The structural materials handbook, SMH, combines materials and design information on established polymer matrix composites with provisional information on the emerging groups of newer advanced materials and their composites. Design aspects are described, along with factors associated with joining and manufacturing. Where possible, these are illustrated by examples or case studies.
The Structural materials handbook contains 8 Parts.
A glossary of terms, definitions and abbreviated terms for these handbooks is contained in Part 8.
The parts are as follows:
Part 1 Overview and material properties and applications                    Clauses 1 ‐ 9
Part 2 Design calculation methods and general design aspects    Clauses 10 ‐ 22
Part 3 Load transfer and design of joints and design of structures    Clauses 23 ‐ 32
Part 4 Integrity control, verification guidelines and manufacturing    Clauses 33 ‐ 45
Part 5 New advanced materials, advanced metallic materials, general design aspects and load transfer and design of joints    Clauses 46 ‐ 63
Part 6 Fracture and material modelling, case studies and design and integrity control and inspection    Clauses 64 ‐ 81
Part 7 Thermal and environmental integrity, manufacturing aspects, in‐orbit and health monitoring, soft materials, hybrid materials and nanotechnoligies   Clauses 82 ‐ 107
Part 8 Glossary   
NOTE: The 8 parts will be numbered TR17603-32-01 to TR 17603-32-08

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The structural materials handbook, SMH, combines materials and design information on established polymer matrix composites with provisional information on the emerging groups of newer advanced materials and their composites. Design aspects are described, along with factors associated with joining and manufacturing. Where possible, these are illustrated by examples or case studies.
The Structural materials handbook contains 8 Parts.
A glossary of terms, definitions and abbreviated terms for these handbooks is contained in Part 8.
The parts are as follows:
Part 1 Overview and material properties and applications                    Clauses 1 ‐ 9
Part 2 Design calculation methods and general design aspects    Clauses 10 ‐ 22
Part 3 Load transfer and design of joints and design of structures    Clauses 23 ‐ 32
Part 4 Integrity control, verification guidelines and manufacturing    Clauses 33 ‐ 45
Part 5 New advanced materials, advanced metallic materials, general design aspects and load transfer and design of joints    Clauses 46 ‐ 63
Part 6 Fracture and material modelling, case studies and design and integrity control and inspection    Clauses 64 ‐ 81
Part 7 Thermal and environmental integrity, manufacturing aspects, in‐orbit and health monitoring, soft materials, hybrid materials and nanotechnoligies   Clauses 82 ‐ 107
Part 8 Glossary   
NOTE: The 8 parts will be numbered TR17603-32-01 to TR 17603-32-08

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The structural materials handbook, SMH, combines materials and design information on established polymer matrix composites with provisional information on the emerging groups of newer advanced materials and their composites. Design aspects are described, along with factors associated with joining and manufacturing. Where possible, these are illustrated by examples or case studies.
The Structural materials handbook contains 8 Parts.
A glossary of terms, definitions and abbreviated terms for these handbooks is contained in Part 8.
The parts are as follows:
Part 1 Overview and material properties and applications                    Clauses 1 ‐ 9
Part 2 Design calculation methods and general design aspects    Clauses 10 ‐ 22
Part 3 Load transfer and design of joints and design of structures    Clauses 23 ‐ 32
Part 4 Integrity control, verification guidelines and manufacturing    Clauses 33 ‐ 45
Part 5 New advanced materials, advanced metallic materials, general design aspects and load transfer and design of joints    Clauses 46 ‐ 63
Part 6 Fracture and material modelling, case studies and design and integrity control and inspection    Clauses 64 ‐ 81
Part 7 Thermal and environmental integrity, manufacturing aspects, in‐orbit and health monitoring, soft materials, hybrid materials and nanotechnoligies   Clauses 82 ‐ 107
Part 8 Glossary   
NOTE: The 8 parts will be numbered TR17603-32-01 to TR 17603-32-08

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The structural materials handbook, SMH, combines materials and design information on established polymer matrix composites with provisional information on the emerging groups of newer advanced materials and their composites. Design aspects are described, along with factors associated with joining and manufacturing. Where possible, these are illustrated by examples or case studies.
The Structural materials handbook contains 8 Parts.
A glossary of terms, definitions and abbreviated terms for these handbooks is contained in Part 8.
The parts are as follows:
Part 1 Overview and material properties and applications                    Clauses 1 ‐ 9
Part 2 Design calculation methods and general design aspects    Clauses 10 ‐ 22
Part 3 Load transfer and design of joints and design of structures    Clauses 23 ‐ 32
Part 4 Integrity control, verification guidelines and manufacturing    Clauses 33 ‐ 45
Part 5 New advanced materials, advanced metallic materials, general design aspects and load transfer and design of joints    Clauses 46 ‐ 63
Part 6 Fracture and material modelling, case studies and design and integrity control and inspection    Clauses 64 ‐ 81
Part 7 Thermal and environmental integrity, manufacturing aspects, in‐orbit and health monitoring, soft materials, hybrid materials and nanotechnoligies   Clauses 82 ‐ 107
Part 8 Glossary   
NOTE: The 8 parts will be numbered TR17603-32-01 to TR 17603-32-08

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The structural materials handbook, SMH, combines materials and design information on established polymer matrix composites with provisional information on the emerging groups of newer advanced materials and their composites. Design aspects are described, along with factors associated with joining and manufacturing. Where possible, these are illustrated by examples or case studies.
The Structural materials handbook contains 8 Parts.
A glossary of terms, definitions and abbreviated terms for these handbooks is contained in Part 8.
The parts are as follows:
Part 1 Overview and material properties and applications                    Clauses 1 ‐ 9
Part 2 Design calculation methods and general design aspects    Clauses 10 ‐ 22
Part 3 Load transfer and design of joints and design of structures    Clauses 23 ‐ 32
Part 4 Integrity control, verification guidelines and manufacturing    Clauses 33 ‐ 45
Part 5 New advanced materials, advanced metallic materials, general design aspects and load transfer and design of joints    Clauses 46 ‐ 63
Part 6 Fracture and material modelling, case studies and design and integrity control and inspection    Clauses 64 ‐ 81
Part 7 Thermal and environmental integrity, manufacturing aspects, in‐orbit and health monitoring, soft materials, hybrid materials and nanotechnoligies   Clauses 82 ‐ 107
Part 8 Glossary   
NOTE: The 8 parts will be numbered TR17603-32-01 to TR 17603-32-08

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The structural materials handbook, SMH, combines materials and design information on established polymer matrix composites with provisional information on the emerging groups of newer advanced materials and their composites. Design aspects are described, along with factors associated with joining and manufacturing. Where possible, these are illustrated by examples or case studies.
The Structural materials handbook contains 8 Parts.
A glossary of terms, definitions and abbreviated terms for these handbooks is contained in Part 8.
The parts are as follows:
Part 1 Overview and material properties and applications                    Clauses 1 ‐ 9
Part 2 Design calculation methods and general design aspects    Clauses 10 ‐ 22
Part 3 Load transfer and design of joints and design of structures    Clauses 23 ‐ 32
Part 4 Integrity control, verification guidelines and manufacturing    Clauses 33 ‐ 45
Part 5 New advanced materials, advanced metallic materials, general design aspects and load transfer and design of joints    Clauses 46 ‐ 63
Part 6 Fracture and material modelling, case studies and design and integrity control and inspection    Clauses 64 ‐ 81
Part 7 Thermal and environmental integrity, manufacturing aspects, in‐orbit and health monitoring, soft materials, hybrid materials and nanotechnoligies   Clauses 82 ‐ 107
Part 8 Glossary   
NOTE: The 8 parts will be numbered TR17603-32-01 to TR 17603-32-08

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The structural materials handbook, SMH, combines materials and design information on established polymer matrix composites with provisional information on the emerging groups of newer advanced materials and their composites. Design aspects are described, along with factors associated with joining and manufacturing. Where possible, these are illustrated by examples or case studies.
The Structural materials handbook contains 8 Parts.
A glossary of terms, definitions and abbreviated terms for these handbooks is contained in Part 8.
The parts are as follows:
Part 1 Overview and material properties and applications                    Clauses 1 ‐ 9
Part 2 Design calculation methods and general design aspects    Clauses 10 ‐ 22
Part 3 Load transfer and design of joints and design of structures    Clauses 23 ‐ 32
Part 4 Integrity control, verification guidelines and manufacturing    Clauses 33 ‐ 45
Part 5 New advanced materials, advanced metallic materials, general design aspects and load transfer and design of joints    Clauses 46 ‐ 63
Part 6 Fracture and material modelling, case studies and design and integrity control and inspection    Clauses 64 ‐ 81
Part 7 Thermal and environmental integrity, manufacturing aspects, in‐orbit and health monitoring, soft materials, hybrid materials and nanotechnoligies   Clauses 82 ‐ 107
Part 8 Glossary   
NOTE: The 8 parts will be numbered TR17603-32-01 to TR 17603-32-08

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Common engineering practices involve the assessment, through computer simulation (with software like NASCAP [RD.4] or SPIS [RD.5]), of the levels of absolute and differential potentials reached by space systems in flight. This is usually made mandatory by customers and by standards for the orbits most at risk such as GEO or MEO and long transfers to GEO by, for example, electric propulsion.
The ECSS-E-ST-20-06 standard requires the assessment of spacecraft charging but it is not appropriate in a standard to explain how such an assessment is performed. It is the role of this document ECSS-E-HB-20-06, to explain in more detail important aspects of the charging process and to give guidance on how to carry out charging assessment by computer simulation.
The ECSS-E-ST-10-04 standard specifies many aspects of the space environment, including the plasma and radiation characteristics corresponding to worst cases for surface and internal charging. In this document the use of these environment descriptions in worst case simulations is described.
The emphasis in this document is on high level charging in natural environments. One aspect that is currently not addressed is the use of active sources e.g. for electric propulsion or spacecraft potential control. The tools to address this are still being developed and this area can be addressed in a later edition.

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This Handbook deals with control systems developed as part of a space project. It is applicable to all the elements of a space system, including the space segment, the ground segment and the launch service segment. The handbook covers all aspects of space control engineering including requirements definition, analysis, design, production, verification and validation, transfer, operations and maintenance. It describes the scope of the space control engineering process and its interfaces with management and product assurance, and explains how they apply to the control engineering process.

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This handbook is dedicated to the subject of thermal analysis for space applications. Thermal analysis is an important method of verification during the development of space systems. The purpose of this handbook is to provide thermal analysts with practical guidelines which support efficient and high quality thermal modelling and analysis.
Specifically, the handbook aims to improve:
1.the general comprehension of the context, drivers and constraints for thermal analysis campaigns;
2.the general quality of thermal models through the use of a consistent process for thermal modelling;
3.the credibility of thermal model predictions by rigorous verification of model results and outputs;
4.long term maintainability of thermal models via better model management, administration and documentation;
5.the efficiency of inter-organisation collaboration by setting out best practice for model transfer and conversion.
The intended users of the document are people, working in the domain of space systems, who use thermal analysis as part of their work. These users can be in industry, in (inter)national agencies, or in academia. Moreover, the guidelines are designed to be useful to users working on products at every level of a space project - that is to say at system level, sub-system level, unit level etc.
In some cases a guideline could not be globally applicable (for example not relevant for very high temperature applications). In these cases the limitations are explicitly given in the text of the handbook.

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In general terms, the scope of the consolidation of LCLs power distribution interface requirements in the EN 16603-20-20 (equivalent to ECSS-E-ST-20-20) and the relevant explanation in the present handbook is to allow a more recurrent approach for the specific designs offered by power unit manufacturers, at the benefit of the system integrators and of the Agency, thus ensuring:
- better quality,
- stability of performances, and
- independence of the products from specific mission targets.
A recurrent approach enables power distribution manufacturing companies to concentrate on products and a small step improvement approach that is the basis of a high quality industrial output.
In particular, the scope of the present handbook is:
- to explain the principles of operation of power distribution based on LCLs,
- to identify important issues related to LCLs, and
- to give some explanations of the requirements set up in the ECSS-E-ST-20-20 for power distribution based on LCLs, for both source and load sides.

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This Handbook deals with control systems developed as part of a space project. It is applicable to all the elements of a space system, including the space segment, the ground segment and the launch service segment. It addresses the issue of control performance, in terms of definition, specification, verification and validation methods and processes. The handbook establishes a general framework for handling performance indicators, which applies to all disciplines involving control engineering, and which can be declined as well at different levels ranging from equipment to system level. It also focuses on the specific performance indicators applicable to the case of closed-loop control systems. Rules and guidelines are provided allowing to combine different error sources in order to build up a performance budget and to assess the compliance with a requirement. This version of the handbook does not cover control performance issues in the frame of launch systems.

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The objective of this EMC Handbook is to point out all the issues relevant to space systems EMC, to provide a general technical treatment and to address the interested reader to more thorough and in-depth publications.
NOTE: It is possible to find fundamental and advanced treatment of many aspects related to EMC: many universities offer courses on EMC and a large number of textbooks, papers and technical documents are available. Therefore replicating in this Handbook the available knowledge is impractical and meaningless.
Emphasis is given to space systems EMC design, development and verification, and specifically to the practical aspects related to these issues.
NOTE: This has been possible thanks to the collaboration of space industry, especially on items which are not textbook issues and whose solution needs the widespread experience gained in large number of projects.

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In general terms, the scope of the consolidation of the electrical interface requirements for electrical actuators in the EN 16603-20-21 (equivalent to ECSS-E-ST-20-21) and the relevant explanation in the present handbook is to allow a more recurrent approach both for actuator electronics (power source) and electrical actuators (power load) offered by the relevant manufacturers, at the benefit of the system integrators and of the European space agencies, thus ensuring:
- Better quality
- Stability of performances
- Independence of the products from specific mission targets.
A recurrent approach enables manufacturing companies to concentrate on products and a small step improvement approach that is the basis of a high quality industrial output.
In particular, the scope of the present handbook is:
- To explain the type of actuators, the principles of operation and the typical configuration of the relevant actuator electronics,
- To identify important issues relevant to electrical actuators interfaces, and
- To give some explanations of the requirements set up in the EN 16603-20-21.

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The structural materials handbook, SMH, combines materials and design information on established polymer matrix composites with provisional information on the emerging groups of newer advanced materials and their composites. Design aspects are described, along with factors associated with joining and manufacturing. Where possible, these are illustrated by examples or case studies.
The Structural materials handbook contains 8 Parts.
A glossary of terms, definitions and abbreviated terms for these handbooks is contained in Part 8.
The parts are as follows:
Part 1 Overview and material properties and applications                    Clauses 1 ‐ 9
Part 2 Design calculation methods and general design aspects    Clauses 10 ‐ 22
Part 3 Load transfer and design of joints and design of structures    Clauses 23 ‐ 32
Part 4 Integrity control, verification guidelines and manufacturing    Clauses 33 ‐ 45
Part 5 New advanced materials, advanced metallic materials, general design aspects and load transfer and design of joints    Clauses 46 ‐ 63
Part 6 Fracture and material modelling, case studies and design and integrity control and inspection    Clauses 64 ‐ 81
Part 7 Thermal and environmental integrity, manufacturing aspects, in‐orbit and health monitoring, soft materials, hybrid materials and nanotechnoligies   Clauses 82 ‐ 107
Part 8 Glossary   
NOTE: The 8 parts will be numbered TR17603-32-01 to TR 17603-32-08

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This Standard applies to all parties involved at all levels in the realization of space segment hardware and its interfaces.
The objective of this Standard is to provide customers with a guaranteed performance and reliability up to the equipment end-of-life. To this end, the following are specified:
- Load ratios or limits to reduce stress applied to components;
- Application rules and recommendations.

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The scope includes metallic Powder Bed Fusion technologies for space applications.
A clear definition and implementation of quality monitoring and control means is mandatory and shall address the full end to end metallic PBF process, encompassing:
• Design / Simulation
• Materials management (Powder, shielding gases, other consumables, recycling, etc.)
• Processing
• Post Processing
• Testing
By developing a single standard which can be tailored in the Project definition phase, it will help the Space Industry in performing the following functions
related to metallic PBF technologies over the full end to end process:
(i) select and qualify metallic PBF processes for the appropriate application,
(ii) select and validate raw materials for the appropriate applications,
(iii) define monitoring and control means during production to ensure that metallic PBF parts are produced with the required quality,
(iv) define requirements for applying Non-Destructive Inspection methods for the different metallic PBF parts,
(v) define requirements to verify/qualify space parts produced by metallic PBF processes for the selected applications and associated environment,
(vi) define specific requirements for operators/inspectors/instructors certification,
(vii) define requirements for metallic PBF machines certification,
(viii) define requirements for metallic PBF Companies certification.
The Standard will be complemented with informative Annexes, listing guidelines and best practices on specific technical aspects.

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This ECSS Engineering Standard specifies the fracture control requirements to be imposed on space segments of space systems and their related GSE. The fracture control programme is applicable for space systems and related GSE when required by ECSS-Q-ST-40 or by the NASA document NST 1700.7, incl. ISS addendum. The requirements contained in this Standard, when implemented, also satisfy the fracture control requirements applicable to the NASA STS and ISS as specified in the NASA document NSTS 1700.7 (incl. the ISS Addendum). The NASA nomenclature differs in some cases from that used by ECSS. When STS/ISS-specific requirements and nomenclature are included, they are identified as such.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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Using standard communication protocols for spacecraft communication links
can provide interface compatibility between communication devices and
components. Thus, it can improve the design and development process as well
as integration and test activities at all levels and provide the potential of
reusability across projects.
The aim of this space engineering standard is to define the interface services
and to specify their corresponding network protocol elements for spacecraft
using the Time-Triggered Ethernet data network. It also aims at defining
requirements for the harmonisation of the physical interfaces and usage of the
[IEEE 802.3] and [SAE AS6802] layer features.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constraints of a
space project in conformance with ECSS‐S‐ST‐00

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This handbook provides guidelines to perform the worst case analysis. It applies to all electrical and electronic equipment. This worst case analysis (WCA) method can also be applied at subsystem level to justify electrical interface specifications and design margins for equipment. It applies to all project phases where electrical interface requirements are established and circuit design is carried out.
The worst case analysis is generally carried out when designing the circuit. For selected circuitry, worst case analysis (WCA) can be used to validate a conceptual design approach.

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This handbook identifies data sources and respective methods that can be used for reliability prediction of components. It proposes suitable data sources and an application matrix for component families.

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This handbook provides a compilation of different techniques that can be used to mitigate the adverse effects of radiation in integrated circuits (ICs), with almost exclusive attention to Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) to be used in space, and excluding other ICs like power devices, MMIC or sensors.
The target users of this handbook are developers and users of ICs which are meant to be used in a radiation environment. Following a bottom-up order, the techniques are presented according to the different stages of an IC development flow where they can be applied. Therefore, users of this handbook can be IC engineers involved in the selection, use or development of IC manufacturing processes, IC layouts and ASIC standard cell libraries, analogue and digital circuit designs, FPGAs, embedded memories, embedded software and the immediate electronic system (printed circuit board) containing the IC that can experience the radiation effects.
In addition, this handbook contains an overview of the space radiation environment and its effects in semiconductor devices, a section on how to validate the good implementation and effectiveness of the mitigation techniques, and a special section providing some general guidelines to help with the selection of the most adequate mitigation techniques including some examples of typical space project scenarios.
The information given in this ECSS Handbook is provided only as guidelines and for reference, and not to be used as requirements. ECSS Standards provide requirements that can be made applicable, while, ECSS Handbooks provide guidelines.

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The handbook defines the principles and processes of human dependability as integral part of system safety and dependability. The handbook focuses on human behaviour and performance during the different operation situations as for example in a control centre such as handover to routine mission operation, routine mission operation, satellite maintenance or emergency operations.
This handbook illustrates the implementation of human dependability in the system life cycle, where during any project phase there exists the need to systematically include considerations of the:
- Human element as part of the space system,
- Impact of human behaviour and performance on safety and dependability.
Within this scope, the main application areas of the handbook are to support the:
a.   Development and validation of space system design during the different project phases,  
b.   Development, preparation and implementation of space system operations including their support such as the organisation, rules, training etc.
c.   Collection of human error data and investigation of incidents or accidents involving human error.
The handbook does not address:
- Design errors: The handbook intends to support design (and therefore in this sense, addresses design errors) regarding the avoidance or mitigation of human errors during operations. However, human error during design development are not considered.
- Quantitative (e.g. probabilistic) analysis of human behaviour and performance: The handbook does not address probabilistic assessment of human errors as input to system level safety and dependability analysis and consideration of probabilistic targets, and
- Intentional malicious acts and security related issues: Dependability and safety deals with "threats to safety and mission success" in terms of failures and human non malicious errors and for the sake of completeness includes "threats to safety and mission success" in terms of malicious actions, which are addressed through security risk analysis. However by definition "human dependability" as presented in this handbook excludes the consideration of "malicious actions" and security related issues i.e. considers only "non-malicious actions" of humans.
The handbook does not directly provide information on some disciplines or subjects, which only indirectly i.e. at the level of PSFs (see section 5) interface with "human dependability". Therefore the handbook does not provide direct support to "goals" such as:
- optimize information flux in control room during simulations and critical operations,
- manage cultural differences in a team,
- cope with negative group dynamics,
- present best practices and guidelines about team training needs and training methods,
- provide guidelines and best practices concerning planning of shifts,
- present basic theory about team motivation, and
- manage conflict of interests on a project.

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This document specifies the verification test activities for assessing the RF performance of integrated spacecraft, including test items, test requirements, and typical test procedures, test facility and chamber environment, with respect to the testing using compact range. This document is applicable to the RF performance test for spacecraft at system level using compact range.

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The scope of the document addresses the generic verification for all types of adhesive bonding for space applications including evaluation phases. It specifies all aspects of the adhesive bonding lifetime such as assembly, integration and testing, on-ground acceptance testing, storage, transport, pre-launch, launch and in-flight environments.
This standard does not cover requirements for:
-   adhesive bonding used in EEE mounting on printed circuit boards (ECSS-Q-ST-70-61)
-   adhesive bonding used in hybrid manufacturing (ESCC 2566000)
-   adhesive bonding for cover-glass on solar cell assemblies (ECSS-E-ST-20-08)
-   design of adhesive joint
-   long term storage and long term storage sample testing
-   performance of adhesive bond
-   functional properties of adhesive joint
•   co-curing processes
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This Handbook provides guidelines to manage obsolescence of Materials, Mechanical Parts and Processes (in-house and sub-contracted).
It is useful for any actor of the European Space sector.
It covers Materials, Mechanical Parts and Processes (MMPP) used in flight hardware as well as ground support equipment (including test systems) and materials or tools used during process (not in the final product) and skills (knowhow).
It is not within the scope of this Handbook to address EEE components and software.
This document describes the general causes of obsolescences and introduces the concepts of proactive and reactive obsolescence management, depending of the programme phase.

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This handbook provides recommendations, methods and procedures that can be used for the selection and reuse of existing software in space software systems.
This handbook is applicable to all types of software of a space system, including the space segment, the launch service segment and the ground segment software (including EGSEs) whenever existing software is intended to be reused within them.
This handbook covers the following topics:
• Software reuse approach including guidelines to build the Software Reuse File
• Techniques to support completion of existing software qualification to allow its reuse in a particular project
• Tool qualification
• Risk management aspects of reusing existing software Existing software can be of any type: Purchased (or COTS), Legacy-Software, open-source software, customer-furnished items (CFI's), etc.
NOTE Special emphasis is put on guidance for the reuse of COTS software often available as-is and for which no code and documentation are often available.
Legal and contractual aspects of reuse are in principle out of scope; how ever guidelines to help in determine the
reusability of existing software from a contractual point of view is provided in [ESA/REG/002].
Any organization with the business objective of systematic reuse may need to implement the organizational reuse processes presented in [ISO12207]. These processes w ill support the identification of reusable software products and components within selected reuse domains, their classification, storage and systematic reuse within the projects of that organization, etc. But these processes are out of scope of this handbook as the handbook is centred on the specific project activities to reuse an existing software product, not part of those organizational reuse processes more oriented to ‘design for reuse’ processes.
In addition, this handbook provides guidelines to be used for the selection and analysis of tools for the development, verification and validation of the operational software.

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This handbook provides assessors with a number of instruments needed to perform software process capability assessments using the assessment method described in EN 17603-80-11 (equivalent to ECSS-Q-HB-80-02 Part 1). It also provides instruments that help assessors to carry out their activities when performing assessments and supporting the implementation of software process improvement initiatives using the method for process improvement described in Part 1.
The instruments provided are:
• The Process Assessment Model (PAM) required to perform assessments including process descriptions and process attribute indicators
• Conformance statement to the requirements in ISO/IEC 15504 Part 2
• A definition of the Process Reference Model (PRM) on which TR 17603-80-11 and TR 17603-80-12 (equivalent to ECSS-Q-HB-80-02 Part 1 and 2) PAM are based (defined in TR 17603-80-11)
• Detailed traces from base practices in the PAM to standard clauses and from work products to expected outputs.

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The scope of this Handbook is the software metrication as part of a space project, i.e. a space system, a subsystem including hardware and software, or ultimately a software product. It is intended to complement the EN 16602-80 (equivalent to ECSS-Q-ST-80) with specific guidelines related to use of different software metrics including their collection, analysis and reporting. Tailoring guidelines for the software metrication process are also provided to help to meet specific project requirements.
This Handbook provides recommendations, methods and procedures that can be used for the selection and application of appropriate metrics, but it does not include new requirements w ith respect to those provided by EN 16602-80 (equivalent to ECSS-ST-Q-80).
The scope of this Handbook covers the following topics:
• Specification of the goals and objectives for a metrication programme.
• Identification of criteria for selection of metrics in a specific project / environment (goal driven).
• Planning of metrication in the development life cycle.
• Interface of metrication with engineering processes.
• Data collection aspects (including use of tools).
• Approach to the analysis of the collected data.
• Feedback into the process and product based on the analysis results.
• Continuous improvement of measurement process.
• Use of metrics for process and product improvement.
This Handbook is applicable to all types of software of all major parts of a space system, including the space segment, the launch service segment and the ground segment software.

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This Handbook provides guidance on the application of the dependability and safety requirements relevant to software defined in EN 16602-80 (equivalent of ECSS-Q-ST-80).
This Handbook provides support for the selection and application of software dependability and safety methods and techniques that can be used in the development of software-intensive space systems.
This Handbook covers all of the different kinds of software for which EN 16602-80 (equivalent of ECSS-Q-ST-80) is applicable. Although the overall software dependability and safety workflow description is mainly targeted to the development of spacecraft, the described approach can be adapted to projects of different nature (e.g. launchers, ground systems).
The methods and techniques described in the scope of this Handbook are limited to assessment aspects, not including development and implementation techniques for dependability and safety (e.g. fault tolerance techniques, or development methods like coding standards, etc.).
Although dependability is a composite term, including reliability, availability and maintainability, this Handbook addresses in particular the reliability aspects. Software maintainability and availability are not covered in depth by this handbook, because the relevant methods and techniques are still undergoing improvement. Nevertheless, whenever a link can be made to either of these two characteristics, it is explicitly mentioned in the corresponding section.

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This handbook defines methods for process assessment and improvement that may be used to meet the requirements on
process assessment and improvement of the EN16602-80 (equivalent to ECSS-Q-ST-80C) subclause 5.7. These methods constitute a clear and proven w ay of implementing those requirements. Alternative methods can be used provided that they meet the detailed instructions provided in this handbook for recognition of software process assessment schemes and results and process improvement.
This handbook provides a detailed method for the implementation of the requirements of the EN16602-80 for software process assessment and improvement. It also establishes detailed instructions for alternative methods intended to meet the same EN16602-80 requirements.
The process assessment and improvement scheme presented in this handbook is based on and conformant to the ISO/IEC 15504 International Standard. In designing this process assessment and improvement scheme the ISO/IEC 15504 exemplar process assessment model w as adopted and extended to address specific requirements.
The methods provided in this handbook can support organizations in meeting their business goals and in this context they can be tailored to suit their specific needs and requirements. How ever w hen used to claim compliance with relevant requirements in EN16602-80 only the steps and activities explicitly marked as recommended in this handbook may be omitted or modified.

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This Handbook establishes support the testing of Li-ion battery and associated generation of test related documentation.
This handbook sets out to:
- summarize most relevant characterisation tests
- provide guidelines for Li-ion battery testing
- provide guidelines for documentation associated w ith Li-ion cell or battery testing
- give an overview of appropriate test methods
- provide best practices

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This handbook provides additional information for the application of the verification standard EN 16603-10-02 to a space system product.
This handbook does not contain requirements and therefore cannot be made applicable. In case of conflict betw een the standard and this handbook, the standard prevails.
This handbook is relevant for both the customer and the supplier of the product during all project phases.
To facilitate the cross-reference, this handbook follow s as much as is practical, the structure of the standard and quotes the requirements, to make itself standing and easier to read (the text from the standard is in italic).
As the Standard applies to different products at different product levels from single equipment to the overall system (including space segment hardw are and softw are, launchers and Transportation Systems, ground segment, Verification tools, and GSE) several examples of tailoring, to match the specificity of each application, are proposed in Annex B.
Specific discipline related verification aspects are covered in other dedicated standards and handbooks. In particular the detailed aspects for Testing are covered in the EN 16603-10-03 and in its corresponding handbook.
The application of the requirements of the standard to a particular project is intended to result in effective product
verification and consequently to a high confidence in achieving successful product operations for the intended use, in this respect this handbook has the goal to help reaching these objectives.

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This handbook is a part of the System Engineering branch and covers the methods for the calculation of radiation received and its effects, and a policy for design margins. Both natural and man-made sources of radiation (e.g.
radioisotope thermoelectric generators, or RTGs) are considered in the handbook.
This handbook can be applied to the evaluation of radiation effects on all space systems.
This handbook can be applied to all product types w hich exist or operate in space, as w ell as to crew s of on manned space missions.
This handbook complements to EN 16603-10-12 "Methods for the calculation of radiation received and its effects and a policy for the design margin".

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This Handbook describes the guidelines and recommendations for the design and test of RF components and equipment to achieve acceptable performance with respect to multipactor-free operation in service in space. This document is the mirror document of the EN 16603-20-01 (based on ECSS-ST-20-01) normative document. Thus it includes the same contents as the normative text and has the same structure.
This Handbook is intended to result in the effective design and verification of the multipactor performance of the equipment and consequently in a high confidence in achieving successful product operation.
This Handbook covers multipactor events occurring in all classes of RF satellite components and equipment at all frequency bands of interest. Operation in single carrier CW and pulse modulated mode are included, as w ell as multicarrier operations. A detailed chapter on secondary emission yield is also included.
This Handbook does not include breakdow n processes caused by collisional processes, such as plasma formation.

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The present handbook is provided to support the implementation of the requirements of ECSS-E-AS-11 to space projects.
With this purpose, this handbook provides guidelines on the w ay to assess the maturity of a technology of a product in a
given environment, to use the TRL assessment outcome in the product development framew ork, and to introduce some
further refinements for specific disciplines or products to w hich the TRL assessment methodology can be extended.
The concept of Manufacturing Readiness Level (MRL) is not addressed in this document, w hilst the concept of TRL can
be applied to the technology-related aspects of manufacturing.

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This document is a guide for establishing essential collaborative enterprises to sustain the space environment and employ it effectively. This document describes some widely used techniques for perceiving close approaches, estimating collision probability, estimating the cumulative probability of survival, and manoeuvring to avoid collisions. NOTEÂ Â Â Â Â Â Satellite operators accept that all conjunction and collision assessment techniques are statistical. All suffer false positives and/or missed detections. The degree of uncertainty in the estimated outcomes is not uniform across all satellite orbits or all assessment intervals. No comparison within a feasible number of test cases can reveal the set of techniques that is uniformly most appropriate for all.

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This document defines the general requirements for atomic oxygen (AO) protective coatings that are applied on polyimide thermal control films. It also describes the different properties of coated polyimide films such as indium tin oxide (ITO), SiOx, germanium, and silicone, property measurement test methods, and selection guidelines.

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This document defines the elementary thermal tests to obtain thermal properties of materials and composite materials used to manufacture space body to support the fragmentation and survivability analysis. This document does not apply to spacecraft containing nuclear power sources[1].

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This standard specifies NDI requirements for flight parts, components and structures used for space missions. It covers the NDI methods and stipulates the certification levels for personnel. The qualification of such processes are also specified for non-standard NDI techniques or where complex components are concerned. This standard also identifies the best practice across the large range of international and national standards.
Visual inspection included in this standard is not intended to include incoming inspection of, for example, raw materials, damage during transport, storage and handling and parts procurement verification.
The minimum requirements for NDI documentation are specified in the DRDs of the Annexes.
This standard does not cover the acceptance criteria of components, structures and parts submitted to this examination; it is expected that these criteria are identified on specific program application documentation.
This Standard does not apply to EEE components.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This document provides guidance and requirements for test providers and interested parties to implement vibration testing. This document specifies methods, including the force limiting approach, to mitigate unnecessary over-testing of spacecraft, subsystems and units for space application. The technical requirements in this document can be tailored to meet the actual test objectives.

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This standard applies to all product types which exist or operate in space and defines the natural environment for all space regimes. It also defines general models and rules for determining the local induced environment.
Project-specific or project-class-specific acceptance criteria, analysis methods or procedures are not defined.
The natural space environment of a given item is that set of environmental conditions defined by the external physical world for the given mission (e.g. atmosphere, meteoroids and energetic particle radiation). The induced space environment is that set of environmental conditions created or modified by the presence or operation of the item and its mission (e.g. contamination, secondary radiations and spacecraft charging). The space environment also contains elements which are induced by the execution of other space activities (e.g. debris and contamination).
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This Standard establishes the basic rules and general principles applicable to the electrical, electronic, electromagnetic, microwave and engineering processes. It specifies the tasks of these engineering processes and the basic performance and design requirements in each discipline.
It defines the terminology for the activities within these areas.
It defines the specific requirements for electrical subsystems and payloads, deriving from the system engineering requirements laid out in ECSS-E-ST-10 “Space engineering – System engineering general requirements”.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This Standard defines the technical requirements and quality assurance provisions for the manufacture and verification of high-reliability electronic circuits based on surface mounted device (SMD) and mixed technology.
The Standard defines acceptance and rejection criteria for high-reliability manufacture of surface-mount and mixed-technology circuit assemblies intended to withstand normal terrestrial conditions and the vibrational g loads and environment imposed by space flight.
The proper tools, correct materials, design and workmanship are covered by this document. Workmanship standards are included to permit discrimination between proper and improper work.
The assembly of leaded devices to through-hole terminations and general soldering principles are covered in ECSS-Q-ST-70-08.
Requirements related to printed circuit boards are contained in ECSS-Q-ST-70 10, ECSS-Q-ST-70-11 and ECSS-Q-ST-70-12 . The mounting and supporting of devices, terminals and conductors prescribed herein applies to assemblies at PCB level designed to continuously operate over the mission within the temperature limits of -55 C to +85 C.
For temperatures outside this normal range, special design, verification and qualification testing is performed to ensure the necessary environmental survival capability.
Special thermal heat sinks are applied to devices having high thermal dissipation (e.g. junction temperatures of 110 C, power transistors) in order to ensure that solder joints do not exceed 85 C.
Verification of SMD assembly processes is made on test vehicles (surface mount verification samples). Temperature cycling ensures the operational lifetime for spacecraft. However, mechanical testing only indicates SMD reliability as it is unlikely that the test vehicle represents every flight configuration.
This Standard does not cover the qualification and acceptance of the EQM and FM equipment with surface-mount and mixed-technology.
The qualification and acceptance tests of equipment manufactured in accordance with this Standard are covered by ECSS-E-ST-10-03.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constraints of a space project, in accordance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This standard defines the requirements for selection, control, procurement and usage of EEE components for space projects.
This standard differentiates between three classes of components through three different sets of standardization requirements (clauses) to be met.
The three classes provide for three levels of trade-off between assurance and risk. The highest assurance and lowest risk is provided by class 1 and the lowest assurance and highest risk by class 3. Procurement costs are typically highest for class 1 and lowest for class 3. Mitigation and other engineering measures may decrease the total cost of ownership differences between the three classes. The project objectives, definition and constraints determine which class or classes of components are appropriate to be utilised within the system and subsystems.
a.   Class 1 components are described in Clause 4.
b.   Class 2 components are described in Clause 5
c.   Class 3 components are described in Clause 6.
The requirements of this document apply to all parties involved at all levels in the integration of EEE components into space segment hardware and launchers.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constraints of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This standard defines the requirements for selection, control, procurement and usage of EEE commercial components for space projects.
This standard is applicable to commercial encapsulated active monolithic parts (integrated circuits and discrete):
•   diodes
•   microwave diodes
•   integrated circuits
•   microwave integrated circuits (MMIC)
•   transistors
•   microwave transistors
This standard is not applicable to the commercial parts from the following families:
•   capacitors
•   connectors
•   crystals
•   filters
•   fuses
•   heaters
•   inductors
•   microwave passive parts
•   oscillators
•   relays
•   resistors
•   switches
•   thermistors
•   transformers
•   cables & wires
•   hybrids
•   surface acoustic waves (SAW)
•   charge coupled devices (CCD)
•   active pixel sensors (APS)
In addition, the following families of EEE components are not addressed by the present ECSS standard but it can be used as guideline and revisited on case/case basis:
•   photodiodes
•   light emitting diodes (LED)
•   phototransistors
•   opto-couplers
•   laser diodes
In line with ECSS-Q-ST-60, this standard differentiates between three classes of components through three different sets of standardization requirements (clauses) to be met.
The three classes provide for three levels of trade-off between assurance and risk. The highest assurance and lowest risk is provided by class 1 and the lowest assurance and highest risk by class 3. Procurement costs are typically highest for class 1 and lowest for class 3. Mitigation and other engineering measures can decrease the total cost of ownership differences between the three classes. The project objectives, definition and constraints determine which class or classes of components are appropriate to be utilised within the system and subsystems.
a.   Class 1 components are described in Clause 4
b.   Class 2 components are described in Clause 5
c.   Class 3 components are described in Clause 6
Annex G includes a diagram that summarizes the difference between these three classes for evaluation, screening and lot acceptance.
The requirements of this document are applicable to all parties involved at all levels in the integration of EEE commercial components into space segment hardware and launchers.
For easy tailoring and implementation of the requirements into a Requirement Management Tool, and for direct traceability to ECSS-Q-ST-60, requirements in this standards have been written in the way of a ECSS Applicability Requirement Matrix (EARM), as defined in Annex A of ECSS-S-ST-00 “ECSS system – Description, implementation and general requirements”.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This Standard defines the technical requirements and quality assurance provisions for the manufacture and verification of manually-soldered, high-reliability electrical connections. The Standard defines acceptance and rejection criteria for high reliability manufacture of manually-soldered electrical connections intended to withstand normal terrestrial conditions and the vibrational g-loads and environment imposed by space flight. The proper tools, correct materials, design and workmanship are covered by this document. Workmanship standards are included to permit discrimination between proper and improper work. The assembly of surface-mount devices is covered in ECSS-Q-ST-70-38. Requirements related to printed circuit boards are contained in ECSS-Q-ST-70-10 and ECSS-Q-ST-70-11. Verification of manual soldering assemblies which are not described in this standard are performed by vibration and thermal cycling testing. The requirements for verification are given in this Standard. This standard does not cover the qualification and acceptance of EQM and FM equipment with hand soldered connections. The qualification and acceptance tests of equipment manufactured in accordance with this Standard are covered by ECSS-E-ST-10-03. The mounting and supporting of components, terminals and conductors prescribed herein applies to assemblies designed to operate within the temperature limits of -55 °C to +85 °C. For temperatures outside this normal range, special design, verification and qualification testing is performed to ensure the necessary environmental survival capability. Special thermal heat sinks are applied to devices having high thermal dissipation (e.g. junction temperatures of 110 °C, power transistors) in order to ensure that solder joints do not exceed 85 °C. This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This specification defines the basic requirements for the verification and approval of automatic machine wave soldering for use in spacecraft hardware. The process requirements for wave soldering of double‐sided and multilayer boards are also defined.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS‐S‐ST‐00.

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Fluid loops are used to control the temperature of sensitive components in spacecraft systems in order to ensure that they can function correctly.
While there are several methods for thermal control (such as passive thermal insulations, thermoelectric devices, phase change materials, heat pipes and short-term discharge systems), fluid loops have a specific application area.
This Part 13 provides a detailed description of fluid loop systems for use in spacecraft.
The Thermal design handbook is published in 16 Parts:
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 1A    Thermal design handbook – Part 1: View factors
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 2A    Thermal design handbook – Part 2: Holes, Grooves and Cavities
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 3A    Thermal design handbook – Part 3: Spacecraft Surface Temperature
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 4A    Thermal design handbook – Part 4: Conductive Heat Transfer
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 5A    Thermal design handbook – Part 5: Structural Materials: Metallic and Composite
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 6A    Thermal design handbook – Part 6: Thermal Control Surfaces
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 7A    Thermal design handbook – Part 7: Insulations
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 8A    Thermal design handbook – Part 8: Heat Pipes
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 9A    Thermal design handbook – Part 9: Radiators
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 10A    Thermal design handbook – Part 10: Phase – Change Capacitors
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 11A    Thermal design handbook – Part 11: Electrical Heating
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 12A    Thermal design handbook – Part 12: Louvers
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 13A    Thermal design handbook – Part 13: Fluid Loops
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 14A    Thermal design handbook – Part 14: Cryogenic Cooling
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 15A    Thermal design handbook – Part 15: Existing Satellites
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 16A    Thermal design handbook – Part 16: Thermal Protection System

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The thermal protection system (TPS) of a space vehicle ensures the structural integrity of the surface of the craft and maintains the correct internal temperatures (for crew, electronic equipment, etc.) when the vehicle is under the severe thermal loads of re-entry. These loads are characterised by very large heat fluxes over the relatively short period of re-entry.
The design of thermal protection systems for re-entry vehicles is very complex due to the number and complexity of phenomena involved: the flow around the vehicle is hypersonic, tridimensional and reactive, and its interaction with the vehicle’s surface may induce chemical reactions which are not fully understood.
Two TPS concepts for re-entry vehicles, ablative and radiative are examined and there is also an anlyisis of existing systems using them.
The Thermal design handbook is published in 16 Parts
TR 17603-31-01 Part 1A    Thermal design handbook – Part 1: View factors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 2A    Thermal design handbook – Part 2: Holes, Grooves and Cavities
TR 17603-31-01 Part 3A    Thermal design handbook – Part 3: Spacecraft Surface Temperature
TR 17603-31-01 Part 4A    Thermal design handbook – Part 4: Conductive Heat Transfer
TR 17603-31-01 Part 5A    Thermal design handbook – Part 5: Structural Materials: Metallic and Composite
TR 17603-31-01 Part 6A    Thermal design handbook – Part 6: Thermal Control Surfaces
TR 17603-31-01 Part 7A    Thermal design handbook – Part 7: Insulations
TR 17603-31-01 Part 8A    Thermal design handbook – Part 8: Heat Pipes
TR 17603-31-01 Part 9A    Thermal design handbook – Part 9: Radiators
TR 17603-31-01 Part 10A    Thermal design handbook – Part 10: Phase – Change Capacitors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 11A    Thermal design handbook – Part 11: Electrical Heating
TR 17603-31-01 Part 12A    Thermal design handbook – Part 12: Louvers
TR 17603-31-01 Part 13A    Thermal design handbook – Part 13: Fluid Loops
TR 17603-31-01 Part 14A    Thermal design handbook – Part 14: Cryogenic Cooling
TR 17603-31-01 Part 15A    Thermal design handbook – Part 15: Existing Satellites
TR 17603-31-01 Part 16A    Thermal design handbook – Part 16: Thermal Protection System

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