Cycles -- Safety requirements for bicycles

This document specifies safety and performance requirements for the design, marking, assembly, and testing of two wheeled electrically power assisted cycles (hereafter EPACs), fully-assembled EPACs and subassemblies, and provides guidelines for information supplied by the manufacturers (i.e. instructions on the use and care of such EPACs). This document applies to two wheeled EPACs that have a maximum saddle height of 635 mm or more and are intended for private and commercial use with exception of EPACs intended for hire from unattended stations. This document is intended to cover all common significant hazards, hazardous situations and events listed in 5.3 of EPACs, when used as intended or under conditions of misuse that are reasonably foreseeable by the manufacturer. This document specifies requirements and test methods for engine power management systems, electrical circuits including the charger for the assessment of the design and assembly of EPACs and sub-assemblies for systems having a Safety Extra Low Voltage (SELV) maximum voltage up to 60 V d.c. including tolerances.

Cycles -- Exigences de sécurité des cycles

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
19-Jul-2020
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
23-Jun-2020
Completion Date
23-Jun-2020
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TECHNICAL ISO/TS
SPECIFICATION 4210-10
First edition
2020-07
Cycles — Safety requirements for
bicycles —
Part 10:
Safety requirements for electrically
power assisted cycles (EPACs)
Reference number
ISO/TS 4210-10:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TS 4210-10:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TS 4210-10:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5 General requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.1 Lighting systems, reflectors and warning device ...................................................................................................... 6

5.2 Risk assessment ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.3 Significant hazards and safety functions .......................................................................................................................... 7

5.3.1 Significant hazards ......................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.3.2 Safety function for control system of EPACs ............................................................................................ 7

5.4 Prevention of unauthorized use ............................................................................................................................................... 8

5.5 Failure mode ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.5.1 Requirement ........................................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.5.2 Test method .......................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6 Electrical requirements ................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

6.1 Motor controller .................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.2 Controls and symbols ........................................................................................................................................................................ 8

6.3 Batteries ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

6.4 Battery charger ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.4.1 Requirements for proprietary system ........................................................................................................... 9

6.4.2 Requirements for non-proprietary system ............................................................................................... 9

6.4.3 Solutions for non-proprietary systems .....................................................................................................10

6.5 Electric cables and couplers .....................................................................................................................................................10

6.6 Wiring ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

6.7 Protection against ingress of water (IP code) ...........................................................................................................11

6.8 Environmental and operational conditions ................................................................................................................11

6.9 Mechanical strength of the electrical components ...............................................................................................11

6.9.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.9.2 Function related shock test..................................................................................................................................11

6.9.3 Impact related shock test ......................................................................................................................................11

6.10 Performance measurement.......................................................................................................................................................12

6.10.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................12

6.10.2 System based on maximum continuous rated power ...................................................................12

6.10.3 System based on maximum assisted rate ................................................................................................14

6.11 Walk assistance mode ....................................................................................................................................................................20

6.11.1 Requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................20

6.11.2 Test method for EPAC with walk assistance mode ..........................................................................20

6.12 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)..............................................................................................................................21

6.12.1 Requirement .....................................................................................................................................................................21

6.13 Anti-tampering measure .............................................................................................................................................................21

6.13.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................21

6.13.2 Prevention of tampering of the motor .......................................................................................................21

6.14 Thermal hazards .................................................................................................................................................................................22

6.14.1 Non-continuous contact surface .....................................................................................................................22

6.14.2 Continuous contact surface .................................................................................................................................22

6.14.3 Ambient temperature ...............................................................................................................................................22

7 Mechanical requirements ........................................................................................................................................................................22

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................22

7.2 Brakes — Heat-resistance test ...............................................................................................................................................22

7.3 Handlebar and stem assembly — Lateral bending test ....................................................................................22

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/TS 4210-10:2020(E)

7.4 Handlebar stem — Forward bending test ....................................................................................................................23

7.5 Handlebar to handlebar stem — Torsional security test ................................................................................23

7.6 Handlebar and stem assembly — Fatigue test .........................................................................................................23

7.7 Frame — Impact test (falling mass) ..................................................................................................................................23

7.8 Frame and front fork assembly — Impact test (falling frame) ...................................................................24

7.9 Frame — Fatigue test with horizontal forces ............................................................................................................24

7.10 Frame — Fatigue test with a vertical force ..................................................................................................................24

7.11 Front fork — Static bending test ..........................................................................................................................................25

7.12 Front fork — Rearward impact test ...................................................................................................................................25

7.13 Front fork — Bending fatigue test plus rearward impact test ....................................................................25

7.14 Seat-post — Fatigue test ..............................................................................................................................................................25

8 Manufacturer's instructions ..................................................................................................................................................................26

9 Marking .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................26

Annex A (normative) Electromagnetic compatibility of EPACs ..............................................................................................28

Annex B (informative) Electromagnetic compatibility of ESAs ..............................................................................................35

Annex C (normative) The battery chargers for non-proprietary system ....................................................................44

Annex D (normative) Light, audible warning device, On/Off symbols .......................................................................118

Annex E (informative) Environmental and operational conditions ..............................................................................119

Annex F (normative) Battery .................................................................................................................................................................................120

Bibliography .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................125

iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/TS 4210-10:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 149, Cycles, Subcommittee SC 1, Cycles

and major sub-assemblies.
A list of all parts in the ISO 4210 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/TS 4210-10:2020(E)
Introduction

This document combines several countries’ safety requirements for Electrically Power Assisted Cycles

(EPACs). The commercialization of EPACs has accelerated in the global market, in response to global

concerns about CO reduction and energy saving. EPAC technologies for performance, electrical control,

battery management and battery charging are currently developing rapidly in a competitive market. It

is therefore necessary to standardize the safety of these technologies for EPACs.

This documentation will allow an easy and clear understanding of requirements for different types

of EPAC.

This document includes safety requirements for the charging of EPACs. This includes off-board parts

and EPAC battery chargers.

This document does not state the limit for the maximum permissible load of the EPAC. The manufacturer

is advised to consider amongst other factors the maximum permissible load (luggage plus rider) as well

as the intended use of the EPAC. Both have an influence on the mechanical requirements.

vi © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/TS 4210-10:2020(E)
Cycles — Safety requirements for bicycles —
Part 10:
Safety requirements for electrically power assisted
cycles (EPACs)
1 Scope

This document specifies safety and performance requirements for the design, marking, assembly, and

testing of two wheeled electrically power assisted cycles (hereafter EPACs), fully-assembled EPACs and

subassemblies, and provides guidelines for information supplied by the manufacturers (i.e. instructions

on the use and care of such EPACs).

This document applies to two wheeled EPACs that have a maximum saddle height of 635 mm or more

and are intended for private and commercial use with exception of EPACs intended for hire from

unattended stations.

This document is intended to cover all common significant hazards, hazardous situations and events

listed in 5.3 of EPACs, when used as intended or under conditions of misuse that are reasonably

foreseeable by the manufacturer.

This document specifies requirements and test methods for engine power management systems,

electrical circuits including the charger for the assessment of the design and assembly of EPACs and

sub-assemblies for systems having a Safety Extra Low Voltage (SELV) maximum voltage up to 60 V d.c.

including tolerances.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 2409, Paints and varnishes — Cross-cut test

ISO 4210-1, Cycles — Safety requirements for bicycles — Part 1: Terms and definitions

ISO 4210-2:2015, Cycles — Safety requirements for bicycles — Part 2: Requirements for city and trekking,

young adult, mountain and racing bicycles

ISO 4210-4:2014, Cycles — Safety requirements for bicycles — Part 4: Braking test methods

ISO 4210-5:2014, Cycles — Safety requirements for bicycles — Part 5: Steering test methods

ISO 4210-6:2015, Cycles — Safety requirements for bicycles — Part 6: Frame and fork test methods

ISO 4210-9:2014, Cycles — Safety requirements for bicycles — Part 9: Saddle and seat-post test methods

ISO 7010:2011, Graphical symbols — Safety colours and safety signs — Registered safety signs

ISO 11451-1, Road vehicles — Vehicle test methods for electrical disturbances from narrowband radiated

electromagnetic energy — Part 1: General principles and terminology

ISO 11451-2, Road vehicles — Vehicle test methods for electrical disturbances from narrowband radiated

electromagnetic energy — Part 2: Off-vehicle radiation sources
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/TS 4210-10:2020(E)

ISO 11452-1, Road vehicles — Component test methods for electrical disturbances from narrowband

radiated electromagnetic energy — Part 1: General principles and terminology

ISO 11452-2, Road vehicles — Component test methods for electrical disturbances from narrowband

radiated electromagnetic energy — Part 2: Absorber-lined shielded enclosure

ISO 11452-4:2011, Road vehicles — Component test methods for electrical disturbances from narrowband

radiated electromagnetic energy — Part 4: Harness excitation methods

ISO 11898-1, Road vehicles — Controller area network (CAN) —Part 1: Data link layer and physical

signalling

ISO 11898-2, Road vehicles — Controller area network (CAN) —Part 2: High-speed medium access unit

ISO 12100, Safety of machinery — General principles for design — Risk assessment and risk reduction

ISO 13849-1, Safety of machinery — Safety-related parts of control systems — Part 1: General principles

for design

ISO 13849-2, Safety of machinery — Safety-related parts of control systems — Part 2: Validation

IEC 60034-1, Rotating electrical machines — Part 1: Rating and performance

IEC 60068-2-27, Environmental testing — Part 2-27: Tests — Test Ea and guidance: Shock

IEC 60335-2-29, Household and similar electrical appliances — Safety — Part 2-29: Particular requirements

for battery chargers
IEC 60529, Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code)

IEC 62133-1:2017, Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid electrolytes — Safety

requirements for portable sealed secondary cells, and for batteries made from them, for use in portable

applications — Part 1: Nickel systems

IEC 62133-2:2017, Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid electrolytes —

Safety requirements for portable sealed secondary lithium cells, and for batteries made from them, for use

in portable applications — Part 2: Lithium systems

CISPR 12:2007 + A1: 2009, Vehicles, boats and internal combustion engines — Radio disturbance

characteristics — Limits and methods of measurement for the protection of off-board receivers

CISPR 16-1-1:2015, Specification for radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus and methods —

Part 1-1: Radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus — Measuring apparatus

CISPR 25:2016, Vehicles, boats and internal combustion engines — Radio disturbance characteristics —

Limits and methods of measurement for the protection of on-board receivers

EN 50604-1:2016, Secondary lithium batteries for light EV (electric vehicle) applications — Part 1: General

safety requirements and test methods
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 4210-1 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/TS 4210-10:2020(E)
3.1
cycle

any vehicle which has at least two wheels and is propelled by the muscular energy of the person on that

vehicle, in particular by means of pedalling or the possibility of adding assistance provided by electric

motor when pedalling

Note 1 to entry: Pedalling also refers to use of hand cranks or other similar devices.

3.2
electrically power assisted cycle
EPAC

cycle (3.1), equipped with pedals and an auxiliary electric motor, which cannot be propelled exclusively

by means of this auxiliary electric motor, except in the walk assistance mode
3.3
mountain EPAC

electrically power assisted cycle (3.2) designed for use off-road on rough terrain, on public roads, and on

public pathways, equipped with a suitably strengthened frame and other components, and, typically,

with wide-section tyres with coarse tread patterns and a wide range of transmission gears

[SOURCE: ISO 4210-1:2014, 2.30, modified — bicycle has been changed to electrically power

assisted cycle.]
3.4
braking device cut-off switch
device that cuts off the motor assistance while braking
3.5
continuous rated power

output power specified by manufacturer, at which the motor reaches its thermal equilibrium at given

ambient conditions
3.6
assisted rate
ratio of between mechanical motor output-power and muscular human input-power
3.7
thermal equilibrium
temperatures of motor parts which do not vary more than 2 °C/h
3.8
assistance cut-off speed

speed at which the motor controller cuts off the assistance of the auxiliary electric motor

3.9
walk assistance mode

function by which the user can activate the auxiliary electric motor to propel the EPAC up to a defined

maximum speed without pedalling
3.10
electromagnetic compatibility

ability of an EPAC or one of its electrical/electronic systems to function satisfactorily in its

electromagnetic environment without introducing intolerable electromagnetic disturbance to anything

in that environment

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-161:1990/AMD8: 2018, IEV ref. 161-01-07, modified — an EPAC or one of its

electrical/electronic systems have been specified.]
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO/TS 4210-10:2020(E)
3.11
ESA
electronic subassembly
electrical subassembly

electronic and/or electrical component, or an assembly of components provided for installation into

an EPAC, together with all electrical connections and associated wiring for the execution of several

specific functions
3.12
motor controller

device or group of devices that serves to govern in some predetermined manner the performance of an

electric motor

Note 1 to entry: Means for manual or automatic ON/OFF, selecting the drive direction, regulating the speed,

limiting the torque and providing protection against faults.
3.13
fault condition
condition in which one or more fault is present which could cause hazard
3.14
charging configuration
sets of physical parameters which are predefined to control a charging process
3.15
battery management system
BMS

local energy management system for the battery system, protecting the battery system from damage,

monitoring and increasing the lifetime, and maintaining the functional state

Note 1 to entry: BMS and BCU (according to ISO 12405) do not have the same functions.

3.16
narrow-band emission

emission which has a bandwidth less than that of a specific receiver or measuring instrument

3.17
no load current point

current measured at battery output with no change to the operating status of any auxiliary systems

during the test
3.18
safety extra-low voltage
SELV

voltage not exceeding ripple-free 60 V d.c. between conductors and earth, the no load voltage not

exceeding ripple-free 60 V d.c.
3.19
anti-tampering measures

technical requirements and specifications which prevent, as far as possible, unauthorized modifications

of the EPAC's drive system which may prejudice functional safety
3.20
maximum permissible load
maximum permissible weight of rider and luggage as defined by the manufacturer
3.21
proprietary system
manufacturer-specific system
4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO/TS 4210-10:2020(E)
3.22
non-proprietary system
non manufacturer-specific system
3.23
charger inlet
inlet on the EPAC or battery side for charging

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-714:1990, IEV ref. 714-03-04, this source is only for “inlet”]

3.24
charger connector
connector on charger side for charging

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-151:2001, IEV ref. 151-12-19, this source is only for “connector”]

3.25
rigid seat-post

seat-post that cannot be raised or lowered independently of the seat tube clamp, while riding, and does

not provide controlled axial flexibility to reduce the transmission of road shocks to the rider.

3.26
suspension seat-post

seat-post incorporating controlled, axial flexibility to reduce the transmission of road shocks to the rider

3.27
dropper seat-post

seat-post that can be raised or lowered independently of the seat tube clamp while riding

3.28
suspension dropper seat-post

seat-post incorporating controlled, axial flexibility to reduce the transmission of road shocks to the

rider and incorporating the capability of raising and lowering independently of the seat tube clamp

while riding
4 Abbreviated terms
See Table 1.
Table 1 — Abbreviated terms
Definition or
Abbreviation Description
occurrence
AC Alternating current C.3.1.1
ACK Acknowledge C.2.5.3.1
ALSE Absorber-lined shielded enclosure B.3.4
AM Amplitude modulation A.4.6.1
BCI Bulk current injection B.2.6.3
BCU Battery control unit 3.15
BMS Battery management system 3.15
BPSK Biphase shift keying C.2.5.4.1
CAN Controller area network C.3.1.1
CC Constant current mode Table C.10
CCF Common cause failure F.2.4.1.2
CDB Command descriptor block C.2.6.3.1
CSMA/CR Carrier sense multiple access with collision resolution C.3.1.2
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO/TS 4210-10:2020(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Definition or
Abbreviation Description
occurrence
CV Constant voltage mode Table C.10
DA Destination address Figure C.10
DC Direct current C.2.1.1
DFMEA Design failure mode and effect analysis 5.2
DLC Data length code C.3.6.2.1
DUT Device under test F.2.3.4.2
EMC Electromagnetic compatibility 6.12
...

TECHNICAL ISO/TS
SPECIFICATION 4210-10
First edition
Cycles — Safety requirements for
bicycles —
Part 10:
Safety requirements for electrically
power assisted cycles (EPACs)
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO/TS 4210-10:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TS 4210-10:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TS 4210-10:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5 General requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.1 Lighting systems, reflectors and warning device ...................................................................................................... 6

5.2 Risk assessment ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.3 Significant hazards and safety functions .......................................................................................................................... 7

5.3.1 Significant hazards ......................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.3.2 Safety function for control system of EPACs ............................................................................................ 7

5.4 Prevention of unauthorized use ............................................................................................................................................... 8

5.5 Failure mode ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.5.1 Requirement ........................................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.5.2 Test method .......................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6 Electrical requirements ................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

6.1 Motor controller .................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.2 Controls and symbols ........................................................................................................................................................................ 8

6.3 Batteries ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

6.4 Battery charger ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.4.1 Requirements for proprietary system ........................................................................................................... 9

6.4.2 Requirements for non-proprietary system ............................................................................................... 9

6.4.3 Solutions for non-proprietary systems .....................................................................................................10

6.5 Electric cables and couplers .....................................................................................................................................................10

6.6 Wiring ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

6.7 Protection against ingress of water (IP code) ...........................................................................................................11

6.8 Environmental and operational conditions ................................................................................................................11

6.9 Mechanical strength of the electrical components ...............................................................................................11

6.9.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.9.2 Function related shock test..................................................................................................................................11

6.9.3 Impact related shock test ......................................................................................................................................11

6.10 Performance measurement.......................................................................................................................................................12

6.10.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................12

6.10.2 System based on maximum continuous rated power ...................................................................12

6.10.3 System based on maximum assisted rate ................................................................................................14

6.11 Walk assistance mode ....................................................................................................................................................................20

6.11.1 Requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................20

6.11.2 Test method for EPAC with walk assistance mode ..........................................................................20

6.12 Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) .............................................................................................................................21

6.12.1 Requirement .....................................................................................................................................................................21

6.13 Anti-tampering measure .............................................................................................................................................................21

6.13.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................21

6.13.2 Prevention of tampering of the motor .......................................................................................................21

6.14 Thermal hazards .................................................................................................................................................................................22

6.14.1 Non-continuous contact surface .....................................................................................................................22

6.14.2 Continuous contact surface .................................................................................................................................22

6.14.3 Ambient temperature ...............................................................................................................................................22

7 Mechanical requirements ........................................................................................................................................................................22

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................22

7.2 Brakes — Heat-resistance test ...............................................................................................................................................22

7.3 Handlebar and stem assembly — Lateral bending test ....................................................................................22

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/TS 4210-10:2020(E)

7.4 Handlebar stem — Forward bending test ....................................................................................................................23

7.5 Handlebar to handlebar stem — Torsional security test ................................................................................23

7.6 Handlebar and stem assembly — Fatigue test .........................................................................................................23

7.7 Frame — Impact test (falling mass) ..................................................................................................................................23

7.8 Frame and front fork assembly — Impact test (falling frame) ...................................................................24

7.9 Frame — Fatigue test with horizontal forces ............................................................................................................24

7.10 Frame — Fatigue test with a vertical force ..................................................................................................................24

7.11 Front fork — Static bending test ..........................................................................................................................................25

7.12 Front fork — Rearward impact test ...................................................................................................................................25

7.13 Front fork — Bending fatigue test plus rearward impact test ....................................................................25

7.14 Seat-post — Fatigue test ..............................................................................................................................................................25

8 Manufacturer's instructions ..................................................................................................................................................................26

9 Marking .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................26

Annex A (normative) Electromagnetic compatibility of EPACs ..............................................................................................28

Annex B (informative) Electromagnetic compatibility of ESAs ..............................................................................................35

Annex C (normative) The battery chargers for non-proprietary system ....................................................................44

Annex D (normative) Light, audible warning device, On/Off symbols .......................................................................118

Annex E (informative) Environmental and operational conditions ..............................................................................119

Annex F (normative) Battery .................................................................................................................................................................................120

Bibliography .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................125

iv PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/TS 4210-10:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 149, Cycles, Subcommittee SC 1, Cycles

and major sub-assemblies.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
A list of all parts in the ISO 4210 series can be found on the ISO website.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE v
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ISO/TS 4210-10:2020(E)
Introduction

This document combines several countries’ safety requirements for Electrically Power Assisted Cycles

(EPACs). The commercialization of EPACs has accelerated in the global market, in response to global

concerns about CO reduction and energy saving. EPAC technologies for performance, electrical control,

battery management and battery charging are currently developing rapidly in a competitive market. It

is therefore necessary to standardize the safety of these technologies for EPACs.

This documentation will allow an easy and clear understanding of requirements for different types

of EPAC.

This document includes safety requirements for the charging of EPACs. This includes off-board parts

and EPAC battery chargers.

This document does not state the limit for the maximum permissible load of the EPAC. The manufacturer

is advised to consider amongst other factors the maximum permissible load (luggage plus rider) as well

as the intended use of the EPAC. Both have an influence on the mechanical requirements.

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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/TS 4210-10:2020(E)
Cycles — Safety requirements for bicycles —
Part 10:
Safety requirements for electrically power assisted
cycles (EPACs)
1 Scope

This document specifies safety and performance requirements for the design, marking, assembly, and

testing of two wheeled electrically power assisted cycles (hereafter EPACs), fully-assembled EPACs and

subassemblies, and provides guidelines for information supplied by the manufacturers (i.e. instructions

on the use and care of such EPACs).

This document applies to two wheeled EPACs that have a maximum saddle height of 635 mm or more

and are intended for private and commercial use with exception of EPACs intended for hire from

unattended stations.

This document is intended to cover all common significant hazards, hazardous situations and events

listed in 5.3 of EPACs, when used as intended or under conditions of misuse that are reasonably

foreseeable by the manufacturer.

This document specifies requirements and test methods for engine power management systems,

electrical circuits including the charger for the assessment of the design and assembly of EPACs and

sub-assemblies for systems having a Safety Extra Low Voltage (SELV) maximum voltage up to 60 V d.c.

including tolerances.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 2409, Paints and varnishes — Cross-cut test

ISO 4210-1, Cycles — Safety requirements for bicycles — Part 1: Terms and definitions

ISO 4210-2:2015, Cycles — Safety requirements for bicycles — Part 2: Requirements for city and trekking,

young adult, mountain and racing bicycles

ISO 4210-4:2014, Cycles — Safety requirements for bicycles — Part 4: Braking test methods

ISO 4210-5:2014, Cycles — Safety requirements for bicycles — Part 5: Steering test methods

ISO 4210-6:2015, Cycles — Safety requirements for bicycles — Part 6: Frame and fork test methods

ISO 4210-9:2014, Cycles — Safety requirements for bicycles — Part 9: Saddle and seat-post test methods

ISO 7010:2011, Graphical symbols — Safety colours and safety signs — Registered safety signs

ISO 11451-1, Road vehicles — Vehicle test methods for electrical disturbances from narrowband radiated

electromagnetic energy — Part 1: General principles and terminology

ISO 11451-2, Road vehicles — Vehicle test methods for electrical disturbances from narrowband radiated

electromagnetic energy — Part 2: Off-vehicle radiation sources
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ISO/TS 4210-10:2020(E)

ISO 11452-1, Road vehicles — Component test methods for electrical disturbances from narrowband

radiated electromagnetic energy — Part 1: General principles and terminology

ISO 11452-2, Road vehicles — Component test methods for electrical disturbances from narrowband

radiated electromagnetic energy — Part 2: Absorber-lined shielded enclosure

ISO 11452-4:2011, Road vehicles — Component test methods for electrical disturbances from narrowband

radiated electromagnetic energy — Part 4: Harness excitation methods

ISO 11898-1, Road vehicles — Controller area network (CAN) —Part 1: Data link layer and physical

signalling

ISO 11898-2, Road vehicles — Controller area network (CAN) —Part 2: High-speed medium access unit

ISO 12100, Safety of machinery — General principles for design — Risk assessment and risk reduction

ISO 13849-1, Safety of machinery — Safety-related parts of control systems — Part 1: General principles

for design

ISO 13849-2, Safety of machinery — Safety-related parts of control systems — Part 2: Validation

IEC 60034-1, Rotating electrical machines — Part 1: Rating and performance

IEC 60068-2-27, Environmental testing — Part 2-27: Tests — Test Ea and guidance: Shock

IEC 60335-2-29, Household and similar electrical appliances — Safety — Part 2-29: Particular requirements

for battery chargers
IEC 60529, Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code)

IEC 62133-1:2017, Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid electrolytes — Safety

requirements for portable sealed secondary cells, and for batteries made from them, for use in portable

applications — Part 1: Nickel systems

IEC 62133-2:2017, Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid electrolytes —

Safety requirements for portable sealed secondary lithium cells, and for batteries made from them, for use

in portable applications — Part 2: Lithium systems

CISPR 12:2007 + A1: 2009, Vehicles, boats and internal combustion engines — Radio disturbance

characteristics — Limits and methods of measurement for the protection of off-board receivers

CISPR 16-1-1:2015, Specification for radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus and methods —

Part 1-1: Radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus — Measuring apparatus

CISPR 25:2016, Vehicles, boats and internal combustion engines — Radio disturbance characteristics —

Limits and methods of measurement for the protection of on-board receivers

EN 50604-1:2016, Secondary lithium batteries for light EV (electric vehicle) applications — Part 1: General

safety requirements and test methods
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 4210-1 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
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ISO/TS 4210-10:2020(E)
3.1
cycle

any vehicle which has at least two wheels and is propelled by the muscular energy of the person on that

vehicle, in particular by means of pedalling or the possibility of adding assistance provided by electric

motor when pedalling

Note 1 to entry: Pedalling also refers to use of hand cranks or other similar devices.

3.2
electrically power assisted cycle
EPAC

cycle (3.1), equipped with pedals and an auxiliary electric motor, which cannot be propelled exclusively

by means of this auxiliary electric motor, except in the walk assistance mode
3.3
mountain EPAC

electrically power assisted cycle (3.2) designed for use off-road on rough terrain, on public roads, and on

public pathways, equipped with a suitably strengthened frame and other components, and, typically,

with wide-section tyres with coarse tread patterns and a wide range of transmission gears

[SOURCE: ISO 4210-1:2014, 2.30, modified — bicycle has been changed to electrically power

assisted cycle.]
3.4
braking device cut-off switch
device that cuts off the motor assistance while braking
3.5
continuous rated power

output power specified by manufacturer, at which the motor reaches its thermal equilibrium at given

ambient conditions
3.6
assisted rate
ratio of between mechanical motor output-power and muscular human input-power
3.7
thermal equilibrium
temperatures of motor parts which do not vary more than 2 °C/h
3.8
assistance cut-off speed

speed at which the motor controller cuts off the assistance of the auxiliary electric motor

3.9
walk assistance mode

function by which the user can activate the auxiliary electric motor to propel the EPAC up to a defined

maximum speed without pedalling
3.10
electromagnetic compatibility

ability of an EPAC or one of its electrical/electronic systems to function satisfactorily in its

electromagnetic environment without introducing intolerable electromagnetic disturbance to anything

in that environment

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-161:1990/AMD8: 2018, IEV ref. 161-01-07, modified — an EPAC or one of its

electrical/electronic systems have been specified.]
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ISO/TS 4210-10:2020(E)
3.11
ESA
electronic subassembly
electrical subassembly

electronic and/or electrical component, or an assembly of components provided for installation into

an EPAC, together with all electrical connections and associated wiring for the execution of several

specific functions
3.12
motor controller

device or group of devices that serves to govern in some predetermined manner the performance of an

electric motor

Note 1 to entry: Means for manual or automatic ON/OFF, selecting the drive direction, regulating the speed,

limiting the torque and providing protection against faults.
3.13
fault condition
condition in which one or more fault is present which could cause hazard
3.14
charging configuration
sets of physical parameters which are predefined to control a charging process
3.15
battery management system
BMS

local energy management system for the battery system, protecting the battery system from damage,

monitoring and increasing the lifetime, and maintaining the functional state

Note 1 to entry: BMS and BCU (according to ISO 12405) do not have the same functions.

3.16
narrow-band emission

emission which has a bandwidth less than that of a specific receiver or measuring instrument

3.17
no load current point

current measured at battery output with no change to the operating status of any auxiliary systems

during the test
3.18
safety extra-low voltage
SELV

voltage not exceeding ripple-free 60 V d.c. between conductors and earth, the no load voltage not

exceeding ripple-free 60 V d.c.
3.19
anti-tampering measures

technical requirements and specifications which prevent, as far as possible, unauthorized modifications

of the EPAC's drive system which may prejudice functional safety
3.20
maximum permissible load
maximum permissible weight of rider and luggage as defined by the manufacturer
3.21
proprietary system
manufacturer-specific system
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ISO/TS 4210-10:2020(E)
3.22
non-proprietary system
non manufacturer-specific system
3.23
charger inlet
inlet on the EPAC or battery side for charging

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-714:1990, IEV ref. 714-03-04, this source is only for “inlet”]

3.24
charger connector
connector on charger side for charging

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-151:2001, IEV ref. 151-12-19, this source is only for “connector”]

3.25
rigid seat-post

seat-post that cannot be raised or lowered independently of the seat tube clamp, while riding, and does

not provide controlled axial flexibility to reduce the transmission of road shocks to the rider.

3.26
suspension seat-post

seat-post incorporating controlled, axial flexibility to reduce the transmission of road shocks to the rider

3.27
dropper seat-post

seat-post that can be raised or lowered independently of the seat tube clamp while riding

3.28
suspension dropper seat-post

seat-post incorporating controlled, axial flexibility to reduce the transmission of road shocks to the

rider and incorporating the capability of raising and lowering independently of the seat tube clamp

while riding
4 Abbreviated terms
See Table 1.
Table 1 — Abbreviated terms
Definition or
Abbreviation Description
occurrence
AC Alternating current C.3.1.1
ACK Acknowledge C.2.5.3.1
ALSE Absorber-lined shielded enclosure B.3.4
AM Amplitude modulation A.4.6.1
BCI Bulk current injection B.2.6.3
BCU Battery control unit 3.15
BMS Battery management system 3.15
BPSK Biphase shift keying C.2.5.4.1
CAN Controller Area Network C.3.1.1
CC Constant current mode Table C.10
CCF Common cause failure G.2.4.1.2
CDB Command descriptor block C.2.6.3.1
CSMA/CR Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Resolution C.3.1.2
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ISO/TS 4210-10:2020(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Definition or
Abbreviation Description
occurrence
CV Constant voltage mode Table C.10
DA Destination address Figure C.10
DC Direct current C.2
...

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