data might also be stored

locally for faster access, although the main database(s) are held centrally.

The advent of the internet and the World Wide Web (WWW) represents the appearance of another

form of computing. In this form of computing, web servers serve up web pages and related material

which are accessed through client web browsers. Devices running web browsers can be relatively low

in compute power, while the web servers for some of the more popular and high demand web sites can

involve massive compute power spread over many machines in a large data centre.

Cloud computing is a computing paradigm that makes available all types of computing resources

in an on-demand, highly scalable fashion via cloud services. Cloud computing in practice is made

possible through a highly centralised architecture, with computing resources concentrated in large

data centres. However, cloud computing in practice also has some distributed computing features. It

is typical for cloud service providers (CSPs) to have multiple physically separated data centres and

cloud service customers (CSCs) commonly distribute their applications and data across multiple data

centres – for resilience, to reduce latency and for disaster recovery purposes. In addition, the favoured

design paradigm for cloud native applications is to distribute multiple instances of each application

component across different machines within the cloud computing system. This design paradigm and

the technologies that support it are of significance to edge computing.
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ISO/IEC TR 23188:2020(E)
5.2 Concepts of edge computing

Edge computing is distributed computing in which data processing and storage takes place on nodes

which are near to the edge. The edge is marked by the boundary between pertinent digital and physical

entities, i.e. between the digital system and the physical world, delineated by networked sensors and

actuators.

Pertinent digital entities means that the digital entities which need to be considered can vary depending

on the system under consideration and the context in which those entities are used.

An example of varying pertinence are the servers within a cloud computing data centre. From the

perspective of CSCs bu
...

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