The scope of the document addresses the generic verification for all types of adhesive bonding for space applications including evaluation phases. It specifies all aspects of the adhesive bonding lifetime such as assembly, integration and testing, on-ground acceptance testing, storage, transport, pre-launch, launch and in-flight environments.
This standard does not cover requirements for:
-   adhesive bonding used in EEE mounting on printed circuit boards (ECSS-Q-ST-70-61)
-   adhesive bonding used in hybrid manufacturing (ESCC 2566000)
-   adhesive bonding for cover-glass on solar cell assemblies (ECSS-E-ST-20-08)
-   design of adhesive joint
-   long term storage and long term storage sample testing
-   performance of adhesive bond
-   functional properties of adhesive joint
•   co-curing processes
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This handbook provides recommendations, methods and procedures that can be used for the selection and reuse of existing software in space software systems.
This handbook is applicable to all types of software of a space system, including the space segment, the launch service segment and the ground segment software (including EGSEs) whenever existing software is intended to be reused within them.
This handbook covers the following topics:
• Software reuse approach including guidelines to build the Software Reuse File
• Techniques to support completion of existing software qualification to allow its reuse in a particular project
• Tool qualification
• Risk management aspects of reusing existing software Existing software can be of any type: Purchased (or COTS), Legacy-Software, open-source software, customer-furnished items (CFI's), etc.
NOTE Special emphasis is put on guidance for the reuse of COTS software often available as-is and for which no code and documentation are often available.
Legal and contractual aspects of reuse are in principle out of scope; how ever guidelines to help in determine the
reusability of existing software from a contractual point of view is provided in [ESA/REG/002].
Any organization with the business objective of systematic reuse may need to implement the organizational reuse processes presented in [ISO12207]. These processes w ill support the identification of reusable software products and components within selected reuse domains, their classification, storage and systematic reuse within the projects of that organization, etc. But these processes are out of scope of this handbook as the handbook is centred on the specific project activities to reuse an existing software product, not part of those organizational reuse processes more oriented to ‘design for reuse’ processes.
In addition, this handbook provides guidelines to be used for the selection and analysis of tools for the development, verification and validation of the operational software.

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This handbook provides assessors with a number of instruments needed to perform software process capability assessments using the assessment method described in EN 17603-80-11 (equivalent to ECSS-Q-HB-80-02 Part 1). It also provides instruments that help assessors to carry out their activities when performing assessments and supporting the implementation of software process improvement initiatives using the method for process improvement described in Part 1.
The instruments provided are:
• The Process Assessment Model (PAM) required to perform assessments including process descriptions and process attribute indicators
• Conformance statement to the requirements in ISO/IEC 15504 Part 2
• A definition of the Process Reference Model (PRM) on which TR 17603-80-11 and TR 17603-80-12 (equivalent to ECSS-Q-HB-80-02 Part 1 and 2) PAM are based (defined in TR 17603-80-11)
• Detailed traces from base practices in the PAM to standard clauses and from work products to expected outputs.

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This Handbook provides guidance on the application of the dependability and safety requirements relevant to software defined in EN 16602-80 (equivalent of ECSS-Q-ST-80).
This Handbook provides support for the selection and application of software dependability and safety methods and techniques that can be used in the development of software-intensive space systems.
This Handbook covers all of the different kinds of software for which EN 16602-80 (equivalent of ECSS-Q-ST-80) is applicable. Although the overall software dependability and safety workflow description is mainly targeted to the development of spacecraft, the described approach can be adapted to projects of different nature (e.g. launchers, ground systems).
The methods and techniques described in the scope of this Handbook are limited to assessment aspects, not including development and implementation techniques for dependability and safety (e.g. fault tolerance techniques, or development methods like coding standards, etc.).
Although dependability is a composite term, including reliability, availability and maintainability, this Handbook addresses in particular the reliability aspects. Software maintainability and availability are not covered in depth by this handbook, because the relevant methods and techniques are still undergoing improvement. Nevertheless, whenever a link can be made to either of these two characteristics, it is explicitly mentioned in the corresponding section.

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This handbook defines methods for process assessment and improvement that may be used to meet the requirements on
process assessment and improvement of the EN16602-80 (equivalent to ECSS-Q-ST-80C) subclause 5.7. These methods constitute a clear and proven w ay of implementing those requirements. Alternative methods can be used provided that they meet the detailed instructions provided in this handbook for recognition of software process assessment schemes and results and process improvement.
This handbook provides a detailed method for the implementation of the requirements of the EN16602-80 for software process assessment and improvement. It also establishes detailed instructions for alternative methods intended to meet the same EN16602-80 requirements.
The process assessment and improvement scheme presented in this handbook is based on and conformant to the ISO/IEC 15504 International Standard. In designing this process assessment and improvement scheme the ISO/IEC 15504 exemplar process assessment model w as adopted and extended to address specific requirements.
The methods provided in this handbook can support organizations in meeting their business goals and in this context they can be tailored to suit their specific needs and requirements. How ever w hen used to claim compliance with relevant requirements in EN16602-80 only the steps and activities explicitly marked as recommended in this handbook may be omitted or modified.

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The scope of this Handbook is the software metrication as part of a space project, i.e. a space system, a subsystem including hardware and software, or ultimately a software product. It is intended to complement the EN 16602-80 (equivalent to ECSS-Q-ST-80) with specific guidelines related to use of different software metrics including their collection, analysis and reporting. Tailoring guidelines for the software metrication process are also provided to help to meet specific project requirements.
This Handbook provides recommendations, methods and procedures that can be used for the selection and application of appropriate metrics, but it does not include new requirements w ith respect to those provided by EN 16602-80 (equivalent to ECSS-ST-Q-80).
The scope of this Handbook covers the following topics:
• Specification of the goals and objectives for a metrication programme.
• Identification of criteria for selection of metrics in a specific project / environment (goal driven).
• Planning of metrication in the development life cycle.
• Interface of metrication with engineering processes.
• Data collection aspects (including use of tools).
• Approach to the analysis of the collected data.
• Feedback into the process and product based on the analysis results.
• Continuous improvement of measurement process.
• Use of metrics for process and product improvement.
This Handbook is applicable to all types of software of all major parts of a space system, including the space segment, the launch service segment and the ground segment software.

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This Handbook provides guidelines to manage obsolescence of Materials, Mechanical Parts and Processes (in-house and sub-contracted).
It is useful for any actor of the European Space sector.
It covers Materials, Mechanical Parts and Processes (MMPP) used in flight hardware as well as ground support equipment (including test systems) and materials or tools used during process (not in the final product) and skills (knowhow).
It is not within the scope of this Handbook to address EEE components and software.
This document describes the general causes of obsolescences and introduces the concepts of proactive and reactive obsolescence management, depending of the programme phase.

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This handbook provides additional information for the application of the verification standard EN 16603-10-02 to a space system product.
This handbook does not contain requirements and therefore cannot be made applicable. In case of conflict betw een the standard and this handbook, the standard prevails.
This handbook is relevant for both the customer and the supplier of the product during all project phases.
To facilitate the cross-reference, this handbook follow s as much as is practical, the structure of the standard and quotes the requirements, to make itself standing and easier to read (the text from the standard is in italic).
As the Standard applies to different products at different product levels from single equipment to the overall system (including space segment hardw are and softw are, launchers and Transportation Systems, ground segment, Verification tools, and GSE) several examples of tailoring, to match the specificity of each application, are proposed in Annex B.
Specific discipline related verification aspects are covered in other dedicated standards and handbooks. In particular the detailed aspects for Testing are covered in the EN 16603-10-03 and in its corresponding handbook.
The application of the requirements of the standard to a particular project is intended to result in effective product
verification and consequently to a high confidence in achieving successful product operations for the intended use, in this respect this handbook has the goal to help reaching these objectives.

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The present handbook is provided to support the implementation of the requirements of ECSS-E-AS-11 to space projects.
With this purpose, this handbook provides guidelines on the w ay to assess the maturity of a technology of a product in a
given environment, to use the TRL assessment outcome in the product development framew ork, and to introduce some
further refinements for specific disciplines or products to w hich the TRL assessment methodology can be extended.
The concept of Manufacturing Readiness Level (MRL) is not addressed in this document, w hilst the concept of TRL can
be applied to the technology-related aspects of manufacturing.

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This Handbook describes the guidelines and recommendations for the design and test of RF components and equipment to achieve acceptable performance with respect to multipactor-free operation in service in space. This document is the mirror document of the EN 16603-20-01 (based on ECSS-ST-20-01) normative document. Thus it includes the same contents as the normative text and has the same structure.
This Handbook is intended to result in the effective design and verification of the multipactor performance of the equipment and consequently in a high confidence in achieving successful product operation.
This Handbook covers multipactor events occurring in all classes of RF satellite components and equipment at all frequency bands of interest. Operation in single carrier CW and pulse modulated mode are included, as w ell as multicarrier operations. A detailed chapter on secondary emission yield is also included.
This Handbook does not include breakdow n processes caused by collisional processes, such as plasma formation.

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This handbook is a part of the System Engineering branch and covers the methods for the calculation of radiation received and its effects, and a policy for design margins. Both natural and man-made sources of radiation (e.g.
radioisotope thermoelectric generators, or RTGs) are considered in the handbook.
This handbook can be applied to the evaluation of radiation effects on all space systems.
This handbook can be applied to all product types w hich exist or operate in space, as w ell as to crew s of on manned space missions.
This handbook complements to EN 16603-10-12 "Methods for the calculation of radiation received and its effects and a policy for the design margin".

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This Handbook establishes support the testing of Li-ion battery and associated generation of test related documentation.
This handbook sets out to:
- summarize most relevant characterisation tests
- provide guidelines for Li-ion battery testing
- provide guidelines for documentation associated w ith Li-ion cell or battery testing
- give an overview of appropriate test methods
- provide best practices

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This document is a guide for establishing essential collaborative enterprises to sustain the space environment and employ it effectively. This document describes some widely used techniques for perceiving close approaches, estimating collision probability, estimating the cumulative probability of survival, and manoeuvring to avoid collisions. NOTEÂ Â Â Â Â Â Satellite operators accept that all conjunction and collision assessment techniques are statistical. All suffer false positives and/or missed detections. The degree of uncertainty in the estimated outcomes is not uniform across all satellite orbits or all assessment intervals. No comparison within a feasible number of test cases can reveal the set of techniques that is uniformly most appropriate for all.

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This document defines the general requirements for atomic oxygen (AO) protective coatings that are applied on polyimide thermal control films. It also describes the different properties of coated polyimide films such as indium tin oxide (ITO), SiOx, germanium, and silicone, property measurement test methods, and selection guidelines.

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This document defines the elementary thermal tests to obtain thermal properties of materials and composite materials used to manufacture space body to support the fragmentation and survivability analysis. This document does not apply to spacecraft containing nuclear power sources[1].

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This standard applies to all product types which exist or operate in space and defines the natural environment for all space regimes. It also defines general models and rules for determining the local induced environment.
Project-specific or project-class-specific acceptance criteria, analysis methods or procedures are not defined.
The natural space environment of a given item is that set of environmental conditions defined by the external physical world for the given mission (e.g. atmosphere, meteoroids and energetic particle radiation). The induced space environment is that set of environmental conditions created or modified by the presence or operation of the item and its mission (e.g. contamination, secondary radiations and spacecraft charging). The space environment also contains elements which are induced by the execution of other space activities (e.g. debris and contamination).
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This standard specifies NDI requirements for flight parts, components and structures used for space missions. It covers the NDI methods and stipulates the certification levels for personnel. The qualification of such processes are also specified for non-standard NDI techniques or where complex components are concerned. This standard also identifies the best practice across the large range of international and national standards.
Visual inspection included in this standard is not intended to include incoming inspection of, for example, raw materials, damage during transport, storage and handling and parts procurement verification.
The minimum requirements for NDI documentation are specified in the DRDs of the Annexes.
This standard does not cover the acceptance criteria of components, structures and parts submitted to this examination; it is expected that these criteria are identified on specific program application documentation.
This Standard does not apply to EEE components.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This document provides guidance and requirements for test providers and interested parties to implement vibration testing. This document specifies methods, including the force limiting approach, to mitigate unnecessary over-testing of spacecraft, subsystems and units for space application. The technical requirements in this document can be tailored to meet the actual test objectives.

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This Standard establishes the basic rules and general principles applicable to the electrical, electronic, electromagnetic, microwave and engineering processes. It specifies the tasks of these engineering processes and the basic performance and design requirements in each discipline.
It defines the terminology for the activities within these areas.
It defines the specific requirements for electrical subsystems and payloads, deriving from the system engineering requirements laid out in ECSS-E-ST-10 “Space engineering – System engineering general requirements”.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This Standard defines the technical requirements and quality assurance provisions for the manufacture and verification of high-reliability electronic circuits based on surface mounted device (SMD) and mixed technology.
The Standard defines acceptance and rejection criteria for high-reliability manufacture of surface-mount and mixed-technology circuit assemblies intended to withstand normal terrestrial conditions and the vibrational g loads and environment imposed by space flight.
The proper tools, correct materials, design and workmanship are covered by this document. Workmanship standards are included to permit discrimination between proper and improper work.
The assembly of leaded devices to through-hole terminations and general soldering principles are covered in ECSS-Q-ST-70-08.
Requirements related to printed circuit boards are contained in ECSS-Q-ST-70 10, ECSS-Q-ST-70-11 and ECSS-Q-ST-70-12 . The mounting and supporting of devices, terminals and conductors prescribed herein applies to assemblies at PCB level designed to continuously operate over the mission within the temperature limits of -55 C to +85 C.
For temperatures outside this normal range, special design, verification and qualification testing is performed to ensure the necessary environmental survival capability.
Special thermal heat sinks are applied to devices having high thermal dissipation (e.g. junction temperatures of 110 C, power transistors) in order to ensure that solder joints do not exceed 85 C.
Verification of SMD assembly processes is made on test vehicles (surface mount verification samples). Temperature cycling ensures the operational lifetime for spacecraft. However, mechanical testing only indicates SMD reliability as it is unlikely that the test vehicle represents every flight configuration.
This Standard does not cover the qualification and acceptance of the EQM and FM equipment with surface-mount and mixed-technology.
The qualification and acceptance tests of equipment manufactured in accordance with this Standard are covered by ECSS-E-ST-10-03.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constraints of a space project, in accordance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This standard defines the requirements for selection, control, procurement and usage of EEE commercial components for space projects.
This standard is applicable to commercial encapsulated active monolithic parts (integrated circuits and discrete):
•   diodes
•   microwave diodes
•   integrated circuits
•   microwave integrated circuits (MMIC)
•   transistors
•   microwave transistors
This standard is not applicable to the commercial parts from the following families:
•   capacitors
•   connectors
•   crystals
•   filters
•   fuses
•   heaters
•   inductors
•   microwave passive parts
•   oscillators
•   relays
•   resistors
•   switches
•   thermistors
•   transformers
•   cables & wires
•   hybrids
•   surface acoustic waves (SAW)
•   charge coupled devices (CCD)
•   active pixel sensors (APS)
In addition, the following families of EEE components are not addressed by the present ECSS standard but it can be used as guideline and revisited on case/case basis:
•   photodiodes
•   light emitting diodes (LED)
•   phototransistors
•   opto-couplers
•   laser diodes
In line with ECSS-Q-ST-60, this standard differentiates between three classes of components through three different sets of standardization requirements (clauses) to be met.
The three classes provide for three levels of trade-off between assurance and risk. The highest assurance and lowest risk is provided by class 1 and the lowest assurance and highest risk by class 3. Procurement costs are typically highest for class 1 and lowest for class 3. Mitigation and other engineering measures can decrease the total cost of ownership differences between the three classes. The project objectives, definition and constraints determine which class or classes of components are appropriate to be utilised within the system and subsystems.
a.   Class 1 components are described in Clause 4
b.   Class 2 components are described in Clause 5
c.   Class 3 components are described in Clause 6
Annex G includes a diagram that summarizes the difference between these three classes for evaluation, screening and lot acceptance.
The requirements of this document are applicable to all parties involved at all levels in the integration of EEE commercial components into space segment hardware and launchers.
For easy tailoring and implementation of the requirements into a Requirement Management Tool, and for direct traceability to ECSS-Q-ST-60, requirements in this standards have been written in the way of a ECSS Applicability Requirement Matrix (EARM), as defined in Annex A of ECSS-S-ST-00 “ECSS system – Description, implementation and general requirements”.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This standard defines the requirements for selection, control, procurement and usage of EEE components for space projects.
This standard differentiates between three classes of components through three different sets of standardization requirements (clauses) to be met.
The three classes provide for three levels of trade-off between assurance and risk. The highest assurance and lowest risk is provided by class 1 and the lowest assurance and highest risk by class 3. Procurement costs are typically highest for class 1 and lowest for class 3. Mitigation and other engineering measures may decrease the total cost of ownership differences between the three classes. The project objectives, definition and constraints determine which class or classes of components are appropriate to be utilised within the system and subsystems.
a.   Class 1 components are described in Clause 4.
b.   Class 2 components are described in Clause 5
c.   Class 3 components are described in Clause 6.
The requirements of this document apply to all parties involved at all levels in the integration of EEE components into space segment hardware and launchers.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constraints of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This Standard defines the technical requirements and quality assurance provisions for the manufacture and verification of manually-soldered, high-reliability electrical connections. The Standard defines acceptance and rejection criteria for high reliability manufacture of manually-soldered electrical connections intended to withstand normal terrestrial conditions and the vibrational g-loads and environment imposed by space flight. The proper tools, correct materials, design and workmanship are covered by this document. Workmanship standards are included to permit discrimination between proper and improper work. The assembly of surface-mount devices is covered in ECSS-Q-ST-70-38. Requirements related to printed circuit boards are contained in ECSS-Q-ST-70-10 and ECSS-Q-ST-70-11. Verification of manual soldering assemblies which are not described in this standard are performed by vibration and thermal cycling testing. The requirements for verification are given in this Standard. This standard does not cover the qualification and acceptance of EQM and FM equipment with hand soldered connections. The qualification and acceptance tests of equipment manufactured in accordance with this Standard are covered by ECSS-E-ST-10-03. The mounting and supporting of components, terminals and conductors prescribed herein applies to assemblies designed to operate within the temperature limits of -55 °C to +85 °C. For temperatures outside this normal range, special design, verification and qualification testing is performed to ensure the necessary environmental survival capability. Special thermal heat sinks are applied to devices having high thermal dissipation (e.g. junction temperatures of 110 °C, power transistors) in order to ensure that solder joints do not exceed 85 °C. This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This specification defines the basic requirements for the verification and approval of automatic machine wave soldering for use in spacecraft hardware. The process requirements for wave soldering of double‐sided and multilayer boards are also defined.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS‐S‐ST‐00.

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In this Part 15, existing satellites are described and examined from a thermal control and design view. The thermal control requirements are given and an assessment is made of the thermal control systems used against performance for each satellite.
The Thermal design handbook is published in 16 Parts
TR 17603-31-01 Part 1    Thermal design handbook – Part 1: View factors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 2    Thermal design handbook – Part 2: Holes, Grooves and Cavities
TR 17603-31-01 Part 3    Thermal design handbook – Part 3: Spacecraft Surface Temperature
TR 17603-31-01 Part 4    Thermal design handbook – Part 4: Conductive Heat Transfer
TR 17603-31-01 Part 5    Thermal design handbook – Part 5: Structural Materials: Metallic and Composite
TR 17603-31-01 Part 6    Thermal design handbook – Part 6: Thermal Control Surfaces
TR 17603-31-01 Part 7    Thermal design handbook – Part 7: Insulations
TR 17603-31-01 Part 8    Thermal design handbook – Part 8: Heat Pipes
TR 17603-31-01 Part 9    Thermal design handbook – Part 9: Radiators
TR 17603-31-01 Part 10    Thermal design handbook – Part 10: Phase – Change Capacitors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 11    Thermal design handbook – Part 11: Electrical Heating
TR 17603-31-01 Part 12    Thermal design handbook – Part 12: Louvers
TR 17603-31-01 Part 13    Thermal design handbook – Part 13: Fluid Loops
TR 17603-31-01 Part 14    Thermal design handbook – Part 14: Cryogenic Cooling
TR 17603-31-01 Part 15    Thermal design handbook – Part 15: Existing Satellites
TR 17603-31-01 Part 16    Thermal design handbook – Part 16: Thermal Protection System

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Thermal louvers are thermal control surfaces whose radiation characteristics can be varied in order to
maintain the correct operating temperature of a component subject to cyclical changes in the amount
of heat that it absorbs or generates.
The design and construction of louvers for space systems are described in this Part 12 and a clause is
also dedicated to providing details on existing systems.
The Thermal design handbook is published in 16 Parts
TR 17603-31-01 Part 1 Thermal design handbook – Part 1: View factors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 2 Thermal design handbook – Part 2: Holes, Grooves and Cavities
TR 17603-31-01 Part 3 Thermal design handbook – Part 3: Spacecraft Surface Temperature
TR 17603-31-01 Part 4 Thermal design handbook – Part 4: Conductive Heat Transfer
TR 17603-31-01 Part 5 Thermal design handbook – Part 5: Structural Materials: Metallic and
Composite
TR 17603-31-01 Part 6 Thermal design handbook – Part 6: Thermal Control Surfaces
TR 17603-31-01 Part 7 Thermal design handbook – Part 7: Insulations
TR 17603-31-01 Part 8 Thermal design handbook – Part 8: Heat Pipes
TR 17603-31-01 Part 9 Thermal design handbook – Part 9: Radiators
TR 17603-31-01 Part 10 Thermal design handbook – Part 10: Phase – Change Capacitors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 11 Thermal design handbook – Part 11: Electrical Heating
TR 17603-31-01 Part 12 Thermal design handbook – Part 12: Louvers
TR 17603-31-01 Part 13 Thermal design handbook – Part 13: Fluid Loops
TR 17603-31-01 Part 14 Thermal design handbook – Part 14: Cryogenic Cooling
TR 17603-31-01 Part 15 Thermal design handbook – Part 15: Existing Satellites
TR 17603-31-01 Part 16 Thermal design handbook – Part 16: Thermal Protection System

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In this Part 11, the use of electrical heaters and electrical coolers in spacecraft systems are described.
Electrical thermal control is an efficient and reliable method for attaining and maintaining temperatures. Solid state systems provide for flexibility in control of thermal regulation, they are resistant to shock and vibration and can operate in extreme physical conditions such as high and zero gravity levels. They are also easy to integrate into spacecraft subsystems.
The Thermal design handbook is published in 16 Parts
TR 17603-31-01 Part 1
Thermal design handbook – Part 1: View factors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 2
Thermal design handbook – Part 2: Holes, Grooves and Cavities
TR 17603-31-01 Part 3
Thermal design handbook – Part 3: Spacecraft Surface Temperature
TR 17603-31-01 Part 4
Thermal design handbook – Part 4: Conductive Heat Transfer
TR 17603-31-01 Part 5
Thermal design handbook – Part 5: Structural Materials: Metallic and Composite
TR 17603-31-01 Part 6
Thermal design handbook – Part 6: Thermal Control Surfaces
TR 17603-31-01 Part 7
Thermal design handbook – Part 7: Insulations
TR 17603-31-01 Part 8
Thermal design handbook – Part 8: Heat Pipes
TR 17603-31-01 Part 9
Thermal design handbook – Part 9: Radiators
TR 17603-31-01 Part 10
Thermal design handbook – Part 10: Phase – Change Capacitors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 11
Thermal design handbook – Part 11: Electrical Heating
TR 17603-31-01 Part 12
Thermal design handbook – Part 12: Louvers
TR 17603-31-01 Part 13
Thermal design handbook – Part 13: Fluid Loops
TR 17603-31-01 Part 14
Thermal design handbook – Part 14: Cryogenic Cooling
TR 17603-31-01 Part 15
Thermal design handbook – Part 15: Existing Satellites
TR 17603-31-01 Part 16
Thermal design handbook – Part 16: Thermal Protection System

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Solid-liquid phase-change materials (PCM) are a favoured approach to spacecraft passive thermal control for incident orbital heat fluxes or when there are wide fluctuations in onboard equipment.
The PCM thermal control system consists of a container which is filled with a substance capable of undergoing a phase-change. When there is an the increase in surface temperature of spacecraft the PCM absorbs the excess heat by melting. If there is a temperature decrease, then the PCM can provide heat by solidifying.
Many types of PCM systems are used in spacecrafts for different types of thermal transfer control.
Characteristics and performance of phase control materials are described in this Part. Existing PCM systems are also described.
The Thermal design handbook is published in 16 Parts
TR 17603-31-01 Part 1
Thermal design handbook – Part 1: View factors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 2
Thermal design handbook – Part 2: Holes, Grooves and Cavities
TR 17603-31-01 Part 3
Thermal design handbook – Part 3: Spacecraft Surface Temperature
TR 17603-31-01 Part 4
Thermal design handbook – Part 4: Conductive Heat Transfer
TR 17603-31-01 Part 5
Thermal design handbook – Part 5: Structural Materials: Metallic and Composite
TR 17603-31-01 Part 6
Thermal design handbook – Part 6: Thermal Control Surfaces
TR 17603-31-01 Part 7
Thermal design handbook – Part 7: Insulations
TR 17603-31-01 Part 8
Thermal design handbook – Part 8: Heat Pipes
TR 17603-31-01 Part 9
Thermal design handbook – Part 9: Radiators
TR 17603-31-01 Part 10
Thermal design handbook – Part 10: Phase – Change Capacitors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 11
Thermal design handbook – Part 11: Electrical Heating
TR 17603-31-01 Part 12
Thermal design handbook – Part 12: Louvers
TR 17603-31-01 Part 13
Thermal design handbook – Part 13: Fluid Loops
TR 17603-31-01 Part 14
Thermal design handbook – Part 14: Cryogenic Cooling
TR 17603-31-01 Part 15
Thermal design handbook – Part 15: Existing Satellites
TR 17603-31-01 Part 16
Thermal design handbook – Part 16: Thermal Protection System

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The thermal protection system (TPS) of a space vehicle ensures the structural integrity of the surface of the craft and maintains the correct internal temperatures (for crew, electronic equipment, etc.) when the vehicle is under the severe thermal loads of re-entry. These loads are characterised by very large heat fluxes over the relatively short period of re-entry.
The design of thermal protection systems for re-entry vehicles is very complex due to the number and complexity of phenomena involved: the flow around the vehicle is hypersonic, tridimensional and reactive, and its interaction with the vehicle’s surface may induce chemical reactions which are not fully understood.
Two TPS concepts for re-entry vehicles, ablative and radiative are examined and there is also an anlyisis of existing systems using them.
The Thermal design handbook is published in 16 Parts
TR 17603-31-01 Part 1A    Thermal design handbook – Part 1: View factors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 2A    Thermal design handbook – Part 2: Holes, Grooves and Cavities
TR 17603-31-01 Part 3A    Thermal design handbook – Part 3: Spacecraft Surface Temperature
TR 17603-31-01 Part 4A    Thermal design handbook – Part 4: Conductive Heat Transfer
TR 17603-31-01 Part 5A    Thermal design handbook – Part 5: Structural Materials: Metallic and Composite
TR 17603-31-01 Part 6A    Thermal design handbook – Part 6: Thermal Control Surfaces
TR 17603-31-01 Part 7A    Thermal design handbook – Part 7: Insulations
TR 17603-31-01 Part 8A    Thermal design handbook – Part 8: Heat Pipes
TR 17603-31-01 Part 9A    Thermal design handbook – Part 9: Radiators
TR 17603-31-01 Part 10A    Thermal design handbook – Part 10: Phase – Change Capacitors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 11A    Thermal design handbook – Part 11: Electrical Heating
TR 17603-31-01 Part 12A    Thermal design handbook – Part 12: Louvers
TR 17603-31-01 Part 13A    Thermal design handbook – Part 13: Fluid Loops
TR 17603-31-01 Part 14A    Thermal design handbook – Part 14: Cryogenic Cooling
TR 17603-31-01 Part 15A    Thermal design handbook – Part 15: Existing Satellites
TR 17603-31-01 Part 16A    Thermal design handbook – Part 16: Thermal Protection System

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In this Part 9 of the spacecraft thermal control and design data handbooks, view factors of diffuse and specular thermal surfaces are discussed.
For diffuse surfaces, calculations are given for radiation emission and absorption between different configurations of planar, cylindrical, conical, spherical and ellipsoidal surfaces for finite and infinite surfaces.
For specular surfaces the affect of reflectance on calculations for view factors is included in the calculations. View factors for specular and diffuse surfaces are also included.
The Thermal design handbook is published in 16 Parts
TR 17603-31-01 Part 1
Thermal design handbook – Part 1: View factors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 2
Thermal design handbook – Part 2: Holes, Grooves and Cavities
TR 17603-31-01 Part 3
Thermal design handbook – Part 3: Spacecraft Surface Temperature
TR 17603-31-01 Part 4
Thermal design handbook – Part 4: Conductive Heat Transfer
TR 17603-31-01 Part 5
Thermal design handbook – Part 5: Structural Materials: Metallic and Composite
TR 17603-31-01 Part 6
Thermal design handbook – Part 6: Thermal Control Surfaces
TR 17603-31-01 Part 7
Thermal design handbook – Part 7: Insulations
TR 17603-31-01 Part 8
Thermal design handbook – Part 8: Heat Pipes
TR 17603-31-01 Part 9
Thermal design handbook – Part 9: Radiators
TR 17603-31-01 Part 10
Thermal design handbook – Part 10: Phase – Change Capacitors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 11
Thermal design handbook – Part 11: Electrical Heating
TR 17603-31-01 Part 12
Thermal design handbook – Part 12: Louvers
TR 17603-31-01 Part 13
Thermal design handbook – Part 13: Fluid Loops
TR 17603-31-01 Part 14
Thermal design handbook – Part 14: Cryogenic Cooling
TR 17603-31-01 Part 15
Thermal design handbook – Part 15: Existing Satellites
TR 17603-31-01 Part 16
Thermal design handbook – Part 16: Thermal Protection System

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Fluid loops are used to control the temperature of sensitive components in spacecraft systems in order to ensure that they can function correctly.
While there are several methods for thermal control (such as passive thermal insulations, thermoelectric devices, phase change materials, heat pipes and short-term discharge systems), fluid loops have a specific application area.
This Part 13 provides a detailed description of fluid loop systems for use in spacecraft.
The Thermal design handbook is published in 16 Parts:
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 1A    Thermal design handbook – Part 1: View factors
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 2A    Thermal design handbook – Part 2: Holes, Grooves and Cavities
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 3A    Thermal design handbook – Part 3: Spacecraft Surface Temperature
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 4A    Thermal design handbook – Part 4: Conductive Heat Transfer
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 5A    Thermal design handbook – Part 5: Structural Materials: Metallic and Composite
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 6A    Thermal design handbook – Part 6: Thermal Control Surfaces
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 7A    Thermal design handbook – Part 7: Insulations
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 8A    Thermal design handbook – Part 8: Heat Pipes
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 9A    Thermal design handbook – Part 9: Radiators
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 10A    Thermal design handbook – Part 10: Phase – Change Capacitors
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 11A    Thermal design handbook – Part 11: Electrical Heating
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 12A    Thermal design handbook – Part 12: Louvers
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 13A    Thermal design handbook – Part 13: Fluid Loops
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 14A    Thermal design handbook – Part 14: Cryogenic Cooling
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 15A    Thermal design handbook – Part 15: Existing Satellites
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 16A    Thermal design handbook – Part 16: Thermal Protection System

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In this Part 14 cooling methods below 100 K are described. These low temperature levels are mainly required by space borne electronic systems operating under very low noise conditions. Details on the materials used and safety factors are given.
The Thermal design handbook is published in 16 Parts
TR 17603-31-01 Part 1    Thermal design handbook – Part 1: View factors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 2    Thermal design handbook – Part 2: Holes, Grooves and Cavities
TR 17603-31-01 Part 3    Thermal design handbook – Part 3: Spacecraft Surface Temperature
TR 17603-31-01 Part 4    Thermal design handbook – Part 4: Conductive Heat Transfer
TR 17603-31-01 Part 5    Thermal design handbook – Part 5: Structural Materials: Metallic and Composite
TR 17603-31-01 Part 6    Thermal design handbook – Part 6: Thermal Control Surfaces
TR 17603-31-01 Part 7    Thermal design handbook – Part 7: Insulations
TR 17603-31-01 Part 8    Thermal design handbook – Part 8: Heat Pipes
TR 17603-31-01 Part 9    Thermal design handbook – Part 9: Radiators
TR 17603-31-01 Part 10    Thermal design handbook – Part 10: Phase – Change Capacitors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 11    Thermal design handbook – Part 11: Electrical Heating
TR 17603-31-01 Part 12    Thermal design handbook – Part 12: Louvers
TR 17603-31-01 Part 13    Thermal design handbook – Part 13: Fluid Loops
TR 17603-31-01 Part 14    Thermal design handbook – Part 14: Cryogenic Cooling
TR 17603-31-01 Part 15    Thermal design handbook – Part 15: Existing Satellites
TR 17603-31-01 Part 16    Thermal design handbook – Part 16: Thermal Protection System

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This Part 4 of the spacecraft thermal control and design data handbooks, provides information on calculating the conductive heat transfer rate for a variety of two and three-dimensional configurations.
Calculations for the conductance of the interface between two surfaces (joints) require special consideration and are included as a separate clause.
The Thermal design handbook is published in 16 Parts
TR 17603-31-01 Part 1
Thermal design handbook – Part 1: View factors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 2
Thermal design handbook – Part 2: Holes, Grooves and Cavities
TR 17603-31-01 Part 3
Thermal design handbook – Part 3: Spacecraft Surface Temperature
TR 17603-31-01 Part 4
Thermal design handbook – Part 4: Conductive Heat Transfer
TR 17603-31-01 Part 5
Thermal design handbook – Part 5: Structural Materials: Metallic and Composite
TR 17603-31-01 Part 6
Thermal design handbook – Part 6: Thermal Control Surfaces
TR 17603-31-01 Part 7
Thermal design handbook – Part 7: Insulations
TR 17603-31-01 Part 8
Thermal design handbook – Part 8: Heat Pipes
TR 17603-31-01 Part 9
Thermal design handbook – Part 9: Radiators
TR 17603-31-01 Part 10
Thermal design handbook – Part 10: Phase – Change Capacitors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 11
Thermal design handbook – Part 11: Electrical Heating
TR 17603-31-01 Part 12
Thermal design handbook – Part 12: Louvers
TR 17603-31-01 Part 13
Thermal design handbook – Part 13: Fluid Loops
TR 17603-31-01 Part 14
Thermal design handbook – Part 14: Cryogenic Cooling
TR 17603-31-01 Part 15
Thermal design handbook – Part 15: Existing Satellites
TR 17603-31-01 Part 16
Thermal design handbook – Part 16: Thermal Protection System

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In this Part 5 of the spacecraft thermal control and design data handbooks, clause 4 contains technical data on the metallic alloys used in spacecrafts is given: composition, application areas, properties and behaviour from a thermal and thermo-optics point of view, degeneration and aging. All other properties of the metallic alloys are outside the scope of this document.
Properties of composite materials combined to form heterogeneous structures are given in clause 5.
The Thermal design handbook is published in 16 Parts
TR 17603-31-01 Part 1
Thermal design handbook – Part 1: View factors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 2
Thermal design handbook – Part 2: Holes, Grooves and Cavities
TR 17603-31-01 Part 3
Thermal design handbook – Part 3: Spacecraft Surface Temperature
TR 17603-31-01 Part 4
Thermal design handbook – Part 4: Conductive Heat Transfer
TR 17603-31-01 Part 5
Thermal design handbook – Part 5: Structural Materials: Metallic and Composite
TR 17603-31-01 Part 6
Thermal design handbook – Part 6: Thermal Control Surfaces
TR 17603-31-01 Part 7
Thermal design handbook – Part 7: Insulations
TR 17603-31-01 Part 8
Thermal design handbook – Part 8: Heat Pipes
TR 17603-31-01 Part 9
Thermal design handbook – Part 9: Radiators
TR 17603-31-01 Part 10
Thermal design handbook – Part 10: Phase – Change Capacitors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 11
Thermal design handbook – Part 11: Electrical Heating
TR 17603-31-01 Part 12
Thermal design handbook – Part 12: Louvers
TR 17603-31-01 Part 13
Thermal design handbook – Part 13: Fluid Loops
TR 17603-31-01 Part 14
Thermal design handbook – Part 14: Cryogenic Cooling
TR 17603-31-01 Part 15
Thermal design handbook – Part 15: Existing Satellites
TR 17603-31-01 Part 16
Thermal design handbook – Part 16: Thermal Protection System

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There are 3 main categories of insulators used in spacecrafts:
1. foams: organic and inorganic;
2. fibrous insulations: for internal and external insulation and for high temperature environments
3. multilayer insulations (MLI): layers of radiation reflecting shields.
Properties, thermal behaviour and application areas of the insulation materials used in spacecrafts are detailed in this Part 7.
The Thermal design handbook is published in 16 Parts
TR 17603-31-01 Part 1
Thermal design handbook – Part 1: View factors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 2
Thermal design handbook – Part 2: Holes, Grooves and Cavities
TR 17603-31-01 Part 3
Thermal design handbook – Part 3: Spacecraft Surface Temperature
TR 17603-31-01 Part 4
Thermal design handbook – Part 4: Conductive Heat Transfer
TR 17603-31-01 Part 5
Thermal design handbook – Part 5: Structural Materials: Metallic and Composite
TR 17603-31-01 Part 6
Thermal design handbook – Part 6: Thermal Control Surfaces
TR 17603-31-01 Part 7
Thermal design handbook – Part 7: Insulations
TR 17603-31-01 Part 8
Thermal design handbook – Part 8: Heat Pipes
TR 17603-31-01 Part 9
Thermal design handbook – Part 9: Radiators
TR 17603-31-01 Part 10
Thermal design handbook – Part 10: Phase – Change Capacitors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 11
Thermal design handbook – Part 11: Electrical Heating
TR 17603-31-01 Part 12
Thermal design handbook – Part 12: Louvers
TR 17603-31-01 Part 13
Thermal design handbook – Part 13: Fluid Loops
TR 17603-31-01 Part 14
Thermal design handbook – Part 14: Cryogenic Cooling
TR 17603-31-01 Part 15
Thermal design handbook – Part 15: Existing Satellites
TR 17603-31-01 Part 16
Thermal design handbook – Part 16: Thermal Protection System

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In this Part 2 of the spacecraft thermal control and design data handbooks, the radiant heat transfer properties of cavities that do not contain an absorbing-emitting medium are analyzed. The effect of radiant energy entering a cavity with one or more openings is discussed taking into consideration the characteristics and properties of the constituents. Examples support the solutions discussed.
The Thermal design handbook is published in 16 Parts
TR 17603-31-01 Part 1
Thermal design handbook – Part 1: View factors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 2
Thermal design handbook – Part 2: Holes, Grooves and Cavities
TR 17603-31-01 Part 3
Thermal design handbook – Part 3: Spacecraft Surface Temperature
TR 17603-31-01 Part 4
Thermal design handbook – Part 4: Conductive Heat Transfer
TR 17603-31-01 Part 5
Thermal design handbook – Part 5: Structural Materials: Metallic and Composite
TR 17603-31-01 Part 6
Thermal design handbook – Part 6: Thermal Control Surfaces
TR 17603-31-01 Part 7
Thermal design handbook – Part 7: Insulations
TR 17603-31-01 Part 8
Thermal design handbook – Part 8: Heat Pipes
TR 17603-31-01 Part 9
Thermal design handbook – Part 9: Radiators
TR 17603-31-01 Part 10
Thermal design handbook – Part 10: Phase – Change Capacitors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 11
Thermal design handbook – Part 11: Electrical Heating
TR 17603-31-01 Part 12
Thermal design handbook – Part 12: Louvers
TR 17603-31-01 Part 13
Thermal design handbook – Part 13: Fluid Loops
TR 17603-31-01 Part 14
Thermal design handbook – Part 14: Cryogenic Cooling
TR 17603-31-01 Part 15
Thermal design handbook – Part 15: Existing Satellites
TR 17603-31-01 Part 16
Thermal design handbook – Part 16: Thermal Protection System

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Heat pipes are a solution to many thermal dissipation problems encountered in space systems.
The types of heat pipes that can be used in spacecrafts are described. Details on design and construction, usability, compatibility and the limitations of each type are given.
The Thermal design handbook is published in 16 Parts
TR 17603-31-01 Part 1
Thermal design handbook – Part 1: View factors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 2
Thermal design handbook – Part 2: Holes, Grooves and Cavities
TR 17603-31-01 Part 3
Thermal design handbook – Part 3: Spacecraft Surface Temperature
TR 17603-31-01 Part 4
Thermal design handbook – Part 4: Conductive Heat Transfer
TR 17603-31-01 Part 5
Thermal design handbook – Part 5: Structural Materials: Metallic and Composite
TR 17603-31-01 Part 6
Thermal design handbook – Part 6: Thermal Control Surfaces
TR 17603-31-01 Part 7
Thermal design handbook – Part 7: Insulations
TR 17603-31-01 Part 8
Thermal design handbook – Part 8: Heat Pipes
TR 17603-31-01 Part 9
Thermal design handbook – Part 9: Radiators
TR 17603-31-01 Part 10
Thermal design handbook – Part 10: Phase – Change Capacitors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 11
Thermal design handbook – Part 11: Electrical Heating
TR 17603-31-01 Part 12
Thermal design handbook – Part 12: Louvers
TR 17603-31-01 Part 13
Thermal design handbook – Part 13: Fluid Loops
TR 17603-31-01 Part 14
Thermal design handbook – Part 14: Cryogenic Cooling
TR 17603-31-01 Part 15
Thermal design handbook – Part 15: Existing Satellites
TR 17603-31-01 Part 16
Thermal design handbook – Part 16: Thermal Protection System

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This Handbook establishes guidelines to ensure a reliable design, manufacturing and testing of high voltage electronic
equipment and covers:
• Design
• Manufacturing
• Verification/Testing
of equipment generating, carrying or consuming high voltage, like: high voltage power conditioner, high voltage
distribution (cables and connectors).
This Handbook is dedicated to all parties involved at all levels in the realization of space segment hardware and its
interface with high voltage for which EN 16603-20 (based on ECSS-E-ST-20) is applicable.
This handbook sets out to:
• summarize most relevant aspects and data of high voltage insulation
• provide design guidelines for high voltage insulation
• provide design guidelines for high voltage electronic equipment
• give an overview of appropriate high voltage test methods
• establish a set of recommendations for generation design and verification rules and methods
• provide best practices
Applicability is mainly focused on power conditioning equipment but may be also applicable for all other high voltage
electric and electronic power equipment used on space missions, except items of experimental nature.

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In this Part 1 of the spacecraft thermal control and design data handbooks, view factors of diffuse and specular thermal surfaces are discussed.
For diffuse surfaces, calculations are given for radiation emission and absorption between different configurations of planar, cylindrical, conical, spherical and ellipsoidal surfaces for finite and infinite surfaces.
For specular surfaces the affect of reflectance on calculations for view factors is included in the calculations. View factors for specular and diffuse surfaces are also included.
The Thermal design handbook is published in 16 Parts
TR 17603-31-01 Part 1
Thermal design handbook – Part 1: View factors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 2
Thermal design handbook – Part 2: Holes, Grooves and Cavities
TR 17603-31-01 Part 3
Thermal design handbook – Part 3: Spacecraft Surface Temperature
TR 17603-31-01 Part 4
Thermal design handbook – Part 4: Conductive Heat Transfer
TR 17603-31-01 Part 5
Thermal design handbook – Part 5: Structural Materials: Metallic and Composite
TR 17603-31-01 Part 6
Thermal design handbook – Part 6: Thermal Control Surfaces
TR 17603-31-01 Part 7
Thermal design handbook – Part 7: Insulations
TR 17603-31-01 Part 8
Thermal design handbook – Part 8: Heat Pipes
TR 17603-31-01 Part 9
Thermal design handbook – Part 9: Radiators
TR 17603-31-01 Part 10
Thermal design handbook – Part 10: Phase – Change Capacitors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 11
Thermal design handbook – Part 11: Electrical Heating
TR 17603-31-01 Part 12
Thermal design handbook – Part 12: Louvers
TR 17603-31-01 Part 13
Thermal design handbook – Part 13: Fluid Loops
TR 17603-31-01 Part 14
Thermal design handbook – Part 14: Cryogenic Cooling
TR 17603-31-01 Part 15
Thermal design handbook – Part 15: Existing Satellites
TR 17603-31-01 Part 16
Thermal design handbook – Part 16: Thermal Protection System

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This Part 6 of the spacecraft thermal control and design data handbooks, provides information on coatings on spacecrafts for the purposes of thermal and thermo-optical regulation.
Properties of pigmented and contact coatings, are described and are classified according to their thermal radiation characteristics.
Also included in this Part are the properties and characteristics of foils and tapes with particular emphasis on their adhesive characteristics; these are not classified according to their thermal radiation properties.
The Thermal design handbook is published in 16 Parts
TR 17603-31-01 Part 1
Thermal design handbook – Part 1: View factors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 2
Thermal design handbook – Part 2: Holes, Grooves and Cavities
TR 17603-31-01 Part 3
Thermal design handbook – Part 3: Spacecraft Surface Temperature
TR 17603-31-01 Part 4
Thermal design handbook – Part 4: Conductive Heat Transfer
TR 17603-31-01 Part 5
Thermal design handbook – Part 5: Structural Materials: Metallic and Composite
TR 17603-31-01 Part 6
Thermal design handbook – Part 6: Thermal Control Surfaces
TR 17603-31-01 Part 7
Thermal design handbook – Part 7: Insulations
TR 17603-31-01 Part 8
Thermal design handbook – Part 8: Heat Pipes
TR 17603-31-01 Part 9
Thermal design handbook – Part 9: Radiators
TR 17603-31-01 Part 10
Thermal design handbook – Part 10: Phase – Change Capacitors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 11
Thermal design handbook – Part 11: Electrical Heating
TR 17603-31-01 Part 12
Thermal design handbook – Part 12: Louvers
TR 17603-31-01 Part 13
Thermal design handbook – Part 13: Fluid Loops
TR 17603-31-01 Part 14
Thermal design handbook – Part 14: Cryogenic Cooling
TR 17603-31-01 Part 15
Thermal design handbook – Part 15: Existing Satellites
TR 17603-31-01 Part 16
Thermal design handbook – Part 16: Thermal Protection System

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Factors affecting the equilibrium temperature of a spacecraft surface are described in this Part 3 using simple geometrical configurations and basic assumptions.
Methods for conducting calculations on the affect of Solar, planetary and albedo radiation are given taking into consideration the internal and immediate environmental factors and incorporating the various configurations and dimensions of the constituent parts.
The Thermal design handbook is published in 16 Parts
TR 17603-31-01 Part 1
Thermal design handbook – Part 1: View factors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 2
Thermal design handbook – Part 2: Holes, Grooves and Cavities
TR 17603-31-01 Part 3
Thermal design handbook – Part 3: Spacecraft Surface Temperature
TR 17603-31-01 Part 4
Thermal design handbook – Part 4: Conductive Heat Transfer
TR 17603-31-01 Part 5
Thermal design handbook – Part 5: Structural Materials: Metallic and Composite
TR 17603-31-01 Part 6
Thermal design handbook – Part 6: Thermal Control Surfaces
TR 17603-31-01 Part 7
Thermal design handbook – Part 7: Insulations
TR 17603-31-01 Part 8
Thermal design handbook – Part 8: Heat Pipes
TR 17603-31-01 Part 9
Thermal design handbook – Part 9: Radiators
TR 17603-31-01 Part 10
Thermal design handbook – Part 10: Phase – Change Capacitors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 11
Thermal design handbook – Part 11: Electrical Heating
TR 17603-31-01 Part 12
Thermal design handbook – Part 12: Louvers
TR 17603-31-01 Part 13
Thermal design handbook – Part 13: Fluid Loops
TR 17603-31-01 Part 14
Thermal design handbook – Part 14: Cryogenic Cooling
TR 17603-31-01 Part 15
Thermal design handbook – Part 15: Existing Satellites
TR 17603-31-01 Part 16
Thermal design handbook – Part 16: Thermal Protection System

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  • Technical report
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This document is applicable to new projects and programs and to redesigned and upgraded launch pad and integration sites. This document describes the testing phases, goals, and general aspects for launch space complexes and complexes for assembly and tests of a vehicle and spacecraft and the associated equipment that, after successful testing, will be ready for launch vehicle processing and launch. This document can be applied to the creation of international launch pad and integration sites. At creation of new launching space complexes and complexes for assembly and tests of a vehicle and spacecraft (or at their modernization) within the framework of one country, the rules established by that country can be applied.

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This document sets out the minimum requirements for flight safety systems (FSSs), including flight termination systems (FTSs, externally controlled systems or on-board automatic systems), tracking systems, and telemetry data transmitting systems (TDTSs) for commercial or non-commercial launch activities of orbital or suborbital, unmanned space vehicles. The intent is to minimize the risk of injury or damage to persons, property or the environment resulting from the launching of space vehicles. This document can be applied by any country, by any international organization, whether intergovernmental or not, and by any agency or operator undertaking the launching of space vehicles. This document is intended to be applied by any person, organization, entity, operator or launch authority participating in commercial or non-commercial launch activities of orbital, or suborbital, unmanned space vehicles unless more restrictive requirements are imposed by the launch site country.

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This document provides requirements and recommendation for space-based systems that, using satellite radionavigation services, provide high accuracy positioning of rovers. It is particularly intended for rovers whose operation requires meeting specific safety requirements, including in situations of low visibility. This document also provides methods to verify the system requirements, as well as complementary information on particular applications (Annex A), mobile mapping systems (Annex B) and augmented positioning (Annexes C and D).

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This document addresses the design process of a collocation and the basic contents of collocation design process which include considerations, initial collocation strategy design, simulation evaluation of collocation strategy, optimal collocation strategy selection and collocation agreement. This document gives guidelines for multi-geo spacecraft collocation, and it applies in particular to multi-geo constellation.

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This document provides the baseline standard on the subject of testing at the system, subsystem and unit levels for applicable unmanned spacecraft programmes. It also provides the requirements for documentation associated with testing activities. This document contains provisions for qualification and acceptance testing, or proto-flight testing (PFT). It assumes that hardware development is complete.

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This document defines the Application Program Interface in terms of: the components that provide the services of the API; the functionality provided by each of the components; the interfaces provided by each of the components; and the externally visible behavior associated with the interfaces exported by the components. It does not specify: individual implementations or products; the internal design of the components; and the technology used for communications. This document defines those aspects of the Application Program Interface, which are common for all SLE service types or for a subset of the SLE service types, e.g., all return link services or all forward link services. It also defines a framework for specification of service type-specific elements of the API. Service-specific aspects of the API are defined by supplemental Recommended Practice documents for SLE return link services (references [10], [11], and [12]) and SLE forward link services (references [13] and [14]). This document for the Application Program Interface responds to the requirements imposed on such an API by the CCSDS SLE transfer service Recommended Standards that were available when this document was released.

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This document defines, in an abstract manner, the RAF service in terms of: the operations necessary to provide the service; the parameter data associated with each operation; the behaviors that result from the invocation of each operation; and the relationship between, and the valid sequence of, the operations and resulting behaviors. It does not specify: individual implementations or products; the implementation of entities or interfaces within real systems; the methods or technologies required to acquire telemetry frames from signals received from a spacecraft; the methods or technologies required to provide a suitable environment for communications; or the management activities required to schedule, configure, and control the RAF service.

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This document specifies two standard message formats for use in transferring spacecraft attitude information between space agencies: the Attitude Parameter Message (APM) and the Attitude Ephemeris Message (AEM). Such exchanges are used for: - preflight planning for tracking or attitude estimation support; - scheduling attitude and data processing support; - carrying out attitude operations; - performing attitude comparisons; - carrying out attitude propagations and/or sensor predictions; - testing to initialize sub-system simulators (communications, power, etc.). This document includes sets of requirements and criteria that the message formats have been designed to meet. For exchanges where these requirements do not capture the needs of the participating agencies, another mechanism may be selected.

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This document defines the Forward Space Packet (FSP) service in conformance with the transfer services specified in reference [1], Cross Support Reference Model―Part 1: SLE Services. The FSP service is a Space Link Extension (SLE) transfer service that enables a mission to send Space Packets to a spacecraft in sequence-controlled or expedited mode. This document defines, in an abstract manner, the FSP service in terms of: the operations necessary to provide the transfer service; the parameter data associated with each operation; the behaviors that result from the invocation of each operation; and the relationship between, and the valid sequence of, the operations and resulting behaviors. It does not specify: individual implementations or products; the implementation of entities or interfaces within real systems; the methods or technologies required to radiate Space Packets to a spacecraft and to acquire telemetry frames from the signals received from that spacecraft for extraction of the Operational Control Field; the methods or technologies required for communications; or the management activities necessary to schedule, configure, and control the FSP service. NOTE  –   While the FSP service as described in reference [1] is conceived to handle a variety of packet data structures, this version of the FSP Recommended Standard is restricted to the handling of Space Packets as defined in reference [6]. This version of the FSP Recommended Standard is specific to the transfer of Space Packets to be transmitted via the Telecommand protocol stack as defined in references [3], [4], and [5]. The Cross Support Reference Model (reference [1]) specifies that the FSP service may also be used in conjunction with the Advanced Orbiting System protocol stack, but that mode of operation is outside the scope of this version of the Recommended Standard. The FSP service is provided in the online delivery mode, as defined in reference [1]. The offline delivery mode is the subject of further study.

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