Soil quality — Characterization of soil related to groundwater protection

ISO 15175:2004 provides guidance on the principles behind, and main methods for, the evaluation of sites, soils, and soil materials in relation to their role as a source of contamination of groundwater and their function in transporting, degrading and transforming contaminants. It identifies and lists relevant monitoring strategies, methods for sampling, soil processing and analytical methods. ISO 15175:2004 is applicable to the evaluation of the impact of contaminants on groundwater in relation to drinking water quality, irrigation water quality, industrial use and natural base flow.

Qualité du sol — Caractérisation des sols en relation avec la nappe phréatique

L'ISO 15175:2004 fournit des lignes directrices sur les principes régissant l'évaluation des sites, des sols et des matériaux provenant du sol, et sur les principales méthodes correspondantes, en relation avec leur rôle comme source de pollution des eaux souterraines et avec leur fonction de transfert, de dégradation et de transformation des contaminants. Elle identifie et énumère des stratégies de surveillance, des méthodes d'échantillonnage, des méthodes de traitement des sols et des méthodes analytiques applicables. Elle est applicable à l'évaluation de l'impact des contaminants sur les eaux souterraines, en relation avec les aspects suivants: la qualité de l'eau potable; la qualité de l'eau de l'irrigation; l'usage industriel; le débit de base naturel d'alimentation des cours d'eau.

Kakovost tal – Karakterizacija tal v zvezi z varstvom podtalnice

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
16-May-2004
Withdrawal Date
16-May-2004
Current Stage
9599 - Withdrawal of International Standard
Start Date
26-Nov-2018
Completion Date
26-Nov-2018

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 15175
First edition
2004-05-15
Soil quality — Characterization of soil
related to groundwater protection
Qualité du sol — Caractérisation des sols en relation avec la nappe
phréatique
Reference number
ISO 15175:2004(E)
ISO 2004
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 15175:2004(E)
PDF disclaimer

This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but

shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In

downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat

accepts no liability in this area.
Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation

parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In

the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

© ISO 2004

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 15175:2004(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ iv

1 Scope...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions........................................................................................................................... 5

4 General................................................................................................................................................... 7

5 Site assessment .................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1 General................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2 Relevant soil processes ..................................................................................................................... 10

5.3 Impact assessment procedures ........................................................................................................ 11

5.4 Site and soil description..................................................................................................................... 13

5.5 Sampling .............................................................................................................................................. 14

5.6 Characterization of soil and water .................................................................................................... 15

6 Data handling, evaluation and quality .............................................................................................. 22

Annex A (informative) Qualitative methods for assessing the potential leaching risk............................. 25

Annex B (informative) Quantitative methods for assessing the actual leaching risk ............................... 44

Annex C (informative) Types of contaminated site and associated contaminants ................................... 48

Annex D (informative) List of priority pollutants with respect to groundwater pollution ......................... 49

Annex E (informative) Overview of soil leaching and extraction test ......................................................... 53

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 57

© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 15175:2004(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 15175 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 190, Soil quality, Subcommittee SC 7, Soil and site

assessment.
iv © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 15175:2004(E)
Soil quality — Characterization of soil related to groundwater
protection
1 Scope

This International Standard provides guidance on the principles behind, and main methods for, the evaluation of

sites, soils, and soil materials in relation to their role as a source of contamination of groundwater and their

function in transporting, degrading and transforming contaminants. It identifies and lists relevant monitoring

strategies, methods for sampling, soil processing and analytical methods.

This International Standard is applicable to the evaluation of the impact of contaminants on groundwater in

relation to
 drinking water quality,
 irrigation water quality,
 industrial use,
 natural base flow.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 6341, Water quality — Determination of the inhibition of the mobility of Daphnia magna Straus (Cladocera,

Crustacea) — Acute toxicity test

ISO 6468, Water quality — Determination of certain organochlorine insecticides, polychlorinated biphenyls

and chlorobenzenes — Gas chromatographic method after liquid-liquid extraction
ISO 6878, Water quality — Spectrometric of phosphorus using ammonium molybdate

ISO 7150-1, Water quality — Determination of ammonium — Part 1: Manual spectrometric method

ISO 7150-2, Water quality — Determination of ammonium — Part 2: Automated spectrometric method

ISO 7888, Water quality — Determination of electrical conductivity

ISO 7890-1, Water quality — Determination of nitrate — Part 1: 2,6-Dimethylphenol spectrometric method

ISO 7890-2, Water quality — Determination of nitrate — Part 2: 4-Fluorophenol spectrometric method after

distillation

ISO 7890-3, Water quality — Determination of nitrate — Part 3: Spectrometric method using sulfosalicylic acid

ISO 7981-2, Water quality — Determination of six specified polynuclear hydrocarbons (PAH) — Part 2:

Determination of six PAH by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection after liquid-

liquid extraction
© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 15175:2004(E)

ISO 8165-1, Water quality — Determination of selected monovalent phenols — Part 1: Gas chromatographic

method after enrichment by extraction

ISO 8245, Water quality — Guidelines for the determination of total organic carbon (TOC) and dissolved

organic carbon (DOC)
ISO 9001:2000, Quality management systems — Requirements

ISO 9562, Water quality — Determination of adsorbable organically bound halogens (AOX)

ISO 9964-1, Water quality — Determination of sodium and potassium — Part 1: Determination of sodium by

atomic absorption spectrometry

ISO 9964-2, Water quality — Determination of sodium and potassium — Part 2: Determination of potassium

by atomic absorption spectormetry

ISO 9964-3, Water quality — Determination of sodium and potassium — Part 3: Determination of sodium and

potassium by flame emission spectrometry

ISO 10048, Water quality — Determination of nitrogen — Catalytic digestion after reduction with Devarda's

alloy

ISO 10301, Water quality — Determination of highly volatile halogenated hydrocarbons — Gas

chromatographic methods

ISO 10382, Determination of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls – gas chromatographic

method with electron capture detection
ISO 10390, Soil quality — Determination of pH
ISO 10523, Water quality — Determination of pH

ISO 10573, Soil quality — Determination of water content in the unsaturated zone — Neutron depth probe

method
ISO 10693, Soil quality — Determination of carbonate content — Volumetric method

ISO 10694, Soil quality — Determination of organic and total carbon after dry combustion (elementary

analysis)

ISO 11047, Soil quality — Determination of cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, nickel and

zinc — Flame and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric methods

ISO 11048, Soil quality — Determination of water-soluble and acid-soluble sulfate

ISO 11074-1, Soil quality — Vocabulary — Part 1: Terms and definitions relating to the protection and

pollution of the soil

ISO 11074-4 Soil quality — Vocabulary — Part 4: Terms and definitions relating to the rehabilitation of soils

and sites
ISO 11259, Soil quality — Simplified soil description

ISO 11260, Soil quality — Determination of effective cation exchange capacity and base saturation level using

barium chloride solution

ISO 11261, Soil quality — Determination of total nitrogen — Modified Kjeldahl method

2 © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
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ISO 15175:2004(E)

ISO 11263, Soil quality — Determination of phosphorus — Spectrometric determination of phosphorus soluble

in sodium hydrogen carbonate solution

ISO 11264, Soil quality — Determination of herbicides — Method using HPLC with UV detection

ISO 11265, Soil quality — Determination of the specific electrical conductivity

ISO 11266, Soil quality — Guidance on laboratory testing for biodegradation of organic chemicals in soil under

aerobic conditions
ISO 11271, Soil quality — Determination of redox potential — Field method
ISO 11272, Soil quality — Determination of dry bulk density

ISO 11274, Soil quality — Determination of the water retention characteristic — Laboratory methods

ISO 11275, Soil quality — Determination of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and water-retention

characteristic — Wind's evaporation method

ISO 11277, Soil quality — Determination of particle size distribution in mineral soil material — Method by

sieving and sedimentation

ISO 11348-1, Water quality — Determination of the inhibitory effect of water samples on the light emission of

Vibrio fischeri (Luminescent bacteria test) — Part 1: Method using freshly prepared bacteria

ISO 11348-2, Water quality — Determination of the inhibitory effect of water samples on the light emission of

Vibrio fischeri (Luminescent bacteria test) — Part 2: Method using liquid-dried bacteria

ISO 11348-3 Water quality — Determination of the inhibitory effect of water samples on the light emission of

Vibrio fischeri (Luminescent bacteria test) — Part 3: Method using freeze-dried bacteria

ISO 11369, Water quality — Determination of selected plant treatment agents — Method using high

performance liquid chromatography with UV detection after solid-liquid extraction

ISO/TS 11370, Water quality — Determination of selected organic plant treatment agents — Automated

multiple development (AMD) technique
ISO 11464, Soil quality — Pretreatment of samples for physico-chemical analyses

ISO 11423-1, Water quality — Determination of benzene and some derivatives — Part 1: Head-space gas

chromatographic method

ISO 11423-2, Water quality — Determination of benzene and some derivatives — Part 2: Method using

extraction and gas chromatography
ISO 11466, Soil quality — Extraction of trace elements soluble in aqua regia

ISO 11905-1, Water quality — Determination of nitrogen — Part 1: Method using oxidative digestion with

peroxodisulfate

ISO/TR 11905-2, Water quality — Determination of nitrogen — Part 2: Determination of bound nitrogen, after

combustion and oxidation to nitrogen dioxide, using chemiluminescence detection

ISO 13536, Soil quality — Determination of the potential cation exchange capacity and exchangeable cations

using barium chloride solution buffered at pH = 8,1

ISO 13877, Soil quality — Determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons — Method using high-

performance liquid chromatography
© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 15175:2004(E)

ISO 13878, Soil quality — Determination of total nitrogen content by dry combustion (“elemental analysis”)

ISO 14154, Soil quality — Determination of selected phenols and chlorophenols — gas chromatographic

method

ISO 14235, Soil quality — Determination of organic carbon by sulfochromic oxidation

ISO 14238, Soil quality — Biological methods — Determination of nitrogen mineralization and nitrification in

soils and the influence of chemicals on these processes

ISO 14239, Soil quality — Laboratory incubation systems for measuring the mineralization of organic

chemicals in soil under aerobic conditions

ISO 14254, Soil quality — Determination of exchangeable acidity in barium chloride extracts

ISO 14255, Soil quality — Determination of nitrate nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen and total soluble nitrogen in

air-dry soils using calcium chloride solution as extractant

ISO 14256-2, Soil quality — Determination of nitrate, nitrite and ammonium in field-moist soils by extraction

with potassium chloride solution — Part 2: Automated method

ISO 14507, Soil quality — Pretreatment of samples for determination of organic contaminants

ISO 14869-1, Soil quality — Dissolution for the determination of total element content — Part 1: Dissolution

with hydrofluoric and perchloric acids

ISO 14869-2, Soil quality — Dissolution for the determination of total element content — Part 2: Dissolution by

alkaline fusion
ISO 14870, Soil quality — Extraction of trace elements by buffered DTPA solution
+ + + + 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+

ISO 14911, Water quality — Determination of dissolved Li , Na , NH , K , Mn , Ca , Mg , Sr and Ba

using ion chromatography — Method for water and waste water

ISO 15009, Soil quality — Gas chromatogrphic determination of the content of volatile aromatic hydrocarbons,

naphthalene and volatile halogenated hydrocarbons — Purge-and-trap method with thermal desorption

ISO 15089, Water quality — Guidelines for selective immunoassays for the determination of plant treatment

and pesticide agents
ISO 15178, Soil quality — Determination of total sulfur by dry combustion

ISO 15473: 2002, Soil quality — Guidance on laboratory testing for biodegradation of organic chemicals in soil

under anaerobic conditions

ISO 15799, Soil quality — Guidance on the ecotoxicological characterization of soils and soil materials

ISO 15913, Water quality — Determination of selected phenoxyalkanoic herbicides, including bentazones and

hydroxybenzonitriles by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry after solid phase extraction and

derivatization

ISO 16703, Soil quality — Determination of content of hydrocarbon in the range C to C by gas

10 40
chromatography

ISO/IEC 17025, General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories

ISO 20279, Soil quality — Extraction of thallium and determination by electrothermal atomic absorption

spectrometry

OIML R 112:1994, High performance liquid chromatographs for measurement of pesticides and other toxic

substances
4 © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 15175:2004(E)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 11074-1 and ISO 11074-4 and the

following apply.
3.1
soil

upper layer of the Earth's crust composed of mineral particles, organic matter, water, air and organisms

[ISO 11074-1]
3.2
contaminant
substance or agent present in the soil as a result of human activity
cf. pollutant (3.8).

NOTE There is no assumption in this definition that harm results from the presence of the contaminant.

3.3
diffuse-source input
non-point-source input

input of a substance emitted from moving sources, from sources with a large area or from many sources

NOTE 1 The sources can be for example cars, application of substances through agricultural practices, emissions from

town or region, deposition through flooding of a river.

NOTE 2 Diffuse-source input usually leads to sites that are relatively uniformly contaminated. At some sites the input

conditions may nevertheless cause a higher local input near the source or where atmospheric deposition/rain is increased.

3.4
groundwater

water which is being held in, and can usually be recovered from, an underground formation

3.5
hazard

property of a substance or material, or any action, which may cause an adverse effect on soil functions

3.6
percolating water

soil water that moves downward in the percolating space due to gravity, insofar as it is not groundwater

3.7
point-source input
input of a substance from a stationary discrete source of defined size

NOTE 1 The sources can be stack emissions, accidental spills, waste dumps, spills on industrial sites, major leaks

from sewers and other pipelines.

NOTE 2 Point-source input can cause both locally contaminated sites and relatively uniformly contaminated sites.

[ISO 11074-1]
3.8
pollutant

substance or agent present in the soil (or groundwater) which due to its properties, amount or concentration

causes adverse impacts on soil functions or soil use

NOTE Also described as those substances which due to their properties, amount or concentration cause impacts on

soil functions or soil use.
© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 15175:2004(E)
3.9
residual contamination

amount or concentration of contaminants remaining in specific media following remediation

[ISO 11074-4]
3.10
risk

expression of the probability that an adverse effect on soil functions will occur under defined conditions, and

the magnitude of the consequences of the effect occurring
3.11
saturated zone

zone of the underground, where the space of the lithosphere is filled uninterruptedly with water at the time

under consideration

NOTE The saturated zone encompasses the groundwater zone including the zone of capillary water.

3.12
soil function
function of soil which is significant to man and the environment
NOTE Important soil functions are
 control of matter and energy cycles as compartments of an ecosystem,
 vital support for the life of plants, animals and man,
 basis for the stability of buildings and roads,
 basis for agricultural production,

 buffer inhibiting movement of water, contaminants or other agents into the groundwater,

 source of a gene pool,
 preservation of archaeological remains,
 preservation of paleoecological remains.
[ISO 11074-4]
3.13
soil material

excavated soil, dredged materials and soil treated to remove or destroy or reduce the environmental

availability of contaminants
3.14
soil water
all water of the unsaturated and saturated zone
3.15
subsoil

partially decomposed layer of rock underlying the topsoil and overlying the solid parent rock beneath

3.16
topsoil

upper part of a natural soil which is generally dark-coloured and has a higher content of organic matter and

nutrient when compared to the subsoil below
[ISO 11074-4]
6 © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 15175:2004(E)
3.17
unsaturated zone

zone of the soil and the underground, where the space of the lithosphere is not filled uninterruptedly with

water at the time under consideration

NOTE The unsaturated zone encompasses the zone of percolating water with the zone of capillary water being

excluded.
4 General

Soils are of central importance within the water cycle because their storage and filter functions have a lasting

influence on the water balance and groundwater quality. In this context, particular attention shall be paid to the

following functions:

 mechanical filter functions (retention of suspended sludge and pollutant particles);

 chemical filter functions (sorption and mobilization of substances);
 transformation functions (degradation or transformation of substances).

Soil is understood as a porous medium consisting of three phases: the solid phase, the liquid phase and the

gaseous phase. The ratio of these phases and their respective compositions vary widely in time and space.

The assessment of contamination affecting groundwater quality requires a profound understanding of the

governing processes and reactions of potentially toxic compounds in soils. Contaminants are translocated in

all three phases of soils as a function of the properties of the chemicals and the soil. Hence strategies for

assessing risks to groundwater due to soil contamination should vary with the contaminants considered, and

should take into account those soil properties which mainly govern the soil's filter, retention, release and

transformation functions.

In addition to considering the properties of the chemicals and the soil governing the behaviour of contaminants

in soils, different ways for contaminants to enter soils shall also be evaluated when designing suitable risk

assessment strategies, with respect to contamination of groundwater. Soil and groundwater contamination

can be caused by different sources on different spatial scales, as indicated in Figure 1. On regional and larger

scales, soil contamination is caused, for example, by wet and dry atmospheric deposition and has

predominantly diffuse character on a moderate level of contamination. On a local scale, a variety of point

sources can cause all kinds and magnitudes of soil and groundwater contamination. Most point sources of

contamination may also be regarded as off-site diffuse sources of groundwater contamination. It is evident

that different contamination scenarios as a function of contamination sources and scale demand different

investigation strategies with respect to groundwater impact. At present there are no uniform principles for the

investigation and evaluation of contaminated soils and contaminated sites in relation to the protection of water

resources.
© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved 7
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 15175:2004(E)

Figure 1 — Definition of groundwater zones and examples of sources of contamination

8 © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 15175:2004(E)

Investigation strategies may be qualitative or quantitative. Qualitative approaches mostly refer to assessment

of, for example, the potential leaching risk of chemicals through the soil towards groundwater. In contrast to

quantitative approaches, the level of actual soil contamination is not taken into account. Approaches of this

type can also be utilized, e.g. to classify larger areas with respect to their capability of protecting groundwater

resources against contamination, or as an introductory step in an assessment of an actual contaminated site.

To assess the on-site impact on groundwater resulting from specific soil contamination, quantitative

approaches based on site-specific investigation procedures including laboratory and/or field measurements

have to be carried out. Laboratory measurements can include physical, chemical and biological analysis, and

leaching tests. Assessments of this kind also shall take into account natural background concentrations of a

substance and other natural conditions affecting the impact on the groundwater. Assessments of impact on

groundwater often include a temporal aspect, since the actual impact may not be measurable at the time of

the investigation, but may happen some time in the future.
Assessments also depend on the purposes of investigations, for example:
 conservation of soil functions in order to prevent groundwater contamination;
 soil and groundwater monitoring;
 risk assessment;
 controlling remediation measures.

A listing of suitable methods are covered in the main part of this International Standard (see Clause 5). Some

examples of assessment using principles of this International Standard are provided in Annexes A and B.

Since the impact on groundwater can lead to impact on surface waters, this aspect can in some cases be

relevant in an overall impact assessment. This issue is not addressed explicitly in this International Standard.

5 Site assessment
5.1 General

A prerequisite for the evaluation of the soil-to-groundwater pathway is the determination of the relevant

physical, chemical and biological characteristics of soils and the hydrological characteristics of the site. It is

therefore normally necessary to collect data for the assessment of the contamination source with respect to

the type and degree of contamination and extent of source(s).

It is also necessary to describe the soil compartment that is influenced by the source, and the factors in this

compartment affecting the actual impact on the groundwater. Many processes influence the groundwater

impact in this soil compartment, where a number of physical, chemical and biological processes can take

place. In order to evaluate the importance of these processes in a specific assessment, it is necessary to

describe the structure of the soil compartment, e.g. the geometry, hydraulic conditions and natural chemical

and biologic processes. Input to the soil compartment includes the infiltration of water and specific

contaminants. Output is the contaminant flux to the compartment of the groundwater zone investigated. A

general description hereof is given in Figure 2 and a further description of the relevant parameters is given

in 5.2.
© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved 9
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
ISO 15175:2004(E)

Figure 2 — Schematic diagram illustrating the soil compartment covered by the assessment

procedure and processes affecting the impact of contamination on groundwater

The types of information needed to describe the relevant soil compartment include pedology, lithology of

parent material, pedology (e.g. soil unit), hydrogeology (e.g. permeability), physico-chemical conditions (e.g.

pH) and biological conditions (e.g. substrate availability). How large the actual soil compartment investigated

should be (and thus the detail of the investigation) depends on the type of assessment chosen. For example,

the volume is large if the assessment focuses on the general use of pesticides and fertilizers in an area

covering a groundwater reservoir used as a drinking water source. The area and volume of the soil

compartment investigated is considerably smaller if the assessment covers a “hot spot” on a contaminated

site with a groundwater-pumping well located on a neighbouring site.
5.2 Relevant soil processes

Contaminant transport in the unsaturated zone is governed not only by the transport of percolating water but

also by a number of biological and chemical processes. Which of these processes are to be considered

important within a given context will depend on the type of contaminants and the actual soil conditions. An

overview of soil and contaminant parameters related to contaminant transport is given in Table 1.

10 © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
ISO 15175:2004(E)
Table 1 — Soil and contaminant parameters related to different processes in soil
Process Soil parameters Contaminant parameters Soil/contaminant
interactions

Mass transport of Hydraulic conductivity, degree of Solubility, volatility, density, Relative permeability,

contaminants saturation, porosity, pore size viscosity residual saturation,
distribution, soil water-retention wettability, surface
functions tension, capillary
pressure
Contaminant transport in
water:
Advection Pressure gradient, hydraulic Viscosity
conductivity, porosity
Dispersion/diffusion Dispersivity, pore water velocity Diffusion coefficient
Density transport Pore water velocity, soil
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 15175:2006
01-december-2006
Kakovost tal – Karakterizacija tal v zvezi z varstvom podtalnice
Soil quality -- Characterization of soil related to groundwater protection
Qualité du sol -- Caractérisation des sols en relation avec la nappe phréatique
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 15175:2004
ICS:
13.080.40 Hidrološke lastnosti tal Hydrological properties of
soils
SIST ISO 15175:2006 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 15175:2006
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 15175:2006
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 15175
First edition
2004-05-15
Soil quality — Characterization of soil
related to groundwater protection
Qualité du sol — Caractérisation des sols en relation avec la nappe
phréatique
Reference number
ISO 15175:2004(E)
ISO 2004
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 15175:2006
ISO 15175:2004(E)
PDF disclaimer

This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but

shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In

downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat

accepts no liability in this area.
Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation

parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In

the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

© ISO 2004

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 15175:2006
ISO 15175:2004(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ iv

1 Scope...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions........................................................................................................................... 5

4 General................................................................................................................................................... 7

5 Site assessment .................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1 General................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2 Relevant soil processes ..................................................................................................................... 10

5.3 Impact assessment procedures ........................................................................................................ 11

5.4 Site and soil description..................................................................................................................... 13

5.5 Sampling .............................................................................................................................................. 14

5.6 Characterization of soil and water .................................................................................................... 15

6 Data handling, evaluation and quality .............................................................................................. 22

Annex A (informative) Qualitative methods for assessing the potential leaching risk............................. 25

Annex B (informative) Quantitative methods for assessing the actual leaching risk ............................... 44

Annex C (informative) Types of contaminated site and associated contaminants ................................... 48

Annex D (informative) List of priority pollutants with respect to groundwater pollution ......................... 49

Annex E (informative) Overview of soil leaching and extraction test ......................................................... 53

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 57

© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST ISO 15175:2006
ISO 15175:2004(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 15175 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 190, Soil quality, Subcommittee SC 7, Soil and site

assessment.
iv © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 15175:2006
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 15175:2004(E)
Soil quality — Characterization of soil related to groundwater
protection
1 Scope

This International Standard provides guidance on the principles behind, and main methods for, the evaluation of

sites, soils, and soil materials in relation to their role as a source of contamination of groundwater and their

function in transporting, degrading and transforming contaminants. It identifies and lists relevant monitoring

strategies, methods for sampling, soil processing and analytical methods.

This International Standard is applicable to the evaluation of the impact of contaminants on groundwater in

relation to
 drinking water quality,
 irrigation water quality,
 industrial use,
 natural base flow.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 6341, Water quality — Determination of the inhibition of the mobility of Daphnia magna Straus (Cladocera,

Crustacea) — Acute toxicity test

ISO 6468, Water quality — Determination of certain organochlorine insecticides, polychlorinated biphenyls

and chlorobenzenes — Gas chromatographic method after liquid-liquid extraction
ISO 6878, Water quality — Spectrometric of phosphorus using ammonium molybdate

ISO 7150-1, Water quality — Determination of ammonium — Part 1: Manual spectrometric method

ISO 7150-2, Water quality — Determination of ammonium — Part 2: Automated spectrometric method

ISO 7888, Water quality — Determination of electrical conductivity

ISO 7890-1, Water quality — Determination of nitrate — Part 1: 2,6-Dimethylphenol spectrometric method

ISO 7890-2, Water quality — Determination of nitrate — Part 2: 4-Fluorophenol spectrometric method after

distillation

ISO 7890-3, Water quality — Determination of nitrate — Part 3: Spectrometric method using sulfosalicylic acid

ISO 7981-2, Water quality — Determination of six specified polynuclear hydrocarbons (PAH) — Part 2:

Determination of six PAH by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection after liquid-

liquid extraction
© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST ISO 15175:2006
ISO 15175:2004(E)

ISO 8165-1, Water quality — Determination of selected monovalent phenols — Part 1: Gas chromatographic

method after enrichment by extraction

ISO 8245, Water quality — Guidelines for the determination of total organic carbon (TOC) and dissolved

organic carbon (DOC)
ISO 9001:2000, Quality management systems — Requirements

ISO 9562, Water quality — Determination of adsorbable organically bound halogens (AOX)

ISO 9964-1, Water quality — Determination of sodium and potassium — Part 1: Determination of sodium by

atomic absorption spectrometry

ISO 9964-2, Water quality — Determination of sodium and potassium — Part 2: Determination of potassium

by atomic absorption spectormetry

ISO 9964-3, Water quality — Determination of sodium and potassium — Part 3: Determination of sodium and

potassium by flame emission spectrometry

ISO 10048, Water quality — Determination of nitrogen — Catalytic digestion after reduction with Devarda's

alloy

ISO 10301, Water quality — Determination of highly volatile halogenated hydrocarbons — Gas

chromatographic methods

ISO 10382, Determination of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls – gas chromatographic

method with electron capture detection
ISO 10390, Soil quality — Determination of pH
ISO 10523, Water quality — Determination of pH

ISO 10573, Soil quality — Determination of water content in the unsaturated zone — Neutron depth probe

method
ISO 10693, Soil quality — Determination of carbonate content — Volumetric method

ISO 10694, Soil quality — Determination of organic and total carbon after dry combustion (elementary

analysis)

ISO 11047, Soil quality — Determination of cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, nickel and

zinc — Flame and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric methods

ISO 11048, Soil quality — Determination of water-soluble and acid-soluble sulfate

ISO 11074-1, Soil quality — Vocabulary — Part 1: Terms and definitions relating to the protection and

pollution of the soil

ISO 11074-4 Soil quality — Vocabulary — Part 4: Terms and definitions relating to the rehabilitation of soils

and sites
ISO 11259, Soil quality — Simplified soil description

ISO 11260, Soil quality — Determination of effective cation exchange capacity and base saturation level using

barium chloride solution

ISO 11261, Soil quality — Determination of total nitrogen — Modified Kjeldahl method

2 © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 15175:2006
ISO 15175:2004(E)

ISO 11263, Soil quality — Determination of phosphorus — Spectrometric determination of phosphorus soluble

in sodium hydrogen carbonate solution

ISO 11264, Soil quality — Determination of herbicides — Method using HPLC with UV detection

ISO 11265, Soil quality — Determination of the specific electrical conductivity

ISO 11266, Soil quality — Guidance on laboratory testing for biodegradation of organic chemicals in soil under

aerobic conditions
ISO 11271, Soil quality — Determination of redox potential — Field method
ISO 11272, Soil quality — Determination of dry bulk density

ISO 11274, Soil quality — Determination of the water retention characteristic — Laboratory methods

ISO 11275, Soil quality — Determination of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and water-retention

characteristic — Wind's evaporation method

ISO 11277, Soil quality — Determination of particle size distribution in mineral soil material — Method by

sieving and sedimentation

ISO 11348-1, Water quality — Determination of the inhibitory effect of water samples on the light emission of

Vibrio fischeri (Luminescent bacteria test) — Part 1: Method using freshly prepared bacteria

ISO 11348-2, Water quality — Determination of the inhibitory effect of water samples on the light emission of

Vibrio fischeri (Luminescent bacteria test) — Part 2: Method using liquid-dried bacteria

ISO 11348-3 Water quality — Determination of the inhibitory effect of water samples on the light emission of

Vibrio fischeri (Luminescent bacteria test) — Part 3: Method using freeze-dried bacteria

ISO 11369, Water quality — Determination of selected plant treatment agents — Method using high

performance liquid chromatography with UV detection after solid-liquid extraction

ISO/TS 11370, Water quality — Determination of selected organic plant treatment agents — Automated

multiple development (AMD) technique
ISO 11464, Soil quality — Pretreatment of samples for physico-chemical analyses

ISO 11423-1, Water quality — Determination of benzene and some derivatives — Part 1: Head-space gas

chromatographic method

ISO 11423-2, Water quality — Determination of benzene and some derivatives — Part 2: Method using

extraction and gas chromatography
ISO 11466, Soil quality — Extraction of trace elements soluble in aqua regia

ISO 11905-1, Water quality — Determination of nitrogen — Part 1: Method using oxidative digestion with

peroxodisulfate

ISO/TR 11905-2, Water quality — Determination of nitrogen — Part 2: Determination of bound nitrogen, after

combustion and oxidation to nitrogen dioxide, using chemiluminescence detection

ISO 13536, Soil quality — Determination of the potential cation exchange capacity and exchangeable cations

using barium chloride solution buffered at pH = 8,1

ISO 13877, Soil quality — Determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons — Method using high-

performance liquid chromatography
© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST ISO 15175:2006
ISO 15175:2004(E)

ISO 13878, Soil quality — Determination of total nitrogen content by dry combustion (“elemental analysis”)

ISO 14154, Soil quality — Determination of selected phenols and chlorophenols — gas chromatographic

method

ISO 14235, Soil quality — Determination of organic carbon by sulfochromic oxidation

ISO 14238, Soil quality — Biological methods — Determination of nitrogen mineralization and nitrification in

soils and the influence of chemicals on these processes

ISO 14239, Soil quality — Laboratory incubation systems for measuring the mineralization of organic

chemicals in soil under aerobic conditions

ISO 14254, Soil quality — Determination of exchangeable acidity in barium chloride extracts

ISO 14255, Soil quality — Determination of nitrate nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen and total soluble nitrogen in

air-dry soils using calcium chloride solution as extractant

ISO 14256-2, Soil quality — Determination of nitrate, nitrite and ammonium in field-moist soils by extraction

with potassium chloride solution — Part 2: Automated method

ISO 14507, Soil quality — Pretreatment of samples for determination of organic contaminants

ISO 14869-1, Soil quality — Dissolution for the determination of total element content — Part 1: Dissolution

with hydrofluoric and perchloric acids

ISO 14869-2, Soil quality — Dissolution for the determination of total element content — Part 2: Dissolution by

alkaline fusion
ISO 14870, Soil quality — Extraction of trace elements by buffered DTPA solution
+ + + + 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+

ISO 14911, Water quality — Determination of dissolved Li , Na , NH , K , Mn , Ca , Mg , Sr and Ba

using ion chromatography — Method for water and waste water

ISO 15009, Soil quality — Gas chromatogrphic determination of the content of volatile aromatic hydrocarbons,

naphthalene and volatile halogenated hydrocarbons — Purge-and-trap method with thermal desorption

ISO 15089, Water quality — Guidelines for selective immunoassays for the determination of plant treatment

and pesticide agents
ISO 15178, Soil quality — Determination of total sulfur by dry combustion

ISO 15473: 2002, Soil quality — Guidance on laboratory testing for biodegradation of organic chemicals in soil

under anaerobic conditions

ISO 15799, Soil quality — Guidance on the ecotoxicological characterization of soils and soil materials

ISO 15913, Water quality — Determination of selected phenoxyalkanoic herbicides, including bentazones and

hydroxybenzonitriles by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry after solid phase extraction and

derivatization

ISO 16703, Soil quality — Determination of content of hydrocarbon in the range C to C by gas

10 40
chromatography

ISO/IEC 17025, General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories

ISO 20279, Soil quality — Extraction of thallium and determination by electrothermal atomic absorption

spectrometry

OIML R 112:1994, High performance liquid chromatographs for measurement of pesticides and other toxic

substances
4 © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 15175:2006
ISO 15175:2004(E)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 11074-1 and ISO 11074-4 and the

following apply.
3.1
soil

upper layer of the Earth's crust composed of mineral particles, organic matter, water, air and organisms

[ISO 11074-1]
3.2
contaminant
substance or agent present in the soil as a result of human activity
cf. pollutant (3.8).

NOTE There is no assumption in this definition that harm results from the presence of the contaminant.

3.3
diffuse-source input
non-point-source input

input of a substance emitted from moving sources, from sources with a large area or from many sources

NOTE 1 The sources can be for example cars, application of substances through agricultural practices, emissions from

town or region, deposition through flooding of a river.

NOTE 2 Diffuse-source input usually leads to sites that are relatively uniformly contaminated. At some sites the input

conditions may nevertheless cause a higher local input near the source or where atmospheric deposition/rain is increased.

3.4
groundwater

water which is being held in, and can usually be recovered from, an underground formation

3.5
hazard

property of a substance or material, or any action, which may cause an adverse effect on soil functions

3.6
percolating water

soil water that moves downward in the percolating space due to gravity, insofar as it is not groundwater

3.7
point-source input
input of a substance from a stationary discrete source of defined size

NOTE 1 The sources can be stack emissions, accidental spills, waste dumps, spills on industrial sites, major leaks

from sewers and other pipelines.

NOTE 2 Point-source input can cause both locally contaminated sites and relatively uniformly contaminated sites.

[ISO 11074-1]
3.8
pollutant

substance or agent present in the soil (or groundwater) which due to its properties, amount or concentration

causes adverse impacts on soil functions or soil use

NOTE Also described as those substances which due to their properties, amount or concentration cause impacts on

soil functions or soil use.
© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved 5
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SIST ISO 15175:2006
ISO 15175:2004(E)
3.9
residual contamination

amount or concentration of contaminants remaining in specific media following remediation

[ISO 11074-4]
3.10
risk

expression of the probability that an adverse effect on soil functions will occur under defined conditions, and

the magnitude of the consequences of the effect occurring
3.11
saturated zone

zone of the underground, where the space of the lithosphere is filled uninterruptedly with water at the time

under consideration

NOTE The saturated zone encompasses the groundwater zone including the zone of capillary water.

3.12
soil function
function of soil which is significant to man and the environment
NOTE Important soil functions are
 control of matter and energy cycles as compartments of an ecosystem,
 vital support for the life of plants, animals and man,
 basis for the stability of buildings and roads,
 basis for agricultural production,

 buffer inhibiting movement of water, contaminants or other agents into the groundwater,

 source of a gene pool,
 preservation of archaeological remains,
 preservation of paleoecological remains.
[ISO 11074-4]
3.13
soil material

excavated soil, dredged materials and soil treated to remove or destroy or reduce the environmental

availability of contaminants
3.14
soil water
all water of the unsaturated and saturated zone
3.15
subsoil

partially decomposed layer of rock underlying the topsoil and overlying the solid parent rock beneath

3.16
topsoil

upper part of a natural soil which is generally dark-coloured and has a higher content of organic matter and

nutrient when compared to the subsoil below
[ISO 11074-4]
6 © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 15175:2006
ISO 15175:2004(E)
3.17
unsaturated zone

zone of the soil and the underground, where the space of the lithosphere is not filled uninterruptedly with

water at the time under consideration

NOTE The unsaturated zone encompasses the zone of percolating water with the zone of capillary water being

excluded.
4 General

Soils are of central importance within the water cycle because their storage and filter functions have a lasting

influence on the water balance and groundwater quality. In this context, particular attention shall be paid to the

following functions:

 mechanical filter functions (retention of suspended sludge and pollutant particles);

 chemical filter functions (sorption and mobilization of substances);
 transformation functions (degradation or transformation of substances).

Soil is understood as a porous medium consisting of three phases: the solid phase, the liquid phase and the

gaseous phase. The ratio of these phases and their respective compositions vary widely in time and space.

The assessment of contamination affecting groundwater quality requires a profound understanding of the

governing processes and reactions of potentially toxic compounds in soils. Contaminants are translocated in

all three phases of soils as a function of the properties of the chemicals and the soil. Hence strategies for

assessing risks to groundwater due to soil contamination should vary with the contaminants considered, and

should take into account those soil properties which mainly govern the soil's filter, retention, release and

transformation functions.

In addition to considering the properties of the chemicals and the soil governing the behaviour of contaminants

in soils, different ways for contaminants to enter soils shall also be evaluated when designing suitable risk

assessment strategies, with respect to contamination of groundwater. Soil and groundwater contamination

can be caused by different sources on different spatial scales, as indicated in Figure 1. On regional and larger

scales, soil contamination is caused, for example, by wet and dry atmospheric deposition and has

predominantly diffuse character on a moderate level of contamination. On a local scale, a variety of point

sources can cause all kinds and magnitudes of soil and groundwater contamination. Most point sources of

contamination may also be regarded as off-site diffuse sources of groundwater contamination. It is evident

that different contamination scenarios as a function of contamination sources and scale demand different

investigation strategies with respect to groundwater impact. At present there are no uniform principles for the

investigation and evaluation of contaminated soils and contaminated sites in relation to the protection of water

resources.
© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved 7
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SIST ISO 15175:2006
ISO 15175:2004(E)

Figure 1 — Definition of groundwater zones and examples of sources of contamination

8 © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 15175:2006
ISO 15175:2004(E)

Investigation strategies may be qualitative or quantitative. Qualitative approaches mostly refer to assessment

of, for example, the potential leaching risk of chemicals through the soil towards groundwater. In contrast to

quantitative approaches, the level of actual soil contamination is not taken into account. Approaches of this

type can also be utilized, e.g. to classify larger areas with respect to their capability of protecting groundwater

resources against contamination, or as an introductory step in an assessment of an actual contaminated site.

To assess the on-site impact on groundwater resulting from specific soil contamination, quantitative

approaches based on site-specific investigation procedures including laboratory and/or field measurements

have to be carried out. Laboratory measurements can include physical, chemical and biological analysis, and

leaching tests. Assessments of this kind also shall take into account natural background concentrations of a

substance and other natural conditions affecting the impact on the groundwater. Assessments of impact on

groundwater often include a temporal aspect, since the actual impact may not be measurable at the time of

the investigation, but may happen some time in the future.
Assessments also depend on the purposes of investigations, for example:
 conservation of soil functions in order to prevent groundwater contamination;
 soil and groundwater monitoring;
 risk assessment;
 controlling remediation measures.

A listing of suitable methods are covered in the main part of this International Standard (see Clause 5). Some

examples of assessment using principles of this International Standard are provided in Annexes A and B.

Since the impact on groundwater can lead to impact on surface waters, this aspect can in some cases be

relevant in an overall impact assessment. This issue is not addressed explicitly in this International Standard.

5 Site assessment
5.1 General

A prerequisite for the evaluation of the soil-to-groundwater pathway is the determination of the relevant

physical, chemical and biological characteristics of soils and the hydrological characteristics of the site. It is

therefore normally necessary to collect data for the assessment of the contamination source with respect to

the type and degree of contamination and extent of source(s).

It is also necessary to describe the soil compartment that is influenced by the source, and the factors in this

compartment affecting the actual impact on the groundwater. Many processes influence the groundwater

impact in this soil compartment, where a number of physical, chemical and biological processes can take

place. In order to evaluate the importance of these processes in a specific assessment, it is necessary to

describe the structure of the soil compartment, e.g. the geometry, hydraulic conditions and natural chemical

and biologic processes. Input to the soil compartment includes the infiltration of water and specific

contaminants. Output is the contaminant flux to the compartment of the groundwater zone investigated. A

general description hereof is given in Figure 2 and a further description of the relevant parameters is given

in 5.2.
© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved 9
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SIST ISO 15175:2006
ISO 15175:2004(E)

Figure 2 — Schematic diagram illustrating the soil compartment covered by the assessment

procedure and processes affecting the impact of contamination on groundwater

The types of information needed to describe the relevant soil compartment include pedology, lithology of

parent material, pedology (e.g. soil unit), hydrogeology (e.g. permeability), physico-chemical conditions (e.g.

pH) and biological conditions (e.g. substrate availability). How large the actual soil compartment investigated

should be (and thus the detail of the investigation) depends on the type of assessment chosen. For example,

the volume is large if the assessment focuses on the general use of pesticides and fertilizers in an area

covering a groundwater reservoir used as a drinking water source. The area and volume of the soil

compartment investigated is considerably smaller if the assessment covers a “hot spot” on a contaminated

site with a groundwater-pumping well located on a neighbouring site.
5.2 Relevant soil processes

Contaminant transport in the unsaturated zone is governed not only by the transport of percolating water but

also by a number of biological and chemical processes. Which of these processes are to be considered

important within
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 15175
Première édition
2004-05-15
Qualité du sol — Caractérisation des sols
en relation avec la nappe phréatique
Soil quality — Characterization of soil related to groundwater protection
Numéro de référence
ISO 15175:2004(F)
ISO 2004
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 15175:2004(F)
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ii © ISO 2004 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 15175:2004(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos..................................................................................................................................................... iv

1 Domaine d'application.......................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives......................................................................................................................... 1

3 Termes et définitions ............................................................................................................................ 5

4 Généralités............................................................................................................................................. 7

5 Évaluation du site ................................................................................................................................. 9

5.1 Généralités............................................................................................................................................. 9

5.2 Principaux processus dans le sol ..................................................................................................... 10

5.3 Procédures d'évaluation de l'impact................................................................................................. 12

5.4 Description du site et du sol.............................................................................................................. 14

5.5 Échantillonnage .................................................................................................................................. 15

5.6 Caractérisation des sols et de l'eau.................................................................................................. 16

6 Manipulation, évaluation et qualité des données ............................................................................ 23

Annexe A (informative) Méthodes qualitatives d'évaluation des risques potentiels de lixiviation.......... 26

Annexe B (informative) Méthodes quantitatives d'évaluation des risques réels de lixiviation................ 46

Annexe C (informative) Types de sites pollués et contaminants associés................................................ 51

Annexe D (informative) Liste des polluants prioritaires du point de vue de la pollution des eaux

souterraines......................................................................................................................................... 52

Annexe E (informative) Présentation des essais de lixiviation et d'extraction du sol .............................. 56

Bibliographie .................................................................................................................................................... 61

© ISO 2004 – Tous droits réservés iii
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ISO 15175:2004(F)
Avant-propos

L'ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d'organismes nationaux de

normalisation (comités membres de l'ISO). L'élaboration des Normes internationales est en général confiée

aux comités techniques de l'ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude a le droit de faire partie du

comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales, gouvernementales et non

gouvernementales, en liaison avec l'ISO participent également aux travaux. L'ISO collabore étroitement avec

la Commission électrotechnique internationale (CEI) en ce qui concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les Normes internationales sont rédigées conformément aux règles données dans les Directives ISO/CEI,

Partie 2.

La tâche principale des comités techniques est d'élaborer les Normes internationales. Les projets de Normes

internationales adoptés par les comités techniques sont soumis aux comités membres pour vote. Leur

publication comme Normes internationales requiert l'approbation de 75 % au moins des comités membres

votants.

L'attention est appelée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l'objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L'ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable de ne

pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence.

L'ISO 15175 a été élaborée par le comité technique ISO/TC 190, Qualité du sol, sous-comité SC 7, Évaluation

des sols et des sites.
iv © ISO 2004 – Tous droits réservés
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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 15175:2004(F)
Qualité du sol — Caractérisation des sols en relation avec la
nappe phréatique
1 Domaine d'application

La présente Norme internationale fournit des lignes directrices sur les principes régissant l'évaluation des

sites, des sols et des matériaux provenant du sol, et sur les principales méthodes correspondantes, en

relation avec leur rôle comme source de pollution des eaux souterraines et avec leur fonction de transfert, de

dégradation et de transformation des contaminants.

Elle identifie et énumère des stratégies de surveillance, des méthodes d'échantillonnage, des méthodes de

traitement des sols et des méthodes analytiques applicables.

Elle est applicable à l'évaluation de l'impact des contaminants sur les eaux souterraines, en relation avec

 la qualité de l'eau potable,
 la qualité de l'eau de l'irrigation,
 l'usage industriel, et
 le débit de base naturel d'alimentation des cours d'eau.
2 Références normatives

Les documents de référence suivants sont indispensables pour l'application du présent document. Pour les

références datées, seule l'édition citée s'applique. Pour les références non datées, la dernière édition du

document de référence s'applique (y compris les éventuels amendements).

ISO 6341, Qualité de l'eau — Détermination de l'inhibition de la mobilité de Daphnia magna Straus (Cladocera,

Crustacea) — Essai de toxicité aiguë

ISO 6468, Qualité de l'eau — Dosage de certains insecticides organochlorés, des polychlorobiphényles et des

chlorobenzènes — Méthode par chromatographie en phase gazeuse après extraction liquide-liquide

ISO 6878, Qualité de l'eau — Dosage spectrométrique du phosphore en utilisant le molybdate d'ammonium

ISO 7150-1, Qualité de l'eau — Dosage de l'ammonium — Partie 1: Méthode spectrométrique manuelle

ISO 7150-2, Qualité de l'eau — Dosage de l'ammonium — Partie 2: Méthode spectrométrique automatique

ISO 7888, Qualité de l'eau — Détermination de la conductivité électrique

ISO 7890-1, Qualité de l'eau — Dosage des nitrates — Partie 1: Méthode spectrométrique au diméthyl-2,6

phénol

ISO 7890-2, Qualité de l'eau — Dosage des nitrates — Partie 2: Méthode spectrométrique au fluoro-4 phénol

après distillation
© ISO 2004 – Tous droits réservés 1
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ISO 15175:2004(F)

ISO 7890-3, Qualité de l'eau — Dosages des nitrates — Partie 3: Méthode spectrométrique avec l'acide

sulfosalicylique

ISO 7981-2, Qualité de l'eau — Détermination des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques (HAP) —

Partie 2: Dosage de six HAP par chromatographie de haute performance en phase liquide avec détection

fluorimétrique à la suite d'une extraction liquide-liquide

ISO 8165-1, Qualité de l'eau — Dosage des phénols monovalents sélectionnés — Partie 1: Méthode par

chromatographie en phase gazeuse après enrichissement par extraction

ISO 8245, Qualité de l'eau — Lignes directrices pour le dosage du carbone organique total (COT) et du

carbone organique dissous (COD)
ISO 9001:2000, Systèmes de management de la qualité — Exigences

ISO 9562, Qualité de l'eau — Dosage des halogènes adsorbables organiquement liés (AOX)

ISO 9964-1, Qualité de l'eau — Dosage du sodium et du potassium — Partie 1: Dosage du sodium par

spectrométrie d'absorption atomique

ISO 9964-2, Qualité de l'eau — Dosage du sodium et du potassium — Partie 2: Dosage du potassium par

spectrométrie d'absorption atomique

ISO 9964-3, Qualité de l'eau — Dosage du sodium et du potassium — Partie 3: Dosage du sodium et du

potassium par spectrométrie d'émission de flamme

ISO 10048, Qualité de l'eau — Dosage de l'azote — Minéralisation catalytique après réduction avec l'alliage

de Devarda

ISO 10301, Qualité de l'eau — Dosage des hydrocarbures halogénés hautement volatils — Méthodes par

chromatographie en phase gazeuse

ISO 10382, Qualité du sol — Dosage des pesticides organochlorés et des biphényles polychlorés — Méthode

par chromatographie en phase gazeuse avec détection par capture d'électrons
ISO 10390, Qualité du sol — Détermination du pH
ISO 10523, Qualité de l'eau — Détermination du pH

ISO 10573, Qualité du sol — Détermination de la teneur en eau de la zone non saturée — Méthode à la

sonde à neutrons de profondeur

ISO 10693, Qualité du sol — Détermination de la teneur en carbonate — Méthode volumétrique

ISO 10694, Qualité du sol — Dosage du carbone organique et du carbone total après combustion sèche

(analyse élémentaire)

ISO 11047, Qualité du sol — Dosage du cadmium, du chrome, du cobalt, du cuivre, du plomb, du manganèse,

du nickel et du zinc — Méthodes par spectrométrie d'absorption atomique dans la flamme et électrothermique

ISO 11048, Qualité du sol — Dosage du sulfate soluble dans l'eau et dans l'acide

ISO 11074-1, Qualité du sol — Vocabulaire — Partie 1: Termes et définitions relatifs à la protection et à la

pollution du sol

ISO 11074-4, Qualité du sol — Vocabulaire — Partie 4: Termes et définitions relatifs à la réhabilitation des

sols et sites
ISO 11259, Qualité du sol — Description simplifiée du sol
2 © ISO 2004 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 15175:2004(F)

ISO 11260, Qualité du sol — Détermination de la capacité d'échange cationique effective et du taux de

saturation en bases échangeables à l'aide d'une solution de chlorure de baryum

ISO 11261, Qualité du sol — Dosage de l'azote total — Méthode de Kjeldahl modifiée

ISO 11263, Qualité du sol — Dosage du phosphore — Dosage spectrométrique du phosphore soluble dans

une solution d'hydrogénocarbonate de sodium

ISO 11264, Qualité du sol — Dosage des herbicides — Méthode par CLHP avec détection par UV

ISO 11265, Qualité du sol — Détermination de la conductivité électrique spécifique

ISO 11266, Qualité du sol — Lignes directrices relatives aux essais en laboratoire pour la biodégradation de

produits chimiques organiques dans le sol sous conditions aérobies

ISO 11271, Qualité du sol — Détermination du potentiel d'oxydoréduction — Méthode de terrain

ISO 11272, Qualité du sol — Détermination de la masse volumique apparente sèche

ISO 11274, Qualité du sol — Détermination de la caractéristique de la rétention en eau — Méthodes de

laboratoire

ISO 11275, Qualité du sol — Détermination de la conductivité hydraulique en milieu non saturé et de la

caractéristique de rétention en eau — Méthode par évaporation de Wind

ISO 11277, Qualité du sol — Détermination de la répartition granulométrique de la matière minérale des

sols — Méthode par tamisage et sédimentation

ISO 11348-1, Qualité de l'eau — Détermination de l'effet inhibiteur d'échantillons d'eau sur la luminescence de

Vibrio fischeri (Essai de bactéries luminescentes) — Partie 1: Méthode utilisant des bactéries fraîchement

préparées

ISO 11348-2, Qualité de l'eau — Détermination de l'effet inhibiteur d'échantillons d'eau sur la luminescence de

Vibrio fischeri (Essai de bactéries luminescentes) — Partie 2: Méthode utilisant des bactéries déshydratées

ISO 11348-3, Qualité de l'eau — Détermination de l'effet inhibiteur d'échantillons d'eau sur la luminescence de

Vibrio fischeri (Essai de bactéries luminescentes) — Partie 3: Méthode utilisant des bactéries lyophylisées

ISO 11369, Qualité de l'eau — Dosage de certains agents de traitement des plantes — Méthode par

chromatographie en phase liquide à haute performance (CLHP) avec détection UV après extraction solide-

liquide

ISO/TS 11370, Qualité de l'eau — Dosage de certains agents organiques de traitement des plantes —

Méthode automatisée par développement multiple (ADM)

ISO 11464, Qualité du sol — Prétraitement des échantillons pour analyses physico-chimiques

ISO 11423-1, Qualité de l'eau — Détermination du benzène et de certains dérivés benzéniques — Partie 1:

Méthode par chromatographie en phase gazeuse de l'espace de tête

ISO 11423-2, Qualité de l'eau — Détermination du benzène et de certains dérivés benzéniques — Partie 2:

Méthode par extraction et chromatographie en phase gazeuse

ISO 11466, Qualité du sol — Extraction des éléments en traces solubles dans l'eau régale

ISO 11905-1, Qualité de l'eau — Dosage de l'azote — Partie 1: Méthode par minéralisation oxydante au

peroxodisulfate

ISO/TR 11905-2, Qualité de l'eau — Dosage de l'azote — Partie 2: Dosage de l'azote lié, après combustion et

oxydation au dioxyde d'azote, par détection chimiluminescente
© ISO 2004 – Tous droits réservés 3
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ISO 15175:2004(F)

ISO 13536, Qualité du sol — Détermination de la capacité d'échange cationique potentielle et des teneurs en

cations échangeables en utilisant une solution tampon de chlorure de baryum à pH = 8,1

ISO 13877, Qualité du sol — Dosage des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques — Méthode par

chromatographie en phase liquide à haute performance

ISO 13878, Qualité du sol — Détermination de la teneur totale en azote par combustion sèche («analyse

élémentaire»)

ISO 14154, Qualité du sol — Dosage de certains chlorophénols — Méthode par chromatographie en phase

gazeuse

ISO 14235, Qualité du sol — Dosage du carbone organique par oxydation sulfochromique

ISO 14238, Qualité du sol — Méthodes biologiques — Détermination de la minéralisation de l'azote et de la

nitrification dans les sols, et de l'influence des produits chimiques sur ces processus

ISO 14239, Qualité du sol — Méthodes de mesure de la minéralisation de produits chimiques organiques

dans le sol sous conditions aérobies, au moyen de systèmes d'incubation de laboratoire

ISO 14254, Qualité du sol — Détermination de l'acidité échangeable dans un extrait au chlorure de baryum

ISO 14255, Qualité du sol — Détermination de l'azote nitrique, de l'azote ammoniacal et de l'azote soluble

total dans les sols séchés à l'air en utilisant le chlorure de calcium comme solution d'extraction

ISO 14256-2, Qualité du sol — Dosage des nitrates, des nitrites et de l'ammonium dans des sols bruts par

extraction au moyen d'une solution de chlorure de potassium — Partie 2: Méthode automatisée

ISO 14507, Qualité du sol — Prétraitement des échantillons pour la détermination des contaminants

organiques

ISO 14869-1, Qualité du sol — Mise en solution pour la détermination des teneurs élémentaires totales —

Partie 1: Mise en solution par l'acide fluorhydrique et l'acide perchlorique

ISO 14869-2, Qualité du sol — Mise en solution pour la détermination des teneurs élémentaires totales —

Partie 2: Mise en solution par fusion alcaline

ISO 14870, Qualité du sol — Extraction des éléments en traces par une solution tamponnée de DTPA

+ + + + 2+ 2+

ISO 14911, Qualité de l'eau — Dosage, par chromatographie ionique, de Li , Na , NH , K , Mn , Ca ,

2+ 2+ 2+
Mg , Sr et Ba dissous — Méthode applicable pour l'eau et les eaux résiduaires

ISO 15009, Qualité du sol — Détermination par chromatographie en phase gazeuse des teneurs en

hydrocarbures aromatiques volatils, en naphtalène et en hydrocarbures halogénés volatils — Méthode par

purge et piégeage avec désorption thermique

ISO 15089, Qualité de l'eau — Lignes directrices relatives aux dosages immunologiques sélectifs pour la

détermination des agents de traitement des plantes et des pesticides
ISO 15178, Qualité du sol — Dosage du soufre total par combustion sèche

ISO 15473:2002, Qualité du sol — Lignes directrices relatives aux essais en laboratoire pour la biodégradation

de produits chimiques organiques dans le sol sous conditions anaérobies

ISO 15799, Qualité du sol — Lignes directrices relatives à la caractérisation écotoxicologique des sols et des

matériaux du sol

ISO 15913, Qualité de l'eau — Dosage de certains herbicides phénoxyalcanoïques, y compris bentazones et

hydroxybenzonitriles, par chromatographie en phase gazeuse et spectrométrie de masse après extraction en

phase solide et dérivatisation
4 © ISO 2004 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 15175:2004(F)

ISO 16703, Qualité du sol — Dosage des hydrocarbures dans l'intervalle C à C par chromatographie en

10 40
phase gazeuse

ISO/CEI 17025, Prescriptions générales concernant la compétence des laboratoires d'étalonnages et d'essais

ISO 20279, Qualité du sol — Extraction du thallium et dosage par spectrométrie d'absorption atomique

électrothermale

OIML R 112:1994, Chromatographes en phase liquide de haute performance pour la mesure des pesticides et

autres substances toxiques
3 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions donnés dans l'ISO 11074-1 et l'ISO 11074-4

ainsi que les suivants s'appliquent.
3.1
sol

couche supérieure de la croûte terrestre composée de parties minérales, de matières organiques, d'eau, d'air

et d'organismes vivants
[ISO 11074-1]
3.2
contaminant
substance ou agent présent dans le sol à la suite d'une activité humaine
cf. polluant (3.8)

NOTE Cette définition ne présuppose pas que la présence du contaminant entraîne des effets négatifs.

3.3
apport dû à une source diffuse
apport dû à une source non ponctuelle

apport d'une substance émise par des sources mobiles, des sources de grande étendue ou par un grand

nombre de sources

NOTE 1 Les sources peuvent être des automobiles, des substances introduites par des pratiques agricoles, des

émissions venant d'une ville ou d'une région, un dépôt de sédiments par débordement d'une rivière.

NOTE 2 Les apports dus à une source diffuse conduisent habituellement à des sites à pollution relativement uniforme.

Pour certains sites, les conditions peuvent être des facteurs d'augmentation de l'apport local, à proximité de la source ou à

l'endroit où les dépôts d'origine atmosphérique/pluviaux sont intensifiés.
3.4
eaux souterraines

eaux contenues dans une formation souterraine et qui peuvent généralement être récupérées dans cette

formation
3.5
danger

propriété d'une substance, d'un matériau ou d'une action qui peut avoir un effet négatif sur les fonctions du sol

3.6
eau d'infiltration

eau du sol descendant dans la zone d'infiltration sous l'influence de la gravité, dans la mesure où il ne s'agit

pas d'eaux souterraines
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ISO 15175:2004(F)
3.7
apport dû à une source ponctuelle
apport d'une substance par une source ponctuelle fixe de taille définie

NOTE 1 Les sources peuvent être un conduit d'émissions, des déversements accidentels, des dépôts de déchets, des

déversements sur sites industriels, des fuites importantes provenant d'égouts et d'autres canalisations.

NOTE 2 L'apport dû à une source ponctuelle peut être la cause aussi bien de sites localement pollués que de sites

pollués de façon relativement uniforme.
[ISO 11074-1]
3.8
polluant

substances ou agents présents dans le sol (ou dans les eaux souterraines) qui, du fait de leurs propriétés, de

leur quantité ou de leur concentration, provoquent des effets négatifs sur les fonctions ou l'usage du sol

NOTE Aussi décrit comme substances qui, à cause de leurs propriétés, de leur quantité ou de leur concentration ont

un impact sur les fonctions ou sur l'usage du sol.
3.9
pollution résiduelle

quantité ou concentration de polluants restant dans un milieu déterminé après remédiation

[ISO 11074-4]
3.10
risque

expression de la probabilité qu'il se produise un effet négatif sur les fonctions du sol dans des conditions

définies, et de l'importance des conséquences de cet effet
3.11
zone saturée

zone souterraine, où l'espace de la lithosphère est rempli d'eau de manière ininterrompue à l'instant considéré

NOTE La zone saturée comprend la zone des eaux souterraines, incluant la zone de l'eau capillaire.

3.12
fonctions du sol
fonctions définissant l'importance du sol pour l'homme et l'environnement
NOTE Les fonctions importantes du sol comprennent les aspects suivants:

 le contrôle des cycles des substances et de l'énergie en tant que compartiment des écosystèmes;

 le support vital pour les plantes, les animaux et l'homme;
 le support pour la stabilité des immeubles et des routes;
 la base de la production agricole;

 la constitution d'un «tampon» régulant la pénétration dans les eaux souterraines de l'eau, des polluants et autres

agents;
 la constitution d'une réserve génétique;
 la conservation des traces archéologiques;
 la conservation de traces paléoécologiques.
[ISO 11074-4]
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ISO 15175:2004(F)
3.13
matériau du sol

comprend le sol excavé, les matériaux de dragage et le sol traité pour que soit éliminée, détruite ou réduite la

disponibilité de contaminants dans l'environnement
3.14
eau du sol
comprend toute l'eau des zones saturée et non saturée
3.15
sous-sol

couche de roches partiellement décomposées sous le sol superficiel et au-dessus de la roche mère

sous-jacente
3.16
horizon(s) superficiel(s)

partie supérieure d'un sol naturel, généralement de couleur brune et contenant plus de substances

organiques et de nutriments que le sous-sol
[ISO 11074-4]
3.17
zone non saturée

zone du sol et du sous-sol où l'espace de la lithosphère n'est pas totalement rempli d'eau à l'instant considéré

NOTE La zone non saturée comprend la zone de l'eau d'infiltration, la zone de l'eau capillaire étant exclue.

4 Généralités

Les sols ont une importance centrale dans le cycle de l'eau car leurs fonctions de stockage et de filtration ont

une influence durable sur le bilan hydrologique et sur la qualité des eaux souterraines. Dans ce contexte, une

attention particulière doit être portée aux fonctions suivantes:

 fonctions de filtration mécanique (rétention des boues en suspension et des particules de polluant);

 fonctions de filtration chimique (adsorption et mobilisation des substances);
 fonctions de transformation (dégradation ou transformation des substances).

Le sol doit être considéré comme un milieu poreux constitué de trois phases: la phase solide, la phase liquide

et la phase gazeuse. Le rapport entre ces trois phases et leurs compositions respectives varie dans de

grandes proportions en fonction du temps et de l'espace.

L'évaluation de la pollution affectant la qualité des eaux souterraines requiert une très bonne compréhension

des processus fondamentaux et des réactions des composés potentiellement toxiques dans les sols. Les

contaminants se répartissent entre les trois phases des sols en fonction des propriétés des composés

chimiques et du sol. Ainsi, il convient que les stratégies d'évaluation des risques pour les eaux souterraines

dus à la pollution du sol varient en fonction des contaminants considérés et prennent en compte les propriétés

du sol qui régissent principalement les fonctions de filtration, de rétention, d'émissions et de transformation du

sol.

Outre l'étude des propriétés des substances chimiques et celles du sol régissant le comportement des

contaminants dans les sols, on doit également évaluer les différents modes de pénétration des contaminants

dans les sols lors de l'établissement de stratégies adaptées d'évaluation des risques, du point de vue de la

pollution des eaux souterraines. La pollution des sols et des eaux souterraines peut provenir de différentes

sources, à des échelles spatiales variées, comme le montre la Figure 1. À l'échelle régionale ou à plus grande

échelle, la pollution des sols est provoquée, par exemple, par des dépôts d'origine atmosphérique secs ou

humides, et elle présente un caractère principalement diffus avec un niveau de pollution modéré. À l'échelle

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ISO 15175:2004(F)

locale, différents types de sources ponctuelles peuvent provoquer des pollutions du sol et des eaux

souterraines de toutes natures et de tous degrés. La plupart des sources ponctuelles de pollution peuvent

également être considérées comme des sources diffuses hors site de pollution des eaux souterraines. Il est

évident que des scénarios de pollution différents en fonction des sources de pollution et de l'échelle de cette

pollution exigent des stratégies d'investigation différentes concernant l'impact sur les eaux souterraines. Il

n'existe actuellement aucun principe uniforme présidant à l'investigation et à l'évaluation des sols et des sites

pollués en relation avec la protection des ressources en eau.

Figure 1 — Définition des zones des eaux souterraines et exemples de sources de pollution

8 © ISO 2004 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 15175:2004(F)

Les stratégies d'investigation peuvent être qualitatives ou quantitatives. Les méthodes qualitatives font le plus

souvent référence à l'évaluation, par exemple, des risques potentiels de lixiviation de produits chimiques à

travers le sol vers les eaux souterraines. Contrairement aux méthodes quantitatives, le niveau réel de

pollution du sol n'est pas pris en compte. Des approches de ce type peuvent également être utilisées, par

exemple pour la classification de zones plus étendues en fonction de leur capacité à protéger de la pollution

les ressources des eaux souterraines, ou en guise d'étape préliminaire dans l'évaluation d'un site réel pollué.

Pour évaluer l'impact sur site d'une pollution particulière du sol sur les eaux souterraines, on doit utiliser des

méthodes quantitatives basées sur les procédures spécifiques d'investigation sur site, incluant des mesures

en laboratoire et/ou sur le terrain. Les mesures en laboratoire peuvent comprendre des analyses physiques,

chimiques et biologiques et des essais de lixiviation. Les évaluations de cette nature doivent également

prendre en compte le fond (hydro)chimique naturel d'une substance et toute autre condition naturelle

influençant l'impact sur les eaux souterraines. Les évaluations de l'impact sur les eaux souterraines

intégreront souvent un aspect temporel, car il se peut que l'impact réel ne soit pas mesurable au moment de

l'investigation, mais se produise à un certain moment dans le futur.

Les évaluations dépendent également de la raison des investigations, par exemple:

 préservation des fonctions du sol visant à éviter la pollution des eaux souterraines;

 surveillance des sols et des eaux souterraines;
 évaluation des risques;
 contrôle des mesures de dépollution.

La partie principale de la présente Norme internationale (voir l'Article 5) couvre une liste des méthodes

applicables. Un certain nombre d'exemples d'évaluation utilisant les principes de la présente Norme

internationale sont donnés dans les Annexes A et B.

Comme l'impact sur les eaux souterraines peut entraîner un impact sur les eaux de surface, cet aspect peut

s'avérer dans certains cas pertinent dans une évaluation globale de l'impact. Ce problème n'est pas traité de

manière explicite dans la présente Norme internationale.
5 Évaluation du site
5.1 Généralités

Une condition préalable à l'évaluation du transfert entre le sol et les eaux souterraines est la détermination

des caractéristiques physique
...

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