Energy performance of buildings — Energy needs for heating and cooling, internal temperatures and sensible and latent heat loads — Part 2: Explanation and justification of ISO 52016-1 and ISO 52017-1

ISO/TR 52016-2:2017 contains information to support the correct understanding and use of ISO 52016‑1 and ISO 52017‑1. These documents give calculation methods for the assessment of: - the (sensible and latent) energy load and need for heating and cooling, based on hourly calculations; - the (sensible and latent) energy need for heating and cooling, based on monthly calculations (ISO 52016‑1); - the internal temperature, based on hourly calculations; and - the design (sensible and latent) heating and cooling load, based on hourly calculations. ISO/TR 52016-2:2017 does not contain any normative provisions. NOTE A description of the rationale behind the reorganization of the cluster of strongly related and partly overlapping ISO and CEN standards is given in Annex H.

Performance énergétiques des bâtiments — Besoins d'énergie pour le chauffage et le refroidissement, les températures intérieures et les chaleurs sensible et latentes — Partie 2: Explication et justification pout ISO 52016-1 et ISO 52017-1

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REPORT 52016-2
First edition
Energy performance of buildings —
Energy needs for heating and cooling,
internal temperatures and sensible
and latent heat loads —
Part 2:
Explanation and justification of ISO
52016-1 and ISO 52017-1
Performance énergétiques des bâtiments — Besoins d’énergie pour
le chauffage et le refroidissement, les températures intérieures et les
chaleurs sensible et latentes —
Partie 2: Explication et justification pout ISO 52016-1 et ISO 52017-1
Reference number
ISO/TR 52016-2:2017(E)
ISO 2017

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ISO/TR 52016-2:2017(E)

© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland
All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form
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written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of
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Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved

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ISO/TR 52016-2:2017(E)

Contents Page
Foreword .vi
Introduction .vii
1 Scope . 1
2 Normative references . 1
3 Terms and definitions . 1
4 Symbols, subscripts and abbreviations . 2
4.1 Symbols . 2
4.2 Subscripts . 2
4.3 Abbreviations . 3
5 Brief description of the method(s) and routing . 3
5.1 Output of the method . 3
5.1.1 Reference hourly method in ISO 52017‑1 . 3
5.1.2 Hourly method in ISO 52016‑1 . 3
5.1.3 Monthly method in ISO 52016‑1 . 3
5.1.4 Overall and partial energy performance . 4
5.2 General description of the methods in ISO 52016-1 and ISO 52017-1 . 4
5.2.1 Hourly calculation procedures in ISO 52016‑1 and ISO 52017‑1 . 4
5.2.2 The hourly method in ISO 52017‑1 . 4
5.2.3 The hourly method in ISO 52016‑1 . 5
5.2.4 Monthly calculation procedures in ISO 52016‑1 . 7
5.2.5 Other differences between ISO 52016-1 and ISO 13790:2008 which
it supersedes . 7
5.2.6 Input data and assumptions for hourly and monthly method in ISO 52016‑1 . 8
5.2.7 Choices between methods in ISO 52016-1 . 8
6 Calculation method in ISO 52016-1 . 8
6.1 Output data . 8
6.1.1 General data on the assessed object and application . 8
6.1.2 Calculated data . 9
6.2 Calculation time intervals and calculation period . 9
6.3 Input data . 9
6.3.1 Source of data - General . 9
6.3.2 Deviating subscripts . 9
6.3.3 General data on the assessed object and application . 9
6.3.4 Geometrical characteristics .10
6.3.5 Thermophysical parameters of the building and building elements .10
6.3.6 Loops between input and output variables .11
6.3.7 Operating and boundary conditions .11
6.3.8 Constants and physical data.12
6.3.9 Input data from Annex A (Annex B) .12
6.4 Zoning of the assessed object .12
6.4.1 General.12
6.4.2 Thermal zoning procedures .12
6.4.3 Size of the thermal zones .13
6.4.4 Heat exchange between thermal zones and service areas .13
6.4.5 Adjacent thermally unconditioned zones.14
6.4.6 Residential buildings or building units, adjustment for spatial
average temperature .15
6.4.7 Thermally coupled or uncoupled zones .18
6.5 Hourly calculation procedures .19
6.5.1 Principle .19
6.5.2 Applicable time interval and calculation period .19
6.5.3 Assumptions and specific conditions .19
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ISO/TR 52016-2:2017(E)

6.5.4 Calculation procedure .19
6.5.5 Calculation of (sensible) heating and cooling loads and temperatures .20
6.5.6 Overall energy balance of a thermal zone .21
6.5.7 Type of construction dependent properties of the nodes .25
6.5.8 Thermal transmission properties .25
6.5.9 Temperature of adjacent thermally unconditioned zone .28
6.5.10 Ventilation heat transfer coefficient, supply temperature and moisture content 28
6.5.11 Thermal capacity of the internal environment of the thermal zone .29
6.5.12 Internal heat gains .29
6.5.13 Solar gains .29
6.5.14 Moisture content and latent heat load .29
6.5.15 Calculation of key monthly data from hourly output .30
6.6 Monthly calculation procedures .30
6.6.1 Principle .30
6.6.2 Applicable time interval and calculation period .30
6.6.3 Assumptions .31
6.6.4 Energy need for space heating and cooling .31
6.6.5 Heat transfer by transmission .32
6.6.6 Heat transfer by ventilation .35
6.6.7 Internal heat gains .35
6.6.8 Solar heat gains .35
6.6.9 Internal effective heat capacity of a zone .35
6.6.10 Utilization factors .36
6.6.11 Calculation temperature and intermittency modes .37
6.6.12 Corrections for intermittency .38
6.6.13 Overheating indicator . .46
6.6.14 Length of the heating and cooling season for operation of season-length-
dependent provisions .47
6.6.15 Humidification and dehumidification .47
7 Quality control in ISO 52016-1 .48
7.1 Calculation report .48
7.2 Hourly method: verification cases .48
7.2.1 Choice for BESTEST cases .48
7.2.2 Description of the verification test cases .49
7.2.3 Results of the verification test cases .49
7.2.4 Comparison with available BESTEST results of other programs .49
7.2.5 Limited scope .49
7.2.6 Specific deviations allowed.49
7.2.7 Availability of the data file with hourly values .50
7.2.8 More details on description of the verification test cases .50
7.2.9 Results of comparison with “reference” programs .50
7.2.10 Peak hourly loads .51
7.3 Hourly method: validation in case of specific alternative calculation procedures .52
7.4 Specific validation cases.52
7.4.1 Heat transfer through ground floor .52
7.4.2 Solar shading .52
8 Compliance check in ISO 52016-1 .52
9 Worked out examples on ISO 52016-1 .53
9.1 Example 1 .53
9.1.1 Description . . .53
9.1.2 Description of construction elements of envelope .53
9.1.3 Calculation details .59
9.1.4 Remarks and comments .59
9.2 Example 2 .59
9.2.1 Description . . .59
9.2.2 Description of construction elements of envelope .60
9.2.3 Other data .62
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ISO/TR 52016-2:2017(E)

9.2.4 Calculation details .62
9.2.5 Remarks and comments .62
10 Validation of the calculation procedures .62
Annex A (informative) ISO 52016-1: Input and method selection data sheet — Template .63
Annex B (informative) ISO 52016-1: Input and method selection data sheet — Default choices .64
Annex C (informative) ISO 52016-1: Regional references in line with ISO Global relevance policy 67
Annex D (informative) ISO 52016-1: Multi-zone calculation with thermal coupling
between zones .68
Annex E (informative) ISO 52016-1: Heat transfer and solar heat gains of windows and
special elements.69
Annex F (informative) ISO 52016-1: Calculation of solar shading reduction factors .78
Annex G (informative) ISO 52016-1: Dynamic transparent building elements.89
Annex H (informative) Rationale behind reorganization of suite of standards .90
Annex I (informative) Discussion on the hourly versus the monthly calculation methods in
ISO 52016-1 .95
Annex J (informative) Accuracy of the methods in ISO 52016-1 .104
Annex K (informative) Explanation and derivation of monthly utilization factors .110
Annex L (informative) Calculation examples .120
Bibliography .126
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ISO/TR 52016-2:2017(E)

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards
bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out
through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical
committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International
organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.
ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of
electrotechnical standardization.
The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are
described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the
different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the
editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of
patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of
any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or
on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).
Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not
constitute an endorsement.
For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and
expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the
World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following
URL w w w . i s o .org/ iso/ foreword .html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 163, Thermal performance and energy
use in the built environment, Subcommittee SC 2, Calculation methods, in cooperation with the European
Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC 89 Thermal performance of
buildings and building components, in accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation between
ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).
A list of all parts in the ISO 52016 series can be found on the ISO website.
vi © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved

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ISO/TR 52016-2:2017(E)

The set of EPB standards, Technical Reports and supporting tools
In order to facilitate the necessary overall consistency and coherence, in terminology, approach,
input/output relations and formats, for the whole set of EPB-standards, the following documents and
tools are available:
a) a document with basic principles to be followed in drafting EPB-standards: CEN/TS 16628:2014,
Energy Performance of Buildings — Basic Principles for the set of EPB standards ;
b) a document with detailed technical rules to be followed in drafting EPB-standards;
CEN/TS 16629:2014, Energy Performance of Buildings — Detailed Technical Rules for the set of EPB-
standards .
The detailed technical rules are the basis for the following tools:
1) a common template for each EPB‑standard, including specific drafting instructions for the relevant
2) a common template for each technical report that accompanies an EPB standard or a cluster of EPB
standards, including specific drafting instructions for the relevant clauses;
3) a common template for the spreadsheet that accompanies each EPB standard, to demonstrate the
correctness of the EPB calculation procedures.
Each EPB-standard follows the basic principles and the detailed technical rules and relates to the
overarching EPB-standard, ISO 52000-1 .
One of the main purposes of the revision of the EPB-standards is to enable that laws and regulations
directly refer to the EPB‑standards and make compliance with them compulsory. This requires that
the set of EPB‑standards consists of a systematic, clear, comprehensive and unambiguous set of energy
performance procedures. The number of options provided is kept as low as possible, taking into account
national and regional differences in climate, culture and building tradition, policy and legal frameworks
(subsidiarity principle). For each option, an informative default option is provided (Annex B).
Rationale behind the EPB Technical Reports
There is a risk that the purpose and limitations of the EPB standards will be misunderstood, unless
the background and context to their contents – and the thinking behind them – is explained in some
detail to readers of the standards. Consequently, various types of informative contents are recorded
and made available for users to properly understand, apply and nationally or regionally implement the
EPB standards.
If this explanation would have been attempted in the standards themselves, the result is likely to be
confusing and cumbersome, especially if the standards are implemented or referenced in national or
regional building codes.
Therefore each EPB standard is accompanied by an informative Technical Report, like this one, where
all informative content is collected, to ensure a clear separation between normative and informative
contents (see CEN/TS 16629 ):
— to avoid flooding and confusing the actual normative part with informative content;
— to reduce the page count of the actual standard; and
— to facilitate understanding of the set of EPB standards.
This was also one of the main recommendations from the European CENSE project [ ] that laid the
foundation for the preparation of the set of EPB standards.
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ISO/TR 52016-2:2017(E)

This document
This document accompanies ISO 52016-1 and ISO 52017-1, which form part of a set of standards related
to the evaluation of the energy performance of buildings (EPB).
The role and the positioning of the accompanying standards in the set of EPB standards is defined in
the Introduction to the standards.
[50] [51]
Brief articles on the subject can be found in to .
Accompanying spreadsheets
An extensive spreadsheet was produced on ISO 52016‑1, covering both the hourly and the monthly
calculation method. Examples of the calculation sheet can be found in this document. This spreadsheet
(including possible updated version) is available at www .epb .center.
No spreadsheet was produced on ISO 52017‑1, because this EPB standard (with reference hourly
thermal balance calculation procedures) is not directly used for calculations.
History of this Technical Report and the accompanying standards
The first series of standards on thermal and hygrothermal properties of building components and
elements were prepared by ISO Technical Committee 163 in the 1980s, as a result of growing global
concern on future fuel shortages and inadequate health and comfort levels in buildings. During the
following decades these first standards were revised and new standards were added, to cope with new
developments and additional needs. From the 1990s on, many of these standards were developed in
close collaboration with CEN (see further on).
As part of the Mandate 343 of the EC to CEN to support the EPBD (2003) , the series of standards
were scrutinized to see which changes would be needed for the purpose of supporting the EPBD .
This resulted in new versions of a number of standards, most of them published in 2007. The standards
were further revised in the 2010s as part of Mandate 480 of the EC to CEN , to support the EPBD
recast [ ].
More extensive background information and history of the set of EP

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