Space systems -- Safety requirements

This document specifies requirements for the safety liabilities of countries undertaking space activities or allowing operators to perform space activities on or from their territory under outer-space treaties adopted by the United Nations. It defines the safety responsibilities for the operators involved in commercial or non-commercial space launch activities. This document establishes the overall safety requirements to be observed on a launch site for prelaunch (integration, test, checking, preparation, etc.) and launch operations of a space object. It provides the basic principles to enable any operator to implement its own safety methods, tools and procedures to ensure the safety of people and personnel, public and private property, and the environment, in a consistent and uniform manner. The safety requirements for system safety are defined in ISO 14620-1, and the requirements for the flight safety systems in ISO 14620-3.

Systèmes spatiaux -- Exigences de sécurité

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
17-Dec-2019
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
28-Nov-2019
Completion Date
18-Dec-2019
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 14620-2
Third edition
2019-12
Space systems — Safety
requirements —
Part 2:
Launch site operations
Systèmes spatiaux — Exigences de sécurité —
Partie 2: Opérations sur le site de lancement
Reference number
ISO 14620-2:2019(E)
ISO 2019
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ISO 14620-2:2019(E)
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© ISO 2019

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ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 14620-2:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative reference ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Operator's safety responsibilities ...................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Occupational safety and health ................................................................................................................................................. 4

4.3 Ground and environment safety .............................................................................................................................................. 4

4.3.1 Ground safety operator .............................................................................................................................................. 4

4.3.2 Ground safety operator responsibilities ...................................................................................................... 4

4.3.3 Operator responsibilities .......................................................................................................................................... 5

4.4 Flight safety ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

4.4.1 Flight safety operator................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.4.2 Flight safety operator responsibilities .......................................................................................................... 6

4.4.3 Space vehicle operator responsibilities ....................................................................................................... 7

5 Launch safety requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.1 Safety risk expressions ..................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.2 Severity classes ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.3 Quantitative safety objectives .................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.4 Qualitative safety principles ........................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.5 Qualitative ground safety principles .................................................................................................................................... 9

5.6 Qualitative flight safety principles ......................................................................................................................................... 9

6 Launch safety process ..................................................................................................................................................................................10

6.1 Launch safety process requirement ..................................................................................................................................10

6.2 Safety risk control .............................................................................................................................................................................10

6.3 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.4 Safety submission process .........................................................................................................................................................11

6.5 Processing of nonconformities...............................................................................................................................................12

6.6 Safety training .......................................................................................................................................................................................12

6.6.1 General requirements ...............................................................................................................................................12

6.6.2 General safety training ........................................................................................................................................... ..12

6.6.3 Specific safety training by site ...........................................................................................................................12

6.6.4 Particular safety training by speciality ......................................................................................................13

6.6.5 Safety accreditation ....................................................................................................................................................13

6.6.6 Training of personnel assigned to safety responsibilities .........................................................13

6.7 Mishap investigation .......................................................................................................................................................................13

7 Safety documentation ..................................................................................................................................................................................14

7.1 Structure ....................................................................................................................................................................................................14

7.2 Safety regulations ..............................................................................................................................................................................14

7.3 Safety rules ..............................................................................................................................................................................................14

7.4 Application documents .................................................................................................................................................................14

Annex A (informative) Basic legislation — International treaties and other legislative acts ................15

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 14620-2:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 20, Aircraft and space vehicles,

Subcommittee SC 14, Space systems and operations.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 14620-2:2011), which has been

technically revised.

The main changes compared to the previous edition are related to terms and definitions which have

been aligned with ISO 10795.
A list of all parts in the ISO 14620 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 14620-2:2019(E)
Introduction

Space activities, carried out within the framework of outer space treaties adopted by the United Nations,

may cause harm to people and create damage to public and private property and the environment.

The variety of professional disciplines linked to space activities and the legal liabilities incumbent on

countries require international regulations to protect Earth populations against the consequences of

a possible mishap caused by these activities. The international treaties listed in Annex A define the

liabilities for damage related to space activities.

This document pertains to exposed people (including populations and personnel), launch systems,

manned or unmanned space vehicles, operations carried out on or from a launch site and associated

procedures, natural environment, etc., during prelaunch (integration, test, checking, preparation, etc.)

and launch activities.

This document is intended to be applied by any country, by any international organization, whether

governmental or non-governmental, and by any operator undertaking space activities within the

framework of outer space treaties adopted by the United Nations.

This document is intended to be applied by agencies, enterprises, manufacturers, customers, designers,

operators, facility authorities, launch service providers, etc., participating in the activities carried out

on or from a launch site, unless more restrictive requirements are imposed by the national regulations

in effect on the launch site.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 14620-2:2019(E)
Space systems — Safety requirements —
Part 2:
Launch site operations
1 Scope

This document specifies requirements for the safety liabilities of countries undertaking space activities

or allowing operators to perform space activities on or from their territory under outer-space treaties

adopted by the United Nations. It defines the safety responsibilities for the operators involved in

commercial or non-commercial space launch activities. This document establishes the overall safety

requirements to be observed on a launch site for prelaunch (integration, test, checking, preparation,

etc.) and launch operations of a space object. It provides the basic principles to enable any operator to

implement its own safety methods, tools and procedures to ensure the safety of people and personnel,

public and private property, and the environment, in a consistent and uniform manner.

The safety requirements for system safety are defined in ISO 14620-1, and the requirements for the

flight safety systems in ISO 14620-3.
2 Normative reference

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 10795, Space systems — Programme management and quality — Vocabulary
ISO 14620-1, Space systems — Safety requirements — Part 1: System safety
ISO 14620-3, Space systems — Safety requirements — Part 3: Flight safety systems
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 10795 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
authorization

permission granted to an operator (3.15) by a responsible authority (3.17) to perform specified space

activities

Note 1 to entry: Space activities include conducting space operations, conducting launch (3.8) operations,

operating one or more sites, and operating one or more space vehicles on or from one or more launch sites (3.11).

3.2
damage

loss of human life, personal injury or other health impairments, occupational illness, total or partial loss

of public or private property, or degradations caused to the aforesaid property or to the environment

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ISO 14620-2:2019(E)
3.3
dangerous area

area associated with a mishap or a potential mishap, inside which the consequences are catastrophic or

critical
3.4
flight plan

plan related to the in-flight launch (3.8) vehicle, including data directly or indirectly related to launch

site (3.11) safety
3.5
flight safety

arrangements intended to control safety risks (3.19) from launch (3.8) through the flight of a space object

(3.20), and to protect people, public and private property, and the environment, against any damage

(3.2) that could be caused by in-flight manœuvres of this space object
3.6
ground safety

arrangements intended to reduce and control safety risks (3.19) identified in ground prelaunch and

launch (3.8) activities of a manned or unmanned space vehicle

Note 1 to entry: Arrangements include protecting people, public and private property, and the environment, and

completing and adjusting the national regulatory laws (3.14) related to occupational safety and health, workers,

environment, space, etc.
3.7
inhibit

verifiable design feature intended to prevent a hazardous situation from occurring, that provides an

interruption between an energy source and a function actuator

EXAMPLE An inhibit can be a function, a product, a hardware, a software, a physical property, or a

technological device.
3.8
launch

initial action to place, or attempt to place, a launch vehicle and payload, if any, in a suborbital trajectory,

in Earth orbit in outer space, or otherwise in outer space
3.9
launch complex

site assigned to or owned by a launch (3.8) vehicle operator (3.15) to operate a launch vehicle

3.10
launch phase

period which begins when the launch (3.8) vehicle is no longer in physical contact with the launch

complex (3.9) or the carrier aircraft and continues up to the end of the mission assigned to it including

disposal and passivation actions

Note 1 to entry: The launch phase ends when any planned and unplanned physical contact with the ground or

destruction or breakdown of the vehicle takes place.
3.11
launch site

site necessary for the prelaunch and launch (3.8) operations of a space vehicle and for the in-flight

operations during the launch phase (3.10)
3.12
launch site country
country that has jurisdiction over a specified launch site (3.11)
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ISO 14620-2:2019(E)
3.13
launch system

system made up of a launch (3.8) vehicle, the associated launch complex (3.9), launch site (3.11), payload,

ground support equipment and associated airborne equipment (including software), control systems,

navigation system, trajectories, procedures, necessary personnel, and any other associated items

3.14
national regulatory laws
set of official statutes of a country

Note 1 to entry: The official statutes include constitution, law, decree, administrative order, code, regulation, etc.

3.15
operator

governmental or non-governmental entities, international organization, or natural person carrying out

a space operation independently and under its responsibility
3.16
residual safety risk

safety risk (3.19) associated with the hazards and/or hazardous situations remaining in a space system

after eliminating hazards and hazardous situations as much as practical, and reducing the unacceptable

safety risks
3.17
responsible authority

ministry, department, agency, subsection, or office of a government or international governmental

organization, which is responsible for space activities including, but not limited to, launch (3.8)

operations in a specified location or country
3.18
safe

property of an item and its environment that limits its potential for damage (3.2) to an acceptable risk

3.19
safety risk

measure of the potential consequences of a hazard considering the probability of the associated

mishap, the harm caused to people and the damage (3.2) caused to public and private property and the

environment

Note 1 to entry: The safety risk is defined to be differentiated from political, financial, industrial, project, and

other risks.

Note 2 to entry: An example of a safety risk is the expected number of casualties.

3.20
space object

space vehicle of artificial earthly origin and any of its component parts, except space debris, if any

3.21
specific authorized operator

entity allowed or licensed to conduct a space operation in an independent way according to relevant

applicable space law
4 Operator's safety responsibilities
4.1 General

The following subclauses define the general allocation of the safety responsibilities and requirements

for the prelaunch (integration, test, checking, preparation, etc.) and launch operations related to a

launch system. It is understood, in this document, that each operator is either duly authorized or

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ISO 14620-2:2019(E)

entered into an appropriate contract (specific agreement, commercial contract, etc.) with a responsible

authority or an authorized operator. Several operators (e.g. launch site operator, site operator, launch

vehicle operator, payload operator) can operate simultaneously on the same launch site. They can be

concerned either with the same launch system or with different systems.
4.2 Occupational safety and health

It is presupposed that any operator carrying out operations on a launch site respects and applies the

occupational safety and health requirements of the launch site country.
4.3 Ground and environment safety
4.3.1 Ground safety operator

Ground safety responsibilities and requirements vary among operators. Generally, the different

operators should determine themselves how safety concerns should be met. However, on the same

launch site, the following conditions or criteria may exist:
a) several operators can carry out hazardous operations simultaneously;

b) hazardous operations can cause harm to personnel or damage to private or public property

(external to the launch site facilities) or the environment;

c) hazardous operations carried out by one operator can cause harm to personnel or property damage

to another operator;
d) some hazardous operations are performed by several operators.

Therefore, ground safety responsibilities and requirements shall be allocated between a specific

operator selected from all the authorized operators, the ground safety operator in this document,

and other operators carrying out prelaunch (integration, test, checking, preparation, etc.) or launch

operations on the launch site.
4.3.2 Ground safety operator responsibilities

Some ground safety responsibilities are general enough to be specified in this document.

The ground safety operator shall be approved by the national responsible authority of the launch site

country to perform the activities related to its ground safety responsibilities.
The ground safety operator shall be responsible for:

a) identifying, supervising and coordinating the allocation of ground safety responsibilities and

requirements among the operators;

b) specifying ground safety rules to be applied by the operators meeting one or more of the previous

criteria (as described in 4.3.1) associated with the hazardous operations;
c) verifying the application of the specified rules;

e) reviewing and approving the procedures of hazardous operations meeting one or more of the

previous criteria b), c) and d) and as described in 4.3.1;

f) supervising and coordinating hazardous operations meeting one or more of the previous criteria

(as described in 4.3.1);

g) verifying that the emergency plans of the operators performing hazardous operations meeting one

or more of the previous criteria (as described in 4.3.1) are consistent and in accordance with the

approved emergency procedures;
h) defining the general safety training (as required in 6.6.2);
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ISO 14620-2:2019(E)

i) verifying and ensuring that the safety training of each operator is consistent and homogeneous

with all the other training;

j) implementing resolutions for conflicts arising among the operators from hazardous operations;

k) coordinating with, and notifying, local government authorities, as appropriate, on all matters

affecting public safety and environmental protection;

l) reporting any incident or accident to affected authorities (including local government authorities),

and participating in mishap investigations and finding documentation;
m) communicating the safety lessons learned to the other operators;

n) setting up a ground safety organization capable of performing ground safety responsibilities;

o) developing and maintaining a consistent environmental safety policy that meets the regulatory

requirements of the launch site country.
4.3.3 Operator responsibilities

Each operator (e.g. launch site operator, specific site operator, launch vehicle operator, payload operator)

on a launch site shall be responsible for:

a) protecting personnel, property and the environment from any damage caused by its own

hazardous items;
b) applying the ground safety rules issued from the ground safety operator;

c) developing, implementing, maintaining, taking into account, and abiding by its own ground safety

rules, consistent with the other ground safety rules and the applicable requirements (occupational

safety and health, workers, environment, space, etc.);

d) accepting the allocation of the appropriate ground safety responsibilities from the ground safety

operator;

e) defining and implementing the associated ground safety arrangements that ensure the ground

safety risks inherent in its operations are compatible with the stated safety objectives (as required

in 5.3) and are safely controlled;

f) identifying the hazards and hazardous situations and assessing the associated ground safety risks

by performing hazard analysis on its space vehicles, sites and operations, and eliminating the

hazards and hazardous situations or reducing the unacceptable ground safety risks;

g) managing the residual ground safety risks inherent in its space vehicles, sites and operations

(including procedures and personnel) to achieve safe operations;
h) performing the necessary functions to ensure safe operations;

i) developing, verifying, implementing and maintaining an emergency plan for the mishaps that can

occur during its own hazardous operations;

j) participating in mishap investigations as required by the ground or flight safety operator;

k) defining and providing the specific safety training by site (as required in 6.6.3) related to its

operations;

l) verifying that any worker has a valid safety accreditation (as required in 6.6.5) before beginning

any hazardous operation;

m) setting up a ground safety organization capable of performing its ground safety responsibilities.

If the ground safety rules of a launch site and the occupational safety and health regulations of the

country of a foreign operator performing space activities on this launch site are in conflict, then the

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ISO 14620-2:2019(E)

former takes precedence over the latter for this operator and its workers participating in activities

carried out on or from the launch site. However, exceptions can be made for specific cases duly accepted

by the suitable national responsible authority of the launch site country.

Ground safety rules of an operator performing space activities on or from a launch site may exceed the

launch site country's own occupational safety and health regulations.

It is presupposed that any operator carrying out operations on a launch site respects and applies the

territorial and national relevant regulations.
4.4 Flight safety
4.4.1 Flight safety operator

The allocation of the flight safety responsibilities and requirements among various operators may vary.

However, on the same launch site, the flight safety responsibilities and requirements shall be allocated

only between a specific authorized operator, the flight safety operator in this document, and each

space vehicle operator carrying out prelaunch (integration, test, checking, preparation, etc.) or launch

operations on the launch site.
4.4.2 Flight safety operator responsibilities

Some flight safety responsibilities are general enough to be specified in this document.

The flight safety operator shall be approved by the national responsible authority of the launch site

country to perform in-flight safety activities related to its responsibilities during the launch phase of a

space vehicle.
The flight safety operator shall be responsible for:

a) protecting personnel, property and the environment from damage that may arise from a space

vehicle (whether manned or unmanned) during its launch phase;

b) controlling the flight safety risks during the launch phase of a space vehicle (e.g. by using the flight

safety systems required in ISO 14620-3);

c) developing and maintaining the flight safety rules to be applied to each space vehicle, taking into

consideration the national regulatory laws (health, environment, space, etc.) and the concerned

ground safety rules;

d) allocating, in accordance with the concerned space vehicle operators, the flight safety

responsibilities and requirements;

e) developing, implementing, maintaining, taking into account and abiding by its own flight safety

rules to be applied during the launch phase;

f) defining and implementing the associated flight safety systems (see ISO 14620-3) that ensure the

flight safety risks are compatible with the stated safety objectives (a
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