Information technology -- Automatic identification and data capture techniques -- QR Code 2005 bar code symbology specification

ISO/IEC 18004:2006 defines the requirements for the symbology known as QR Code 2005. It specifies the QR Code 2005 symbology characteristics, data character encoding methods, symbol formats, dimensional characteristics, error correction rules, reference decoding algorithm, production quality requirements, and user-selectable application parameters, and lists in an informative annex the features of QR Code Model 1 symbols which differ from QR Code 2005.

Technologies de l'information -- Techniques automatiques d'identification et de capture des données -- Spécification de symbologie de code à barres, code QR 2005

General Information

Status
Replaced
Publication Date
30-Aug-2006
Withdrawal Date
30-Aug-2006
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
02-Aug-2006
Completion Date
31-Aug-2006
Ref Project

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ISO/IEC 18004:2006 - Information technology -- Automatic identification and data capture techniques -- QR Code 2005 bar code symbology specification
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 18004
Second edition
2006-09-01
Information technology — Automatic
identification and data capture
techniques — QR Code 2005 bar code
symbology specification
Technologies de l'information — Techniques d'identification
automatique et de capture des données — Spécification de la
symbologie de code à barres QR Code 2005
Reference number
ISO/IEC 18004:2006(E)
ISO/IEC 2006
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ISO/IEC 18004:2006(E)
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© ISO/IEC 2006

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ii © ISO/IEC 2006 — All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 18004:2006(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ vi

Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... vi

1 Scope..................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Conformance......................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Normative references........................................................................................................................... 1

4 Terms and definitions, mathematical and logical symbols, abbreviations and conventions ...... 2

4.1 Terms and definitions........................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Mathematical and logical symbols...................................................................................................... 4

4.3 Abbreviations ........................................................................................................................................ 4

4.4 Conventions .......................................................................................................................................... 5

4.4.1 Module positions .................................................................................................................................. 5

4.4.2 Byte notation ......................................................................................................................................... 5

4.4.3 Version references................................................................................................................................ 5

5 Symbol description............................................................................................................................... 5

5.1 Basic characteristics............................................................................................................................ 5

5.2 Summary of additional features .......................................................................................................... 7

5.3 Symbol structure .................................................................................................................................. 8

5.3.1 Symbol Versions and sizes ................................................................................................................. 9

5.3.2 Finder pattern...................................................................................................................................... 16

5.3.3 Separator............................................................................................................................................. 17

5.3.4 Timing pattern..................................................................................................................................... 17

5.3.5 Alignment patterns ............................................................................................................................. 17

5.3.6 Encoding region.................................................................................................................................. 17

5.3.7 Quiet zone............................................................................................................................................ 17

6 Requirements...................................................................................................................................... 18

6.1 Encode procedure overview.............................................................................................................. 18

6.2 Data analysis....................................................................................................................................... 20

6.3 Modes................................................................................................................................................... 20

6.3.1 Extended Channel Interpretation (ECI) mode .................................................................................. 20

6.3.2 Numeric mode..................................................................................................................................... 20

6.3.3 Alphanumeric mode ........................................................................................................................... 20

6.3.4 Byte mode............................................................................................................................................ 20

6.3.5 Kanji mode........................................................................................................................................... 21

6.3.6 Mixing modes...................................................................................................................................... 21

6.3.7 Structured Append mode................................................................................................................... 21

6.3.8 FNC1 mode .......................................................................................................................................... 21

6.4 Data encoding ..................................................................................................................................... 22

6.4.1 Sequence of data ................................................................................................................................ 22

6.4.2 Extended Channel Interpretation (ECI) mode .................................................................................. 23

6.4.3 Numeric mode..................................................................................................................................... 25

6.4.4 Alphanumeric mode ........................................................................................................................... 26

6.4.5 Byte mode............................................................................................................................................ 27

6.4.6 Kanji mode........................................................................................................................................... 29

6.4.7 Mixing modes...................................................................................................................................... 30

6.4.8 FNC1 modes........................................................................................................................................ 30

6.4.9 Terminator........................................................................................................................................... 32

6.4.10 Bit stream to codeword conversion.................................................................................................. 33

6.5 Error correction................................................................................................................................... 37

6.5.1 Error correction capacity ................................................................................................................... 37

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ISO/IEC 18004:2006(E)

6.5.2 Generating the error correction codewords..................................................................................... 44

6.6 Constructing the final message codeword sequence..................................................................... 45

6.7 Codeword placement in matrix.......................................................................................................... 46

6.7.1 Symbol character representation...................................................................................................... 46

6.7.2 Function pattern placement............................................................................................................... 46

6.7.3 Symbol character placement............................................................................................................. 47

6.8 Data masking....................................................................................................................................... 50

6.8.1 Data mask patterns ............................................................................................................................. 50

6.8.2 Evaluation of data masking results................................................................................................... 53

6.9 Format information ............................................................................................................................. 55

6.9.1 QR Code symbols ............................................................................................................................... 55

6.9.2 Micro QR Code symbols..................................................................................................................... 56

6.10 Version information ............................................................................................................................ 57

7 Structured Append.............................................................................................................................. 59

7.1 Basic principles................................................................................................................................... 59

7.2 Symbol Sequence Indicator............................................................................................................... 59

7.3 Parity Data............................................................................................................................................ 60

8 Symbol printing and marking ............................................................................................................ 60

8.1 Dimensions.......................................................................................................................................... 60

8.2 Human-readable interpretation.......................................................................................................... 60

8.3 Marking guidelines.............................................................................................................................. 61

9 Symbol quality..................................................................................................................................... 61

9.1 Methodology........................................................................................................................................ 61

9.2 Symbol quality parameters ................................................................................................................ 61

9.2.1 Fixed pattern damage ......................................................................................................................... 61

9.2.2 Scan grade and overall symbol grade .............................................................................................. 61

9.2.3 Grid non-uniformity ............................................................................................................................ 61

9.3 Process control measurements......................................................................................................... 61

10 Decoding procedure overview........................................................................................................... 61

11 Reference decode algorithm for QR Code 2005 .............................................................................. 63

12 Autodiscrimination capability............................................................................................................ 69

13 Transmitted data ................................................................................................................................. 69

13.1 General principles............................................................................................................................... 69

13.2 Symbology Identifier........................................................................................................................... 69

13.3 Extended Channel Interpretations .................................................................................................... 69

13.4 FNC1..................................................................................................................................................... 70

Annex A (normative) Error detection and correction generator polynomials ........................................... 71

Annex B (normative) Error correction decoding steps ................................................................................ 76

Annex C (normative) Format information ...................................................................................................... 78

C.1 Error correction bit calculation.......................................................................................................... 78

C.2 Error correction decoding steps ....................................................................................................... 78

Annex D (normative) Version information ..................................................................................................... 81

D.1 Error correction bit calculation.......................................................................................................... 81

D.2 Error correction decoding steps ....................................................................................................... 81

Annex E (normative) Position of alignment patterns.................................................................................... 83

Annex F (normative) Symbology Identifier .................................................................................................... 85

Annex G (normative) QR Code 2005 print quality – symbology-specific aspects..................................... 86

G.1 Fixed Pattern damage......................................................................................................................... 86

G.1.1 Features to be assessed .................................................................................................................... 86

G.1.2 Fixed Pattern Damage grading .......................................................................................................... 88

G.2 Grading of additional parameters ..................................................................................................... 89

G.2.1 Grading of format information........................................................................................................... 89

G.2.2 Grading of version information (QR Code symbols)....................................................................... 91

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ISO/IEC 18004:2006(E)

G.3 Scan grade........................................................................................................................................... 91

Annex H (informative) JIS8 and Shift JIS character sets ............................................................................. 92

Annex I (informative) Symbol encoding examples ....................................................................................... 94

I.1 General................................................................................................................................................. 94

I.2 Encoding a QR Code symbol ............................................................................................................ 94

I.3 Encoding a Micro QR Code symbol.................................................................................................. 96

Annex J (informative) Optimisation of bit stream length ............................................................................. 98

J.1 General................................................................................................................................................. 98

J.2 Optimisation for QR Code symbols .................................................................................................. 99

J.3 Optimisation for Micro QR Code symbols ..................................................................................... 100

J.3.1 Optimisation principles.................................................................................................................... 100

J.3.2 Capacity of Micro QR Code symbols.............................................................................................. 100

Annex K (informative) User guidelines for printing and scanning of QR Code 2005 symbols.............. 106

K.1 General............................................................................................................................................... 106

K.2 User selection of error correction level.......................................................................................... 106

Annex L (informative) Autodiscrimination................................................................................................... 108

Annex M (informative) Process control techniques ................................................................................... 109

M.1 Symbol Contrast ............................................................................................................................... 109

M.2 Assessing Axial Nonuniformity....................................................................................................... 109

M.3 Visual inspection for symbol distortion and defects.................................................................... 109

M.4 Assessing print growth.................................................................................................................... 110

Annex N (informative) Characteristics of Model 1 symbols....................................................................... 111

N.1 Model 1 QR Code symbols .............................................................................................................. 111

N.1.1 Model 1 overall characteristics ....................................................................................................... 111

N.1.2 Symbol versions and sizes.............................................................................................................. 112

N.2 Detailed specifications..................................................................................................................... 113

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................... 114

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ISO/IEC 18004:2006(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are members of

ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical committees

established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical activity. ISO and IEC

technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international organizations, governmental

and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the work. In the field of information

technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee, ISO/IEC JTC 1.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of the joint technical committee is to prepare International Standards. Draft International

Standards adopted by the joint technical committee are circulated to national bodies for voting. Publication as

an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the national bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO/IEC 18004 was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 31, Automatic identification and data capture techniques.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO/IEC 18004:2000), which has been technically

revised.
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ISO/IEC 18004:2006(E)
Introduction

It is necessary to distinguish four technically different, but closely related members of the QR Code family,

which represent an evolutionary sequence.

⎯ QR Code Model 1 was the original specification for QR Code and is described in AIM International

Symbology Specification 97-001.

⎯ QR Code Model 2 was an enhanced form of the symbology with additional features (primarily the addition

of alignment patterns to assist navigation in larger symbols), and was the basis of the first edition of

ISO/IEC 18004.

⎯ QR Code 2005 (the basis of this second edition of ISO/IEC 18004) is closely similar to QR Code Model 2

and, in its QR Code format, differs only in the addition of the facility for symbols to appear in a mirror

image orientation, for reflectance reversal (light symbols on dark backgrounds) and the option for

specifying alternative character sets to the default.

⎯ The Micro QR Code format (also specified in this International Standard), is a variant of QR Code 2005

with a reduced number of overhead modules and a restricted range of sizes, which enables small to

moderate amounts of data to be represented in a small symbol, particularly suited to direct marking on

parts and components, and to applications where the space available for the symbol is severely restricted.

QR Code 2005 is a matrix symbology. The symbols consist of an array of nominally square modules arranged

in an overall square pattern, including a unique finder pattern located at three corners of the symbol (in Micro

QR Code symbols, at a single corner) and intended to assist in easy location of its position, size and

inclination. A wide range of sizes of symbol is provided for, together with four levels of error correction. Module

dimensions are user-specified to enable symbol production by a wide variety of techniques.

QR Code Model 2 symbols are fully compatible with QR Code 2005 reading systems.

Model 1 QR Code symbols are recommended only to be used in closed system applications and it is not a

requirement that equipment complying with this International Standard should support Model 1. Since QR

Code 2005 is the recommended model for new, open systems application of QR Code, this International

Standard describes QR Code 2005 fully, and lists the features in which Model 1 QR Code differs from QR

Code 2005 in Annex N.
© ISO/IEC 2006 — All rights reserved vii
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 18004:2006(E)
Information technology — Automatic identification and data
capture techniques — QR Code 2005 bar code symbology
specification
1 Scope

This International Standard defines the requirements for the symbology known as QR Code 2005. It specifies

the QR Code 2005 symbology characteristics, data character encoding methods, symbol formats, dimensional

characteristics, error correction rules, reference decoding algorithm, production quality requirements, and

user-selectable application parameters, and lists in an informative annex the features of QR Code Model 1

symbols which differ from QR Code 2005.
2 Conformance

QR Code 2005 symbols (and equipment designed to produce or read QR Code 2005 symbols) shall be

considered as conforming with this International Standard if they provide or support the features defined in this

International Standard.

Symbols complying with the requirements for QR Code Model 1, as defined in ISO/IEC 18004:2000, may not

be readable with equipment complying with this International Standard.

Symbols complying with the requirements for QR Code Model 2, as defined in ISO/IEC 18004:2000, are

readable with equipment complying with this International Standard.

Reading equipment complying with ISO/IEC 18004:2000 will not be able to read all symbols complying with

this International Standard. Symbols that make use of the additional features of QR Code 2005 will not be

readable by such equipment.

Printing equipment complying with ISO/IEC 18004:2000 will not be able to print all symbols defined in this

International Standard. Symbols that make use of the additional features of QR Code 2005 will not be

printable by such equipment.

It should be noted, however, that QR Code 2005 is the form of the symbology recommended for new and

open systems applications.
3 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 8859-1:1998, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 1:

Latin alphabet No. 1

ISO/IEC 15415, Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture techniques — Bar code

print quality test specification — Two-dimensional symbols
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ISO/IEC 18004:2006(E)

ISO/IEC 15424, Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture techniques — Data

Carrier Identifiers (including Symbology Identifiers)

ISO/IEC 19762-1, Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture (AIDC) techniques —

Harmonized vocabulary — Part 1: General terms relating to AIDC

ISO/IEC 19762-2, Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture (AIDC) techniques —

Harmonized vocabulary — Part 2: Optically readable media (ORM)
JIS X 0201, 7-bit and 8-bit coded character sets for information interchange

JIS X 0208:1997, 7-bit and 8-bit double byte coded KANJI sets for information interchange

AIM International Technical Specification, Extended Channel Interpretations:
— Part 1, Identification Schemes and Protocols
— Part 2, Registration Procedure for Coded Character Sets and Other Data Formats
— Character Set Register
AIM International Symbology Specification 97-001, QR Code
GS1 General Specifications, GS1
4 Terms and definitions, mathematical and logical symbols, abbreviations and
conventions
4.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 19762-1 and 19762-2 and the

following apply.
4.1.1
alignment pattern

fixed reference pattern in defined positions in a matrix symbology, which enables the decode software to re-

synchronise the coordinate mapping of the image modules in the event of moderate amounts of distortion of

the image
4.1.2
character count indicator
bit sequence which defines the data string length in a mod
...

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