Cranes — Design principles for loads and load combinations — Part 2: Mobile cranes

This document applies the principles set forth in ISO 8686‑1 to mobile cranes, as defined in ISO 4306‑2, and presents loads and load combinations appropriate for use in proof-of-competence calculations for the steel structures of mobile cranes. This document is applicable to mobile cranes used for normal and duty cycle service. NOTE Means for proof-of-competence testing will be addressed in another document.

Appareils de levage à charge suspendue — Principes de calcul des charges et des combinaisons de charge — Partie 2: Grues mobiles

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Status
Published
Publication Date
14-Jun-2018
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
15-Jun-2018
Completion Date
15-Jun-2018
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Error! Reference source not found.
ISO/TC 96/SC 6
Date: 2017‐02‐3
Deleted: /FDIS
ISO 8686-2:2018(E)
ISO/TC 96/SC 6/WG
Secretariat: ANSI
Cranes — Design principles for loads and load combinations — Part 2: Mobile
cranes
Appareils de levage à charge suspendue — Principes de calcul des charges et des
combinaisons de charge — Partie 2: Grues mobiles
Warning

This document is not an ISO International Standard. It is distributed for review and

comment. It is subject to change without notice and may not be referred to as an
International Standard.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any

relevant patent rights of which they are aware and to provide supporting
documentation.
Document type: Error! Reference source not found.
Document subtype: Error! Reference source not found.
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---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
Error! Reference source not found.
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or

utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying,

or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be

requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of the

requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH‐1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
Error! Reference source not found.
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
Error! Reference source not found.
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................... 4

1  Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2  Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 5

3  Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................... 5

4  Choice of loads and load combinations ................................................................................................... 6

4.1  Basic considerations ....................................................................................................................................... 6

4.2  Simultaneous accelerations ......................................................................................................................... 6

4.3  Side loading ........................................................................................................................................................ 6

4.4  Erection and dismantling .............................................................................................................................. 6

4.5  Automatically initiated actions .................................................................................................................. 7

5  Loads from acceleration of crane drives ................................................................................................. 7

5.1  General ................................................................................................................................................................ 7

5.2  Slewing effects .................................................................................................................................................. 7

5.3  Hoisting effects ................................................................................................................................................. 7

5.4  Driving effects ................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.4.1  Driving acceleration ....................................................................................................................................... 8

5.4.2  Driving on uneven surface ........................................................................................................................... 8

5.5  Luffing and telescoping effects ................................................................................................................... 8

5.6  Application of loads caused by acceleration .......................................................................................... 8

6  Proof-of-competence calculations for load-supporting structures ............................................... 8

6.1  General ................................................................................................................................................................ 8

6.2  Allowable stress method ............................................................................................................................... 8

6.3  Limit state method .......................................................................................................................................... 8

7  Side-load deflection of latticed booms ..................................................................................................... 8

Annex A (informative) Simultaneous accelerations ..................................................................................... 15

Annex B (informative) Application of load combinations given in Table 1 .......................................... 19

Error! Reference source not found.
iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
Error! Reference source not found.
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national

standards bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally

carried out through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a

technical committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee.

International organizations, governmental and non‐governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in

the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all

matters of electrotechnical standardization. Deleted:

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement. Deleted:

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 96, Cranes, Subcommittee SC 6, Mobile

cranes.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 8686‐2:2004), which has been technically

revised. The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— the document has been adapted to ISO 8686‐1:2012;
— the Annexes have been renumbered after former Annex A has been deleted;
— Tables 1 and 2 have also been technically revised.
A list of all parts in the ISO 8686 series can be found on the ISO website.
Error! Reference source not found.
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
Deleted: FINAL
Error! Reference source not found. Error! Reference source not found.
Cranes — Design principles for loads and load
combinations — Part 2: Mobile cranes
1 Scope

This document applies the principles set forth in ISO 8686‐1 to mobile cranes, as defined in ISO 4306‐2,

and presents loads and load combinations appropriate for use in proof‐of‐competence calculations for

the steel structures of mobile cranes.

This document is applicable to mobile cranes used for normal and duty cycle service.

NOTE Means for proof‐of‐competence testing will be addressed in another document.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 4302:2016, Cranes — Wind load assessment
ISO 4306‐2, Cranes — Vocabulary — Part 2: Mobile cranes
ISO 4305, Mobile cranes — Determination of stability
ISO 4310, Cranes — Test code and procedures

ISO 8686‐1:2012, Cranes — Design principles for loads and load combinations — Part 1: General

ISO 10721‐1, Steel structures — Part 1: Materials and design
ISO 10721‐2, Steel structures — Part 2: Fabrication and erection

ISO 11662‐2, Mobile cranes — Experimental determination of crane performance — Part 2: Structural

competence under static loading
ISO 20332:2016, Cranes — Proof of competence of steel structures
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 4306‐2 and the following

apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
Error! Reference source not found.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
Error! Reference source not found.
3.1
rated capacity
rated load
hoist medium load which includes the mass of lifting attachments
3.2
normal service

hook duties for which fatigue analysis of the steel load‐supporting structure is not required

3.3
duty cycle service

repetitive duties for which fatigue analysis of the steel load‐supporting structure may be required

EXAMPLE Grab, dragline, magnet or comparable repetitive duty.
4 Choice of loads and load combinations
4.1 Basic considerations

Loads shall be combined with the intention of discovering maximum load effects on mobile crane

components or members during operation, in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions, as

simulated by elastostatic calculation. To achieve this, the following considerations govern preparation

of proof‐of‐competence calculations.

a) The crane is taken in its most unfavourable position and configuration, while the loads are assumed

to act in magnitude, position and direction causing unfavourable stresses at the critical points

selected for evaluation on the basis of engineering considerations; and

b) conservatively, loads can be combined at the values defined in this document or, when appropriate,

they can be combined with certain loads, adjusted by reduction factors for the probability of

combined actions to more closely reflect loading conditions currently found in practice.

4.2 Simultaneous accelerations

The effect of one accelerating drive, e.g. slewing, luffing or telescoping, is assumed to act simultaneously

with hoisting acceleration; only two drives are assumed to accelerate simultaneously in the absence of

hoisting acceleration. See Annex A for further information on simultaneous accelerations.

4.3 Side loading

Certain design features may have the effect of inducing side loading on booms. When those features are

present in a design, they shall be included with all applicable load combinations for which calculations

are performed, combined so as to maximize side loading. In addition to slewing and wind effects,

features affecting side loading may include:

a) reeving arrangements that cause the hoist line to deviate from the boom centreline, between the

boom point sheave and the most extreme position on the hoisting drum; and

b) inclination of the boom foot due to deflection of the supporting crane structure.

4.4 Erection and dismantling

An evaluation shall be made for each step in the erection and dismantling processes, as appropriate to

the crane type and configuration, and proof‐of‐competence calculations shall be carried out for each

Error! Reference source not found.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
Error! Reference source not found.

instance of significant member or component loading. Calculations shall utilize factors from Table 1 as

given under load combinations B.
4.5 Automatically initiated actions

When mobile cranes are furnished with controls or devices that cut out drives and apply brakes without

an initiating action by the driver, or are furnished with brakes that automatically engage on loss of

power or control function, calculations reflecting those effects shall be carried out under Emergency

cut‐out, see column C4.
5 Loads from acceleration of crane drives
5.1 General

Mobile cranes are typically designed to accommodate a range of boom lengths and various extensions

or front‐end attachments. Therefore, some cranes can possess excess power in some configurations,

power that crane drivers in practice do not fully utilize (in accordance with the manufacturer’s

instructions). Therefore, in proof‐of‐competence calculations, the effects acting on the mass of the

crane, either acceleration or deceleration may need to be chosen on the basis of a simulation or tests

rather than on drive or brake characteristics.
5.2 Slewing effects

In practice, slewing acceleration and deceleration rates can vary depending on the front‐end

attachment fitted, the operating radius, the control scheme employed, the crane driver’s operating

practices, and the characteristics of the slewing drive and braking mechanisms. For proof‐of‐

competence calculations, the forces on the mass of the crane and the rated load by slewing acceleration

or deceleration which produce side loading can be taken as follows.

a) For cranes with stepped drive controls and for cranes in which the driver does not have control

over slewing acceleration or deceleration rates, the forces on the mass of the crane and the rated

load shall be calculated from drive/brake characteristics.

b) For cranes with stepless continuously variable drive controls, the forces on the mass of the crane

and the rated load shall be calculated based either on:

1) the highest forces which occur during normal operation as described in the manufacturer’s

instructions; or
2) a simulation or tests; or
3) drive/brake characteristics.

But the resulting lateral force from slewing, applied to the boom tip, shall not be taken less than the

maximum of:

— 1 % of the rated load plus 1 % of the mass of the main boom and jib reduced to the boom head or

jib head (see ISO 4305, ISO 4310); and
— 2 % of the rated load for latticed booms or 3 % for telescopic booms.
5.3 Hoisting effects

5.3.1 Hoisting effects acting on the mass of the crane, except for the rated load itself, shall be

calculated according to ISO 8686‐1:2012, 6.1.1 (see also Table 2, line 1)
Error! Reference source not found.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
Error! Reference source not found.

5.3.2 Hoisting effects acting on the mass of the rated load shall be calculated according to

ISO 8686‐1:2012, 6.1.2.
5.4 Driving effects
5.4.1 Driving acceleration

Loads caused by driving acceleration or deceleration, with or without load, shall be estimated from

experience or experiment, or by calculation using an appropriate model for the crane.

5.4.2 Driving on uneven surface

Loads caused by travelling on uneven surface shall be calculated according to ISO 8686‐1:2012, 6.1.3

5.5 Luffing and telescoping effects

Loads caused by luffing and telescoping, with or without load, shall be estimated from experience or

experiment, or by calculation using an appropriate model for the crane.
5.6 Application of loads caused by acceleration

The forces on the mass of the crane caused by acceleration are amplified by an appropriate dynamic

amplification factor value, ϕ , according ISO 8686‐1:2012, 6.1.4.
6 Proof-of-competence calculations for load-supporting structures
6.1 General

Principally, a proof of fatigue according to ISO 20332 and proof of rigid body stability according to

ISO 4305 shall be performed.
6.2 Allowable stress method

6.2.1 Table 1 gives loads and load combinations for the allowable stress method, together with an

overall strength coefficient γf and dynamic amplification factors, ϕn. Table 2 gives values for the factors

ϕn and other pertinent load information.

6.2.2 For members under axial compression, the overall strength coefficient, γ, given in Table 1 shall

only be used in conjunction with a column formula (or curve) from ISO 10721‐1 or ISO 10721‐2.

6.3 Limit state method
6.3.1 Table 1 gives loads and load combinations for the limit state method,
...

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 8686-2
Second edition
2018-06
Cranes — Design principles for loads
and load combinations —
Part 2:
Mobile cranes
Appareils de levage à charge suspendue — Principes de calcul des
charges et des combinaisons de charge —
Partie 2: Grues mobiles
Reference number
ISO 8686-2:2018(E)
ISO 2018
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 8686-2:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 8686-2:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Choice of loads and load combinations ......................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 Basic considerations .......................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Simultaneous accelerations ......................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.3 Side loading ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

4.4 Erection and dismantling ............................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.5 Automatically initiated actions ................................................................................................................................................. 3

5 Loads from acceleration of crane drives ...................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Slewing effects ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.3 Hoisting effects ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.4 Driving effects .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.4.1 Driving acceleration ...................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.4.2 Driving on uneven surface ....................................................................................................................................... 4

5.5 Luffing and telescoping effects .................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.6 Application of loads caused by acceleration ................................................................................................................. 4

6 Proof-of-competence calculations for load-supporting structures .................................................................4

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2 Allowable stress method ................................................................................................................................................................ 4

6.3 Limit state method ............................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7 Side-load deflection of latticed booms .......................................................................................................................................... 4

Annex A (informative) Simultaneous accelerations ..........................................................................................................................10

Annex B (informative) Application of load combinations given in Table 1 ...............................................................14

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 8686-2:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 96, Cranes, Subcommittee SC 6, Mobile

cranes.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 8686-2:2004), which has been technically

revised. The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— the document has been adapted to ISO 8686-1:2012;
— the Annexes have been renumbered after former Annex A has been deleted;
— Tables 1 and 2 have also been technically revised.
A list of all parts in the ISO 8686 series can be found on the ISO website.
iv © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 8686-2:2018(E)
Cranes — Design principles for loads and load
combinations —
Part 2:
Mobile cranes
1 Scope

This document applies the principles set forth in ISO 8686-1 to mobile cranes, as defined in ISO 4306-2,

and presents loads and load combinations appropriate for use in proof-of-competence calculations for

the steel structures of mobile cranes.

This document is applicable to mobile cranes used for normal and duty cycle service.

NOTE Means for proof-of-competence testing will be addressed in another document.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 4302:2016, Cranes — Wind load assessment
ISO 4306-2, Cranes — Vocabulary — Part 2: Mobile cranes
ISO 4305, Mobile cranes — Determination of stability
ISO 4310, Cranes — Test code and procedures

ISO 8686-1:2012, Cranes — Design principles for loads and load combinations — Part 1: General

ISO 10721-1, Steel structures — Part 1: Materials and design
ISO 10721-2, Steel structures — Part 2: Fabrication and erection

ISO 11662-2, Mobile cranes — Experimental determination of crane performance — Part 2: Structural

competence under static loading
ISO 20332:2016, Cranes — Proof of competence of steel structures
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 4306-2 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 8686-2:2018(E)
3.1
rated capacity
rated load
hoist medium load which includes the mass of lifting attachments
3.2
normal service

hook duties for which fatigue analysis of the steel load-supporting structure is not required

3.3
duty cycle service

repetitive duties for which fatigue analysis of the steel load-supporting structure may be required

EXAMPLE Grab, dragline, magnet or comparable repetitive duty.
4 Choice of loads and load combinations
4.1 Basic considerations

Loads shall be combined with the intention of discovering maximum load effects on mobile crane

components or members during operation, in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions, as

simulated by elastostatic calculation. To achieve this, the following considerations govern preparation

of proof-of-competence calculations.

a) The crane is taken in its most unfavourable position and configuration, while the loads are assumed

to act in magnitude, position and direction causing unfavourable stresses at the critical points

selected for evaluation on the basis of engineering considerations; and

b) conservatively, loads can be combined at the values defined in this document or, when appropriate,

they can be combined with certain loads, adjusted by reduction factors for the probability of

combined actions to more closely reflect loading conditions currently found in practice.

4.2 Simultaneous accelerations

The effect of one accelerating drive, e.g. slewing, luffing or telescoping, is assumed to act simultaneously

with hoisting acceleration; only two drives are assumed to accelerate simultaneously in the absence of

hoisting acceleration. See Annex A for further information on simultaneous accelerations.

4.3 Side loading

Certain design features may have the effect of inducing side loading on booms. When those features are

present in a design, they shall be included with all applicable load combinations for which calculations

are performed, combined so as to maximize side loading. In addition to slewing and wind effects,

features affecting side loading may include:

a) reeving arrangements that cause the hoist line to deviate from the boom centreline, between the

boom point sheave and the most extreme position on the hoisting drum; and

b) inclination of the boom foot due to deflection of the supporting crane structure.

4.4 Erection and dismantling

An evaluation shall be made for each step in the erection and dismantling processes, as appropriate to

the crane type and configuration, and proof-of-competence calculations shall be carried out for each

instance of significant member or component loading. Calculations shall utilize factors from Table 1 as

given under load combinations B.
2 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 8686-2:2018(E)
4.5 Automatically initiated actions

When mobile cranes are furnished with controls or devices that cut out drives and apply brakes without

an initiating action by the driver, or are furnished with brakes that automatically engage on loss of

power or control function, calculations reflecting those effects shall be carried out under Emergency

cut-out, see column C4.
5 Loads from acceleration of crane drives
5.1 General

Mobile cranes are typically designed to accommodate a range of boom lengths and various extensions

or front-end attachments. Therefore, some cranes can possess excess power in some configurations,

power that crane drivers in practice do not fully utilize (in accordance with the manufacturer’s

instructions). Therefore, in proof-of-competence calculations, the effects acting on the mass of the

crane, either acceleration or deceleration may need to be chosen on the basis of a simulation or tests

rather than on drive or brake characteristics.
5.2 Slewing effects

In practice, slewing acceleration and deceleration rates can vary depending on the front-end attachment

fitted, the operating radius, the control scheme employed, the crane driver’s operating practices, and

the characteristics of the slewing drive and braking mechanisms. For proof-of-competence calculations,

the forces on the mass of the crane and the rated load by slewing acceleration or deceleration which

produce side loading can be taken as follows.

a) For cranes with stepped drive controls and for cranes in which the driver does not have control

over slewing acceleration or deceleration rates, the forces on the mass of the crane and the rated

load shall be calculated from drive/brake characteristics.

b) For cranes with stepless continuously variable drive controls, the forces on the mass of the crane

and the rated load shall be calculated based either on:

1) the highest forces which occur during normal operation as described in the manufacturer’s

instructions; or
2) a simulation or tests; or
3) drive/brake characteristics.

But the resulting lateral force from slewing, applied to the boom tip, shall not be taken less than the

maximum of:

— 1 % of the rated load plus 1 % of the mass of the main boom and jib reduced to the boom head or jib

head (see ISO 4305, ISO 4310); and
— 2 % of the rated load for latticed booms or 3 % for telescopic booms.
5.3 Hoisting effects

5.3.1 Hoisting effects acting on the mass of the crane, except for the rated load itself, shall be calculated

according to ISO 8686-1:2012, 6.1.1 (see also Table 2, line 1)

5.3.2 Hoisting effects acting on the mass of the rated load shall be calculated according to

ISO 8686-1:2012, 6.1.2.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 8686-2:2018(E)
5.4 Driving effects
5.4.1 Driving acceleration

Loads caused by driving acceleration or deceleration, with or without load, shall be estimated from

experience or experiment, or by calculation using an appropriate model for the crane.

5.4.2 Driving on uneven surface

Loads caused by travelling on uneven surface shall be calculated according to ISO 8686-1:2012, 6.1.3

5.5 Luffing and telescoping effects

Loads caused by luffing and telescoping, with or without load, shall be estimated from experience or

experiment, or by calculation using an appropriate model for the crane.
5.6 Application of loads caused by acceleration

The forces on the mass of the crane caused by acceleration are amplified by an appropriate dynamic

amplification factor value, ϕ , according ISO 8686-1:2012, 6.1.4.
6 Proof-of-competence calculations for load-supporting structures
6.1 General

Principally, a proof of fatigue according to ISO 20332 and proof of rigid body stability according to

ISO 4305 shall be performed.
6.2 Allowable stress method
6.2.1 Table 1 gives loads and load combinations for the all
...

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