Road vehicles -- Aerosol separator performance test for internal combustion engines

ISO/TS 17536-2 defines standardized and repeatable test procedures for the evaluation of blowby oil aerosol separators and filtering devices and specifies laboratory gravimetric separation efficiency and system pressure tests in both open and closed crankcase ventilation systems. ISO/TS 17536-2 has a limitation of 0 % to 99 % for aerosol gravimetric efficiency. NOTE Gravimetric efficiencies >99 % may be difficult to measure due to long test durations and absolute filter weight measurements. Filter life is not evaluated in ISO/TS 17536-2. This test method only applies to devices that have a defined tubular inlet, outlet and drain that can be connected to the test equipment. For devices that lack such connections, for example, one that is built into a valve cover, see Annex A.

Véhicules routiers -- Essai de performance du séparateur d'aérosols pour les moteurs à combustion interne

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TECHNICAL ISO/TS
SPECIFICATION 17536-2
First edition
2017-10
Road vehicles — Aerosol separator
performance test for internal
combustion engines —
Part 2:
Laboratory test method
Véhicules routiers — Essai de performance du séparateur d'aérosols
pour les moteurs à combustion interne —
Partie 2: Méthode d'essai de laboratoire
Reference number
ISO/TS 17536-2:2017(E)
ISO 2017
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TS 17536-2:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

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ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 17536-2:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Measurement accuracy .................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

5 Test materials and test conditions ..................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.1 Test oil ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5.2 Absolute filter, wall flow trap and leakage ...................................................................................................................... 2

5.3 Standard conditions ........................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.4 Test temperature ................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.4.1 Efficiency tests ................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.4.2 Differential pressure, pressure loss and crankcase pressure control tests ................... 2

6 Test procedure ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6.2 Test equipment ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6.3 Pressure loss test .................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

6.4 Gravimetric efficiency test ............................................................................................................................................................ 4

6.5 Conditioning of the separation device before a conditioned gravimetric efficiency test ....... 6

6.6 Conditioned gravimetric efficiency test ............................................................................................................................ 6

6.7 Crankcase pressure control test ............................................................................................................................................... 7

6.8 Drain interval test ................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

Annex A (informative) Inlet geometry for equal oil flow challenge ..................................................................................10

Annex B (normative) Aerosol distribution by mass ..........................................................................................................................11

Annex C (informative) Aerosol separator laboratory gravimetric test report .......................................................13

Annex D (normative) Test equipment ..............................................................................................................................................................18

Annex E (normative) Differential pressure and pressure loss corrections to standard conditions 22

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................24

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/TS 17536-2:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 34,

Propulsion, powertrain and powertrain fluids.
A list of all parts in the ISO 17536 series can be found on the ISO website.
iv © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 17536-2:2017(E)
Introduction

The engine crankcase blowby is composed of combustion exhaust gases which have escaped to the

crankcase via piston ring seals and lube oil aerosols generated by thermal and mechanical action

within the engine. These gases are vented from the crankcase to prevent a build-up of high pressure.

The constituents of vented engine blowby gases are recognized as an undesirable contaminant and

technology for their containment is therefore evolving.

The device, used to separate oil aerosols from the blowby, typically releases cleaned gases to the

atmosphere or alternatively returns the cleaned product to the combustion process by feeding into the

engine air intake prior to the turbo compressor (if present). The latter has led to the requirement for a

pressure control device to isolate the engine crankcase from air intake pressure.

It is the purpose of this document to define standardized and repeatable test procedures for the evaluation

of blowby oil aerosol separators and filtering devices using this laboratory gravimetric test method.

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved v
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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/TS 17536-2:2017(E)
Road vehicles — Aerosol separator performance test for
internal combustion engines —
Part 2:
Laboratory test method
1 Scope

This document defines standardized and repeatable test procedures for the evaluation of blowby oil

aerosol separators and filtering devices and specifies laboratory gravimetric separation efficiency and

system pressure tests in both open and closed crankcase ventilation systems. This document has a

limitation of 0 % to 99 % for aerosol gravimetric efficiency.

NOTE Gravimetric efficiencies >99 % may be difficult to measure due to long test durations and absolute

filter weight measurements.
Filter life is not evaluated in this document.

This test method only applies to devices that have a defined tubular inlet, outlet and drain that can be

connected to the test equipment. For devices that lack such connections, for example, one that is built

into a valve cover, see Annex A.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 17536-1:2015, Road vehicles — Aerosol separator performance test for internal combustion engines —

Part 1: General
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
standard flow
flow rate corrected to standard conditions
Note 1 to entry: See 5.3 for details.
4 Measurement accuracy

The measurement accuracy of this document shall be in accordance with ISO 17536-1:2015, Clause 3.

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/TS 17536-2:2017(E)
5 Test materials and test conditions
5.1 Test oil

The test oil to be used shall be an oil of such appropriate viscosity and surface tension that the particle

size of 50 % cumulative mass of the generated aerosol exhibits more than 0,85 μm and less than

0,90 μm. The test oil shall meet the aerosol distribution by mass given in Annex B. The challenge aerosol

size distribution shall be plotted in Figure C.1.
5.2 Absolute filter, wall flow trap and leakage

The provisions related to the absolute filter, the downstream wall flow trap and leakage shall be in

accordance with ISO 17536-1:2015, Clause 4.
5.3 Standard conditions

The standard condition for temperature, humidity and pressure is 20 °C, 0 % RH and 101,3 kPa

(1 013 mbar). Airflow differential pressure, inlet and outlet pressure and pressure loss shall be

corrected to that standard condition.
5.4 Test temperature
5.4.1 Efficiency tests

The volume directly outside of the UUT and internal temperature of the efficiency test shall be either:

Condition A: 80 °C ± 3 °C
Condition B: 23 °C ± 5 °C

The condition that is run shall be documented in the test report (see Table C.1).

5.4.2 Differential pressure, pressure loss and crankcase pressure control tests

The flow rate for pressure loss and crankcase pressure control tests shall be corrected to standard

flow. The pressure loss and crankcase pressure control tests shall be conducted with air entering the

aerosol separator at a temperature of 23 °C ± 5 °C.
6 Test procedure
6.1 General

Performance tests shall be performed on a complete aerosol separator assembly. The tests shall consist

of a pressure loss test, gravimetric efficiency test, conditioned gravimetric efficiency test, crankcase

pressure control test (when a pressure regulator is present) and drain interval test (when applicable).

6.2 Test equipment

NOTE The definitions of the following terms related to the test equipment are defined in ISO 17536-1:2015,

Clause 2: upstream particle counter, particle counter calibration, maximum particle concentration and particle

counter flow.

6.2.1 Typical arrangements to determine the differential pressure or pressure loss to air flow, efficiency

and crankcase pressure control are shown in Annex D.

Use an aerosol generator which is capable of dosing oil mist over the range of delivery rates required

according to the customers' specification.
2 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 17536-2:2017(E)
The aerosol generator shall be validated as follows.
— Fill the aerosol generator to a pre-determined level.
— Simultaneously start the aerosol generator and timer.

— At a time interval relative to a mass oil flow of >1 g, determine the amount of aerosol dispersed and

particle size distribution. Continue mass oil flow determinations of the aerosol until the desired oil

flow deviates by <5 % and shall be >30 min. Continue feeding aerosol until the particle distribution

does not meet the Annex B specification (to understand time capability to deliver a distribution as

specified in Annex B).

— Adjust the aerosol generator until the average delivery rate is within ±5 % of the desired rate and

deviation in the delivery rate from the average is not more than ±5 % for the entire designated test

duration.

— After verifying the delivery rate, verify the aerosol delivered from the aerosol generator for the

entire test duration is within the Annex B specifications.

6.2.2 An upstream wall flow trap should be used between the oil mist generator and the inlet tube

to eliminate any oil wall flow to the inlet tube. Use a wall flow trap conforming to ISO 17536-1:2015,

Annex I.

6.2.3 Use an inlet piezometer tube conforming to ISO 17536-1:2015, Figure B.2. The cross-section

shall be the same as the aerosol separator inlet. In the case of non-uniform flow conditions caused by

special inlet tubes, special precautions may be required.

6.2.4 Use a manometer or other differential pressure measuring device with the specified accuracy

described in ISO 17536-1:2015, Clause 3.
6.2.5 Setup test with no UUT present, e.g. straight pipe.

6.2.6 A downstream wall flow trap should be used between the unit under test and the outlet

piezometer tube described in 6.2.3 to eliminate any oil wall flow. Use a wall flow trap conforming to

ISO 17536-1:2015, Annex I.

6.2.7 Use an outlet tube conforming to ISO 17536-1:2015, Figure B.2. The cross-section shall be the

same as the aerosol separator outlet. In the case of non-uniform flow conditions caused by special inlet

tubes, special precautions may be required.

6.2.8 Use an air flow rate measuring system having the accuracy described in ISO 17536-1:2015,

Clause 3. The flow rate for differential pressure and crankcase pressure control tests shall be standard

flow, which is the volume flow rate corrected to standard conditions, as specified in 5.3.

6.2.9 Use an air flow rate control system with a refresh rate greater than 2 Hz capable of maintaining

the indicated flow rate to within 5 % of the selected value at a minimum data record frequency of 2 Hz

during a steady-state and variable air flow operation.

6.2.10 Use a compressed air/blower/exhauster for controlling the air flow through the system, which

has adequate flow rate and pressure characteristics for the oil separators to be tested.

6.2.11 If the unit under test has a pressure regulator or bypass, the use of a blower/exhauster on the

downstream of the system can be used to regulate the pressure on the outlet of the unit under test.

Devices with pressure regulators shall have air pushed through the inlet because the pressure regulator

device regulates the amount of negative vacuum allowed on the system.
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ISO/TS 17536-2:2017(E)

6.2.12 Grounding is required for all test apparatus to reduce the effects of static charges and to improve

the consistency of the test results. Grounding of metallic and non-metallic surfaces, housings, transport

tubes, injectors and associated hardware is recommended.
6.3 Pressure loss test

6.3.1 The purpose of this test is to determine the pressure loss across the unit under test which will

result when air is passed through under predetermined conditions. Airflow differential pressure is

measured with a clean aerosol separator at least four equally spaced air flows or agreed upon between

the customer and supplier.

6.3.2 Set up the UUT as shown in ISO 17536-1:2015, Figure B.1, Figure D.1 or Figure D.3. Seal all joints

to prevent air leaks. Connect the piezometer tubes to the inlet and outlet of the unit under test. The

piezometer tube shall be sized to the size of the inlet and outlet of the UUT.

Care should be taken to understand the product components that may affect the flow path during a

pressure loss test, e.g. pressure regulators.
6.3.3 Record the inlet temperature, barometric pressure and relative humidity.

6.3.4 Measure and record the differential pressure and upstream absolute pressure of the unit under

test versus the air flow rate at a minimum of four equally spaced air flows or flow rates agreed upon

between the customer and supplier.
6.3.5 Record the inlet temperature, barometric pressure and relative humidity.

6.3.6 Recorded differential pressure readings shall be corrected to standard conditions in accordance

with Annex E. See Formulae (E.4) and (E.5).

6.3.7 For pressure loss determination, use the formula given in ISO 17536-1:2015, Annex A.

6.3.8 Plot the pressure loss as shown in Figure C.2 or equivalent.
6.4 Gravimetric efficiency test

6.4.1 The purpose of the gravimetric efficiency test is to determine the gravimetric separation

efficiency of a device in two conditions:
a) new state;
b) conditioned state, as specified in 6.5.

The test duration for a gravimetric efficiency test shall be a minimum of 30 min and the minimum mass

gained on the absolute filter shall be 0,1 g. Additional time may be needed to achieve the absolute filter

weight gain requirement. The weight changes of the component parts and the absolute filter during the

test duration are used to calculate the new and conditioned state gravimetric efficiency.

High efficiency separators shall not exceed 3 h for 6.4.1, a) as the new state is no longer maintained. For

such separators, 6.5 and 6.6 shall be performed to complete an efficiency evaluation on the product and

shall meet the above minimum requirements of 30 min and 0,1 g on the absolute filter.

NOTE The higher efficiency separators can require additional time to achieve the specified absolute filter

weight gain requirement.
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ISO/TS 17536-2:2017(E)
6.4.2 The mass oil flow is agreed upon by the user and manufacturer.

Care should be taken to understand that mass oil flow may affect the challenge aerosol size distribution.

6.4.3 Weigh and record the unit under test.
6.4.4 Weigh and record the drainage vessel (if present).

6.4.5 Weigh the absolute filter as specified in ISO 17536-1:2015, 4.1.2 and record the mass before

assembly within the absolute filter housing.

6.4.6 Weigh the downstream wall flow trap of the unit under test as specified in ISO 17536-1:2015, 4.2.1.

6.4.7 Setup the test stand as shown in Figure D.2 or Figure D.4 for all aerosol separators. Seal all joints

to prevent air leakage. The orientation of the unit under test shall be as in application.

Care should be taken to understand the product components that may affect the flow path during a

pressure loss test, e.g. pressure regulators.
6.4.8 Record the UUT external air temperature, pressure and relative humidity.

6.4.9 Start the air flow through the test stand as specified in 5.4.1 and stabilize at the test flow as

specified in 6.2.8. Record the differential pressure.

6.4.10 Set the feed rate to the pre-determined oil flow. Start the aerosol generator.

6.4.11 The differential pressure shall be compensated for the increased differential pressure that the

tubing and downstream wall flow trap between the unit under test and the piezometer introduces,

since the downstream wall flow trap will be in this area. The downstream wall flow trap is present to

protect the downstream piezometer from contamination of liquid oil wall flow. The pressure loss of the

downstream wall flow trap shall be subtracted from the overall pressure loss.

6.4.12 Every 10 min, record the differential pressure at the air test flow and the elapsed test time.

6.4.13 Record the differential pressure at the end of the test before interrupting either the air flow rate

or mass oil flow to remove the absolute filter.

6.4.14 Stop the aerosol generator and continue to run the air flow rate for 15 s to 30 s as this will

evacuate the test stand of aerosol.
6.4.15 Stop the air flow rate.
6.4.16 Record the UUT external air temperature, pressure and relative humidity.

6.4.17 Weigh the unit under test. Note any evidence of seal leakage or unusual conditions. The increase

in mass of the unit under test is the mass measured minus the mass recorded in 6.4.3.

NOTE Carefully weigh all components so as not to lose any oil or mass.

6.4.18 Remove the absolute filter. Repeat 6.4.5 and determine the difference in mass. The change is the

increase in mass of the absolute filter. The difference is the aerosol penetration of the unit under test. The

minimum mass gained on the absolute filter shall be 0,1 g.
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ISO/TS 17536-2:2017(E)

6.4.19 Reweigh the downstream wall flow trap. The increase in mass of the downstream wall flow trap

is the mass minus the mass recorded in 6.4.6.

6.4.20 Reweigh the drainage vessel. The increase in mass of the drainage vessel is the mass minus the

mass recorded in 6.4.4.

6.4.21 Calculate the aerosol efficiency, E , E and P , by using ISO 17536-1:2015, 5.3.2, Formulae (2), (3)

a T L
and (4), respectively.
6.4.22 Report the results as shown in Table C.2 or equivalent.

6.5 Conditioning of the separation device before a conditioned gravimetric efficiency test

6.5.1 After the gravimetric efficiency as specified in 6.4, condition the oil separator prior to running

6.6. The conditioning portion shall use aerosol as specified in Annex B. The goal of this test is to condition

the oil separator to a condition that is representing the majority of the time on an engine.

6.5.2 Perform the steps prescribed in 6.4.2 to 6.4.20 to run this test.

6.5.3 After introducing a total oil mass numerically in grams equal to at least 50 % of the volume of the

media, verify that the unit under test is continuously draining. Once the unit under test is continuously

draining, the pressure loss shall not change more than 100 Pa over a 3 h period.

6.5.4 Once the separation device has reached a conditioned state according to 6.5.3. Calculate the

total mass challenged, ∆m , found respectively in ISO 17536-1:2015, 5.3.2. Document the total amount

of aerosol challenged as specified in ISO 17536-1 to the UUT during conditioning, both 6.4 and 6.5 in

Table C.3. Proceed to 6.6.

6.5.5 If the unit under test is an inertial separator, test using 6.4 until the oil drainage is observed. This

efficiency shall be used to document the 6.6 condition for an inertial separator.

6.5.6 If the unit under test is a combination of separator technologies or methods, 6.5.1 to 6.5.4 shall

be used to condition a combination separator.
6.6 Conditioned gravimetric efficiency test

6.6.1 The purpose of the gravimetric efficiency test is to determine the gravimetric separation

efficiency of a device in two conditions as stated in 6.4.1.

The test duration for a gravimetric efficiency test shall be a minimum of 30 min and the minimum mass

gained on the absolute filter shall be 0,1 g. Additional time may be needed to achieve the absolute filter

weight gain requirement. The weight changes of the component parts and the absolute filter during the

test duration are used to calculate the new and conditioned state gravimetric efficiency.

NOTE The higher efficiency separators may require additional time to achieve the specified absolute filter

weight gain requirement.
6.6.2 Perform the steps prescribed in 6.4.2 to 6.4.20 to run this test

6.6.3 Calculate the aerosol efficiency, E , E and P by using ISO 17536-1:2015, 5.3.2, Formulae (2), (3)

a T L,
and (4), respectively.
6.6.4 Report the results as shown in Table C.3 or equivalent.
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ISO/TS 17536-2:2017(E)
6.7 Crankcase pressure control test

6.7.1 The purpose of the test is to determine the relationship between the crankcase (inlet) and air

intake (outlet) during a sweep of the outlet vacuum pressures. This test is to document the change in

pressures as a function of the pressure regulator device. See Table C.5.

6.7.2 Mount the aerosol separator system with a built-in pressure regulator or standalone pressure

regulator to the test stand as specified in Figure D.1 or Figure D.3.
6.7.3 If the drain is external, plug the drain.
6.7.4 Record the inlet temperature, pressure and humidity.

6.7.5 Map the inlet and outlet pressure as a function of air flow rate as follows.

a) Start the air flow through the test stand and stabilize at the test flow as specified in 6.2.8.

b) Record the inlet pressure at the following outlet pressures: 0 to –8 kPa in 1 kPa increments.

Pressure readings shall be corrected as specified in 5.3.

6.7.6 Repeat 6.7.5 for the flow rates at approximately 50 %, 100 %, 150 % and 200 % of rated air flow.

6.7.7 Record the results as shown in Figure C.3 or equivalent.
6.8 Drain interval test

6.8.1 When operating closed crankcase ventilation system, the separator outlet is exposed to variable

levels of vacuum resulting from air intake filter restriction. To prevent the reverse flow of oil through the

separator devices oil return connection, the CCV system pressure differential, plus the head of collected

oil, shall always exceed this outlet depression. In some cases, the solution to this situation is to fit a non-

return valve to the oil return connection and allow only the intermittent drainage of the separated oil

during low vacuum conditions.

It is the purpose of this procedure to determine and report the oil storage capacity of the type of

separator device described above in order that a maximum oil drainage interval can be calculated for

any given oil mass separation rate. The determined drainage interval shall be respected by allowing

the CCV device to drain periodically while performing any validation tests within this document which

include a challenge aerosol mass flow.

For tests performed in the laboratory method, the turbo and air intake interaction is replicated by a

suction generated by the flow pump.

For this procedure, the oil storage capacity will be defined as the volume of oil which can be collected

before the measurable separation performance of the device is reduced.
6.8.2 The oil flow rate is agreed upon by the user and manufacturer.
6.8.3 Weigh and record the unit under test.
6.8.4 Weigh and record the drainage vessel.

6.8.5 Setup the test stand as shown in Figure D.2 and Figure D.4 for all aerosol separators. Seal all

joints to prevent air leakage. The aerosol separation device shown in Figure D.2 and Figure D.4 shall have

all the drain components which are present on the engine, including check valves, orifices, actual lengths

of tubing, etc. to accurately represent the product mounted drain configurations. The drainage vessel

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ISO/TS 17536-2:2017(E)
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