Information technology -- Computer graphics, image processing and environmental representation -- Sensor representation in mixed and augmented reality

This document defines the framework and information reference model for representing sensor-based 3D mixed-reality worlds. It defines concepts, an information model, architecture, system functions, and how to integrate 3D virtual worlds and physical sensors in order to provide mixed-reality applications with physical sensor interfaces. It defines an exchange format necessary for transferring and storing data between physical sensor-based mixed-reality applications. This document specifies the following functionalities: a) representation of physical sensors in a 3D scene; b) definition of physical sensors in a 3D scene; c) representation of functionalities of each physical sensor in a 3D scene; d) representation of physical properties of each physical sensor in a 3D scene; e) management of physical sensors in a 3D scene; f) interface with physical sensor information in a 3D scene. This document defines a reference model for physical sensor-based mixed-reality applications to represent and to exchange functions of physical sensors in 3D scenes. It does not define specific physical interfaces necessary for manipulating physical devices, but rather defines common functional interfaces that can be used interchangeably between applications. This document does not define how specific applications are implemented with specific physical sensor devices. It does not include computer generated sensor information using computer input/output devices such as a mouse or a keyboard. The sensors in this document represent physical sensor devices in the real world.

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Publication Date
06-Apr-2020
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6060 - International Standard published
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11-Mar-2020
Completion Date
07-Apr-2020
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ISO/IEC 18038:2020 - Information technology -- Computer graphics, image processing and environmental representation -- Sensor representation in mixed and augmented reality
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 18038
First edition
2020-04
Information technology — Computer
graphics, image processing and
environmental representation —
Sensor representation in mixed and
augmented reality
Reference number
ISO/IEC 18038:2020(E)
ISO/IEC 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 18038:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 18038:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Concepts ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

4.1 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Scope of physical sensor representation .......................................................................................................................... 5

4.3 Physical sensor types ........................................................................................................................................................................ 6

4.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.3.2 Camera sensor ................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.3.3 Chemical sensor ...................................................................... .......................................................................................... 7

4.3.4 Electric sensor.................................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.3.5 Environment sensor...................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.3.6 Flow sensor .......................................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.3.7 Force sensor ......................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.3.8 Light sensor .......................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.3.9 Movement sensor .........................................................................................................................................................10

4.3.10 Navigation sensor ........................................................................................................................................................10

4.3.11 Particle sensor ................................................................................................................................................................11

4.3.12 Position sensor ...............................................................................................................................................................11

4.3.13 Pressure sensor..............................................................................................................................................................12

4.3.14 Proximity sensor ...........................................................................................................................................................12

4.3.15 Sound sensor ....................................................................................................................................................................13

4.3.16 Temperature sensor ...................................................................................................................................................13

4.3.17 Other sensors ...................................................................................................................................................................14

4.4 Sensor representation ...................................................................................................................................................................14

4.4.1 Overview ..............................................................................................................................................................................14

4.4.2 Precise location and orientation of a physical sensor ..................................................................16

4.4.3 Sensor properties and interface ......................................................................................................................19

4.4.4 Sensor representation data model ................................................................................................................19

5 Sensor 3D scene graph ................................................................................................................................................................................19

5.1 Definition of a sensor 3D scene graph .............................................................................................................................19

5.2 Physical properties and interfaces with real worlds ...........................................................................................21

5.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................21

5.2.2 Physical properties of a physical sensor ..................................................................................................21

5.2.3 Physical interfaces with real worlds of a physical sensor .........................................................22

5.2.4 A data structure for the physical properties and interfaces for a physical

sensor .....................................................................................................................................................................................23

6 System architecture for physical sensor representation .........................................................................................25

6.1 System architecture for physical sensors ......................................................................................................................25

6.2 System framework ............................................................................................................................................................................26

6.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................26

6.2.2 3D MAR world representation ..........................................................................................................................27

6.2.3 GNSS synchronized 3D virtual worlds .......................................................................................................27

6.2.4 Sensor devices and their properties ............................................................................................................28

6.2.5 Interfaces with 3D sensor objects ..................................................................................................................28

6.2.6 Interfaces with physical sensor devices ...................................................................................................28

7 XML definition of physical sensor representation .........................................................................................................28

7.1 Structure of mixed and augmented reality scene ..................................................................................................28

7.1.1 MARScene ...........................................................................................................................................................................28

7.1.2 MARObject ..........................................................................................................................................................................28

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ISO/IEC 18038:2020(E)

7.1.3 3D object ..............................................................................................................................................................................28

7.1.4 Shape .......................................................................................................................................................................................28

7.1.5 Physical sensor ...............................................................................................................................................................28

7.1.6 Sensor type ........................................................................................................................................................................28

7.1.7 Physical properties .....................................................................................................................................................29

7.1.8 Physical interface..........................................................................................................................................................29

7.2 XML schema definition..................................................................................................................................................................29

7.2.1 MARSceneType ...............................................................................................................................................................29

7.2.2 GeoPositionType ...........................................................................................................................................................30

7.2.3 LatitudeType and LongitudeType ..................................................................................................................30

7.2.4 GeoBoundingBoxType ........................................................................................................................................... ...31

7.2.5 LengthType ........................................................................................................................................................................32

7.2.6 OrientationType ............................................................................................................................................................33

7.2.7 MARObjectType .............................................................................................................................................................35

7.2.8 ThreeDObjectType ......................................................................................................................................................35

7.2.9 ShapeType ..........................................................................................................................................................................36

7.2.10 AbstractSensorType ...................................................................................................................................................37

7.2.11 PhysicalPropertiesType ..........................................................................................................................................40

7.2.12 UUIDType, EventType and ControlType ...................................................................................................40

7.2.13 PhysicalInterfaceType ..............................................................................................................................................41

7.2.14 IPAddressType and PortType ............................................................................................................................43

8 Conformance ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................44

8.1 Conformance criteria ......................................................................................................................................................................44

8.2 Conformance area .............................................................................................................................................................................45

Annex A (informative) Examples of physical sensor types and parameters ............................................................46

Annex B (informative) Schema for sensor MAR representation ...........................................................................................54

Annex C (informative) Example XML schema extension for physical sensor representation ................55

Annex D (informative) Example of sensor MAR representation based on the sensor MAR

schema .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................56

Annex E (informative) Implementation examples of sensor MAR representation ...........................................57

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................61

iv © ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 18038:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that

are members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through

technical committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of

technical activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other

international organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also

take part in the work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see http:// patents .iec .ch).

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For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT)

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 24, Computer graphics, image processing and environmental data representation.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/IEC 18038:2020(E)
Introduction

This document defines a representation model for physical sensors to be included in a 3D mixed-reality

world. It defines 3D modelling, rendering, simulation, and interfaces for physical sensors. It defines a

set of principles, concepts, and functionalities for physical sensors applicable to the complete range of

3D mixed reality standards. It includes the following content:
— terms and definition for sensor interfaces;
— requirements and scope;
— a representation model of physical sensors that can be included in a 3D scene;
— 3D modelling, rendering, and simulation of physical sensors in a 3D scene;
— representation of the attributes of physical sensors in a 3D scene;
— representation of I/O data streaming of physical sensors in a 3D scene;

— representation of the interfaces for controlling physical sensors in a 3D scene;

— functionalities and base components;
— relevant physical sensor properties;
— interfaces with virtual and real worlds;
— use cases.
The objectives of this document are as follows:

— provide a reference model for physical sensor-based 3D mixed-reality applications;

— manage and control physical sensors with their physical properties in 3D mixed reality environments;

— provide an exchangeable information model necessary for transferring and storing data between

sensor-based mixed-reality applications;
— support user interfaces with 3D mixed-reality worlds;
— support physical sensor interfaces with 3D mixed-reality worlds.
vi © ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 18038:2020(E)
Information technology — Computer graphics, image
processing and environmental representation — Sensor
representation in mixed and augmented reality
1 Scope

This document defines the framework and information reference model for representing sensor-based

3D mixed-reality worlds. It defines concepts, an information model, architecture, system functions, and

how to integrate 3D virtual worlds and physical sensors in order to provide mixed-reality applications

with physical sensor interfaces. It defines an exchange format necessary for transferring and storing

data between physical sensor-based mixed-reality applications.
This document specifies the following functionalities:
a) representation of physical sensors in a 3D scene;
b) definition of physical sensors in a 3D scene;
c) representation of functionalities of each physical sensor in a 3D scene;
d) representation of physical properties of each physical sensor in a 3D scene;
e) management of physical sensors in a 3D scene;
f) interface with physical sensor information in a 3D scene.

This document defines a reference model for physical sensor-based mixed-reality applications to

represent and to exchange functions of physical sensors in 3D scenes. It does not define specific

physical interfaces necessary for manipulating physical devices, but rather defines common functional

interfaces that can be used interchangeably between applications.

This document does not define how specific applications are implemented with specific physical sensor

devices. It does not include computer generated sensor information using computer input/output

devices such as a mouse or a keyboard. The sensors in this document represent physical sensor devices

in the real world.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
3D object

collection of vertices in 3D space, connected by various geometric entities such as triangles, lines,

curved surfaces, etc.
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ISO/IEC 18038:2020(E)
3.2
augmented reality

interactive experience of a real-world environment whereby the objects that reside in the real world

are augmented by computer-generated perceptual information
3.3
camera sensor

sensor (3.26) that detects and converts an optical image into an electronic signal

3.4
closed-circuit television
CCTV

video surveillance which uses video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place on a limited set of

monitors
3.5
chemical sensor

sensor (3.26) that can analyse and provide information about the chemical composition of its

environment, that is, a liquid or a gas phase
3.6
electric sensor

sensor (3.26) that examines the change in electrical or magnetic signals based on an environmental input

3.7
environment sensor

sensor (3.26) that monitors relative ambient humidity, illuminance, ambient pressure and ambient

temperature
3.8
flow sensor
sensor (3.26) for detecting the rate of fluid flow
3.9
force sensor

sensor (3.26) for force detecting resistor whose resistance changes when force or pressure is applied

3.10
globally navigation satellite system
GNSS
satellite navigation system with global coverage
3.11
globally unique identifier
GUID
unique reference number used as an identifier in computer systems
3.12
light sensor
photodetector which detects changes in quantities of optical signal
3.13
mixed and augmented reality
MAR

integration of real and virtual worlds including mixed reality (3.14) and augmented reality (3.2)

2 © ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 18038:2020(E)
3.14
mixed reality

merging of real and virtual worlds to generate new environments where physical and synthetic objects

co-exist and interact
3.15
mixed reality system

system that can process mixed reality (3.14) applications with manipulation functions such as read,

write, import, export, modify, display, etc.
3.16
movement sensor

detector to detect a change in position of an object relative to its surroundings or the change in the

surroundings relative to an object
3.17
oxygen sensor

electronic device that measures the proportion of oxygen (O ) in the gas or liquid being analysed

3.18
particle sensor
detector to detect, track, and/or identify high-energy particles
3.19
physical device

real device containing a sensor (3.26) which is represented by a virtual device in a virtual environment

3.20
physical sensor

Internet of things (IoT) sensor (3.26) which has the functionality of a physical device (3.19) in a

3D virtual world
3.21
position sensor
sensor (3.26) that permits position measurement
3.22
pressure sensor
sensor (3.26) that measures pressure, typically of gases or liquids
3.23
programmable logic controller
PLC

digital computer used for automation of typically industrial electromechanical processes, such as

control of machinery on factory assembly lines, amusement rides, or light fixtures

3.24
proximity sensor

sensor (3.26) able to detect the presence of nearby objects without any physical contact

3.25
radio frequency identification
RFID

wireless use of electromagnetic fields to transfer data, for the purposes of automatically identifying

and tracking tags attached to objects
3.26
sensor

device to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics

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ISO/IEC 18038:2020(E)
3.27
sound sensor
sensor (3.26) used to detect the sound intensity of the environment
3.28
temperature sensor
sensor (3.26) to detect a change in temperature
3.30
universally unique identifier
UUID
globally unique identifier
128-bit number used to identify information in computer systems
3.32
virtual world

collection of one or more virtual reality (VR) files and other multimedia content that, when interpreted

by a VR browser, presents an interactive experience to the user consistent with the author's intent

Note 1 to entry: Virtual reality (VR) is understood as an interactive computer-generated experience taking place

in a synthetic and simulated environment.
4 Concepts
4.1 Overview

This clause describes the concepts of sensor-based mixed and augmented reality, including definition,

objectives, sensor type, physical sensor representation, system functions for mixed and augmented

reality (MAR), MAR objects, MAR scene graph, and MAR world.

A mixed-reality world consists of a 3D virtual world and real-world sensors represented as 3D objects

with their physical properties. As a simple example, the conceptual scene of a mixed-reality world

is represented in Figure 1. It displays a heritage site represented by a 3D virtual world with a global

navigation satellite system (GNSS) sensor and a CCTV sensor. The virtual world is of a real heritage

location in a city and the character represents a tourist. GNSS information is displayed for the tourist

and a real CCTV device is located at its real physical location at the heritage site.

Figure 1 — Example sensor-based mixed-reality world

Once real physical sensors are integrated into a 3D virtual world, their physical properties can be

represented precisely in the virtual world. Sensor-based mixed reality is obtained by this convergence

of 3D with physical sensors in the real world. For sensor-based mixed reality, sensors in a 3D virtual

world are defined, and their information should be able to be transferred between applications, and

between a virtual world and a real world. This work is intended to define how to exchange AR/MR

application data in heterogeneous computing environments, and how physical sensors can be managed

and controlled with their physical properties in a 3D virtual world.
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ISO/IEC 18038:2020(E)
[11][14][18]

Physical sensors in the real world are many and varied . In order to control them in a 3D scene,

these physical sensors are classified based on their information types and functions. Types of physical

sensor devices include acoustic and sound, automotive and transportation, chemical, electric and

magnetic, environment and weather, flow and fluid, radiation and particle, navigation, position and

angle, speed and acceleration, optical and light, pressure, force and density, thermal and temperature,

proximity and presence, and video. Each sensor is represented as a physical device in a 3D scene

visually and/or functionally depending on the application and the type of sensor. Figure 2 shows an

indoor and an outdoor scene, each with many physical sensors. Each scene represents a corresponding

real world. The information and function of each sensor can be represented in the scenes. MAR scenes

with physical sensors can be used for representing and simulating the functions of the sensors and,

therefore, for managing the sensors using the 3D scene. These can also be used for facility management

[3]
in a real world .

This document focuses on how to represent physical sensors in a 3D scene, what to represent about

each physical sensor, what each sensor can do and the reason why each sensor needs this specification.

When representing a physical sensor in a 3D scene, having the sensor appear in the scene is optional

depending on the type of sensor and the application. Precise location and orientation o

...

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