Information and documentation — Digital object identifier system

Information et documentation — Système d'identifiant numérique d'objet

Informatika in dokumentacija - Sistem identifikatorjev digitalnega objekta

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Status
Published
Current Stage
4060 - Close of voting
Start Date
31-Dec-2021
Completion Date
30-Dec-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST ISO/DIS 26324:2022
01-februar-2022
Informatika in dokumentacija - Sistem identifikatorjev digitalnega objekta
Information and documentation -- Digital object identifier system
Information et documentation -- Système d'identifiant numérique d'objet
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO/DIS 26324
ICS:
01.140.20 Informacijske vede Information sciences
oSIST ISO/DIS 26324:2022 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST ISO/DIS 26324:2022
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oSIST ISO/DIS 26324:2022
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 26324
ISO/TC 46/SC 9 Secretariat: ANSI
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2021-10-07 2021-12-30
Information and documentation — Digital object identifier
system
Information et documentation — Système d'identifiant numérique d'objet
ICS: 01.140.20
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
This document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 26324:2021(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2021
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oSIST ISO/DIS 26324:2022
ISO/DIS 26324:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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oSIST ISO/DIS 26324:2022
ISO/DIS 26324:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 DOI name ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.1 Syntax .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.1.1 General characteristics ............................................................................................................................................... 3

4.1.2 DOI prefix ............................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.1.3 DOI suffix ................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.2 Visual presentation and other representation of DOI names ......................................................................... 5

4.2.1 Screen and print presentation ............................................................................................................................. 5

4.2.2 URI presentation .............................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.2.3 Other representations ................................................................................................................................................. 5

5 Assignment of DOI name .............................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.1 Principles of assignment ................................................................................................................................................................ 6

5.2 Granularity ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.3 Description ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.4 Uniqueness ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.5 Persistence.................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

6 Resolution of DOI name ................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2 Functionality ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

7 DOI metadata ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2 Functionality ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

7.3 Registration of DOI metadata ..................................................................................................................................................... 9

8 Administration of the DOI system ...................................................................................................................................................... 9

Annex A (normative) Relationship between the DOI system and other identifier schemes ...................10

Annex B (normative) DOI metadata specification ...............................................................................................................................12

Annex C (normative) Administration of the DOI system ..............................................................................................................14

Annex D (informative) Transition from ISO 26324:2012 to ISO 26324:20xx .........................................................16

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
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oSIST ISO/DIS 26324:2022
ISO/DIS 26324:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International

Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting.

Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies

casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 26324 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 46, Information and documentation,

Subcommittee SC 9, Identification and description.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 26324:2012), which has been technically

revised. The substantive change affecting users is the removal of the requirement that the directory

indicator be “10”. The registration authority now has the ability to assign DOI prefixes with a directory

indicator other than “10”, allowing certain existing identification schemes to become part of the DOI

system.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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oSIST ISO/DIS 26324:2022
ISO/DIS 26324:2021(E)
Introduction

The digital object identifier [DOI® ] system provides an infrastructure for persistent unique

identification of objects of any type.

DOI is an acronym for “digital object identifier”, meaning a “digital identifier of an object” rather than an

“identifier of a digital object”. In this International Standard, the term “digital object identifier” refers to

the system defined in this International Standard unless otherwise stated. The DOI system was initiated

by the International DOI Foundation in 1998, and initially developed with the collaboration of some

participants in ISO/TC 46/SC 9. Due to its application in the fields of information and documentation

and previous collaboration with some ISO/TC 46/SC 9 participants, it was introduced as a possible

work item in 2004 and further developed from 2006 to 2010.

The DOI system is designed to work over the Internet. A DOI name is permanently assigned to an object

to provide a resolvable persistent network link to current information about that object, including

where the object, or information about it, can be found on the Internet. While information about an

object can change over time, its DOI name will not change. A DOI name can be resolved within the DOI

system to values of one or more types of data relating to the object identified by that DOI name, such as

a URL, an e-mail address, other identifiers and descriptive metadata.

The DOI system enables the construction of automated services and transactions. Applications of

the DOI system include but are not limited to managing information and documentation location and

access; managing metadata; facilitating electronic transactions; persistent unique identification of any

form of any data; and commercial and non-commercial transactions.

The content of an object associated with a DOI name is described unambiguously by DOI metadata,

based on a structured extensible data model that enables the object to be associated with metadata of

any desired degree of precision and granularity to support description and services. The data model

supports interoperability between DOI applications.

The scope of the DOI system is not defined by reference to the type of content (format, etc.) of the

referent, but by reference to the functionalities it provides and the context of use. The DOI system

provides, within networks of DOI applications, for unique identification, persistence, resolution,

metadata and semantic interoperability.

1) DOI® is a registered trademark. Information concerning trademark issues can be found on ISO online webpage

for the ISO 26324 Registration authority at http:// www .iso.or g/ iso/ maintenance _agencies.html. EDITOR’S NOTE:

This address is incorrect and the correct address (https:// www .iso.or g/ maintenance _agencies.html) does not

contain this information.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
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oSIST ISO/DIS 26324:2022
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oSIST ISO/DIS 26324:2022
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 26324:2021(E)
Information and documentation — Digital object identifier
system
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies the syntax, description and resolution functional components

of the digital object identifier system, and the general principles for the creation, registration and

administration of DOI names (where DOI is an acronym for “digital object identifier”).

This International Standard defines the syntax for a DOI name, which is used for the identification of an

object of any material form (digital or physical) or an abstraction (such as a textual work) where there

is a functional need to distinguish it from other objects.

The DOI name does not replace, nor is it an alternative for, an identifier used in another scheme, such as

the schemes defined by ISO/TC 46/SC 9. This International Standard describes how the DOI system can

be used in conjunction with another identifier scheme (for example, to provide additional functionality,

such as resolution, where this is not already available), and how the character string of that other

scheme can be integrated into the DOI system through the DOI metadata record and/or the DOI syntax.

This International Standard does not specify specific technologies to implement the syntax, description

and resolution functional components of the digital object identifier system.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

TM 2)
Unicode Consortium The Unicode Standard
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
allowed value
item which may be used as a value of an element
3.2
application profile
set of DOI names that share some common characteristics

Note 1 to entry: A DOI application profile is a grouping mechanism for DOI names; the functional specification

of the application profile includes a set of metadata, comprising the kernel metadata and additional information

applicable to that particular genre of object and functional requirements. Each DOI name is associated with one

or more application profiles.

2) Available at: http:// www .unicode.or g. Unicode is a trademark of Unicode, Inc. The Unicode Standard imposes

additional constraints on implementations of ISO/IEC 10646:2011.
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3.3
data dictionary

repository for all data elements and allowed values of those elements used in DOI metadata

specifications
3.4
directory indicator

unique string assigned to a registrant, forming part of the prefix element of the DOI syntax (3.6) but

having no other implied meaning
3.5
DOI name
string that specifies a unique object (3.10) within the DOI system (3.7)

Note 1 to entry: Names consist of characters in a sequence specified by the DOI syntax (3.6).

Note 2 to entry: The terms “identifier” and “number” are sometimes but not always used in the same sense

and are to be avoided where ambiguity can arise. The unqualified use of “DOI” alone can also be ambiguous.

Therefore “DOI” is always used in conjunction with a specific noun [e.g. DOI name (3.5), DOI system (3.7)] unless

the meaning is sufficiently clear from an earlier mention or the specific context.

3.6
DOI syntax

rules for the form and sequence of characters comprising any DOI name (3.5), specifically the form and

character of a prefix element, separator and suffix element
3.7
DOI system

social and technical infrastructure for the assignment and administration of DOI names (3.5)

as identifiers in computer-readable form through assignment, resolution, referent description,

administration, etc.
3.8
interoperability

ability of independent systems to exchange meaningful information and initiate actions from each

other, in order to operate together to mutual benefit

Note 1 to entry: In particular, interoperability constitutes the ability for loosely-coupled independent systems to

be able to collaborate and communicate. See Reference [17] for further information about interoperability.

3.9
metadata

specific data associated with a referent within the DOI system (3.7), based on a structured data model

that enables the referent of the DOI name (3.5) to be associated with data of any desired degree of

precision and granularity to support identification, description and services

Note 1 to entry: This can involve one or more intermediate mapping operations. The resolution might or might

not return an instance of the object. Multiple resolution is the simultaneous return as output of several pieces of

current information related to the object, in defined data structures.
3.10
object

entity within the scope of the DOI system (3.7) that can be digital, physical or abstract

Note 1 to entry: Digital, physical or abstract forms of an entity can be of relevance in information and

documentation (e.g. resources, people or agreements).

Note 2 to entry: A particular object identified by a specific DOI name (3.5) is the referent (3.13) of that DOI name.

2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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3.11
opaque string
syntax string that has no meaning discernible by simple inspection
Note 1 to entry: To discover meaning, metadata are required.
3.12
persistent

existence, and ability to be used in services outside the direct control of the issuing assigner, without a

stated time limit
3.13
referent
particular object (3.10) identified by a DOI name (3.5)
3.14
registrant

person or organization that has requested and received the registration of a particular DOI name (3.5)

3.15
registrant code

unique string assigned to a registrant, forming part of the prefix element of the DOI syntax (3.6) but

having no other implied meaning
3.16
resolution

process of submitting a DOI name (3.5) to a network service and receiving in return one or more pieces

of current information related to the identified object such as metadata or a location (URL) of the object

or of metadata
3.17
unique identification
specification by a DOI name (3.5) of one and only one referent (3.13)
4 DOI name
4.1 Syntax
4.1.1 General characteristics

The DOI syntax shall be made up of a DOI prefix and a DOI suffix separated by a forward slash.

There is no defined limit on the length of the DOI name, or of the DOI prefix or DOI suffix.

The DOI name is case-insensitive and can incorporate any printable characters from the legal graphic

characters of Unicode. Further constraints on character use (e.g. use of language-specific alphanumeric

characters) can be defined for an application by the ISO 26324 Registration authority.

The combination of a unique DOI prefix (assigned to a particular DOI registrant) and a unique DOI suffix

(provided by that registrant for a specific object) is unique, and so allows the de-centralized allocation

of DOI names.

The DOI name is an opaque string for the purposes of the DOI system. No definitive information may be

inferred from the specific character string of a DOI name. In particular, the inclusion in a DOI name of

any DOI prefix allocated to a specific registrant does not provide evidence of the ownership of rights or

current management responsibility of any intellectual property in the referent. The mere assignment

of a DOI name to a referent does not imply endorsement of the referent by any party. Such information

may be asserted in the associated metadata.
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4.1.2 DOI prefix
4.1.2.1 Elements
4.1.2.1.1 General

The DOI prefix shall be composed of a directory indicator optionally followed by a registrant code.

Where a registrant code is present, the two components shall be separated by a full stop (period).

The DOI prefix is a unique string assigned to a registrant.
4.1.2.1.2 Directory indicator

The directory indicator shall be assigned, optionally with a registrant code, to a registrant by the

ISO 26324 Registration authority.

Where a registrant code was assigned to a registrant under a previous edition of this document, the

assignment of “10” as the directory indicator shall be assumed.
4.1.2.1.3 Registrant code

Where present, the second element of the DOI prefix shall be the registrant code.

EXAMPLE 1

10.1000 DOI prefix comprising a directory indicator “10” followed by registrant code “1000”.

The registrant code may be further divided into sub-elements for administrative convenience if

desired. Each sub-element of the registrant code shall be preceded by a full stop. Such subdivision

implies no hierarchical relationship; each registrant code, whether subdivided or not, has equal status

in the DOI system. However a subdivided registrant code can have technical resolution implications. It

is recommended that registrants consult the ISO 26324 Registration authority for further information

about assignment of registrant codes.
EXAMPLE 2
10.1000.11 DOI prefix in which the registrant code has a subdivision “11”.

The registrant code may be omitted where a directory indicator has been assigned without one.

EXAMPLE 3

15434 DOI prefix consisting of only a directory indicator where no registrant code has been

assigned.

EDITOR’S NOTE: make sure this prefix (15434) is unused in the Handle system to avoid implications

that a particular Handle application has joined the DOI system.
4.1.2.2 Changes

Once a DOI name has been assigned it shall not be changed, regardless of any changes in the ownership

or management of the referent.

NOTE The original registrant might no longer have any role in maintaining a DOI name and its associated

records even though its registrant code remains a permanent element of that DOI name.

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4.1.3 DOI suffix

The DOI suffix shall consist of a character string of any length chosen by the registrant. Each suffix

shall be unique to the prefix element that precedes it. The unique suffix can be a sequential number, or

it might incorporate an identifier generated from or based on another system used by the registrant,

[5][6] [1] [3] [2] [10] [11]

e.g. ISAN , ISBN , ISRC , ISSN , ISTC , ISNI ; in such cases, a preferred construction for such

a suffix can be specified, as in Example 2. See Annex A for further details.
EXAMPLE 1

10.1000/123456 DOI name with the DOI prefix “10.1000” and the DOI suffix “123456”.

EXAMPLE 2

10.1038/issn.1476-4687 DOI suffix using an ISSN. To construct a DOI suffix using an ISSN, precede the

ISSN (including the hyphen) with the lowercase letters “issn” and a period,
as in this hypothetical example of a DOI for the electronic version of Nature.
4.2 Visual presentation and other representation of DOI names
4.2.1 Screen and print presentation

When displayed on screen or in print, a DOI name shall be preceded by a lowercase “doi:” unless the

context clearly indicates that a DOI name is implied. The "doi:” label is not part of the DOI name value.

EXAMPLE

The DOI name “10.1006/jmbi.1998.2354” is displayed and printed as "doi: 10.1006/jmbi.1998.2354".

4.2.2 URI presentation
[14]

The use of the lowercase string “doi” complies with the IETF specification, RFC 3986 , for

representation as a URI (uniform resource identifier), such as “ftp:” and “http:”.

When displayed in web browsers, the DOI name can be attached to the address for an appropriate

proxy server, to enable resolution of the DOI name via a standard web hyperlink. To resolve a DOI via

a standard web hyperlink, the DOI name itself should be appended to the address for the proxy server.

EXAMPLE

The DOI name “10.1006/jmbi.1998.2354” would be made an actionable link as “https:// doi .org/ 10 .1006/

jmbi .1998 .2354”.

DOI names so represented in a URL and transported by the HTTP protocol are constrained to follow

standard IETF guidelines for URI representations. The syntax for URIs is more restrictive than the

syntax for DOIs; some characters are reserved and will need percent-encoding.

NOTE Certain client or server software might be able to process DOIs using native resolution technology

(i.e. doi: 10.1006/jmbi.1998.2354 would be interpreted by the browser and automatically resolved without the

addition of the proxy server address).
4.2.3 Other representations

DOI names can be represented in other forms in certain contexts (e.g. in the info URI scheme RFC 4452

[15]

NOTE The registration of the DOI system within the info URI scheme remains valid but the new registrations

are not being accepted and users are being advised to migrate their applications to “mainstream Web practices”.

[18]
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Characters which cannot be handled directly in a specific network or reference context, or where

ambiguity can arise (e.g. minus sign, the hyphen, and the en-dash all look similar on the screen but

carry different character values) should be avoided or encoded in an appropriate way (e.g. for URLs

convert to UTF-8 and then percent-encode).
5 Assignment of DOI name
5.1 Principles of assignment
[5][6]

A DOI name shall not be used as a replacement for other ISO identifier schemes such as ISAN ,

[1] [3] [2] [10] [11]

ISBN , ISRC , ISSN , ISTC , ISNI and other commonly recognized identifiers. See Annex A for

further details.

A DOI name can be assigned to any object whenever there is a functional need to distinguish it from

other objects.

“DOI” is construed as “digital identifier of an object” (not “identifier of a digital object”).

Rules for assignment of DOI names can include a functional definition of scope based on appropriate

metadata through a DOI application profile.
5.2 Granularity

A DOI name can be assigned to any object, regardless of the extent to which that object might be a

component part of some larger entity. DOI names can be assigned at any desired degree of precision

and granularity that a registrant deems to be appropriate.

EXAMPLE For granularity in textual materials, separate DOI names can be assigned to:

— a novel as an abstract work,
— a specific edition of that novel,
— a specific chapter within that edition of the novel,
— a single paragraph,
— a specific image, or
— a quotation,

as well as to each specific manifestation in which any of those entities are published or otherwise made available.

5.3 Description

The assignment of a DOI name requires that the registrant provide metadata describing the object to

which the DOI name is being assigned. The metadata shall describe the object to the degree that is

necessary to distinguish it as a separate entity within the DOI
...

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