This document specifies an extraction method to determine the bioavailable (potential and environmental available) fraction and the non-bioavailable fraction of a contaminant in soil using a "receiver phase" for an organic contaminant with strong sorbing or complexing properties, for example, Tenax®[1] or cyclodextrin, respectively. NOTE 1 The bioavailable fraction is defined in ISO 17402 as environmental bioavailability. The method is applicable for non-polar organic contaminants with an aqueous solubility of NOTE 2 The method is theoretically applicable to non-polar organic contaminants with an aqueous solubility of 1 000 mg/l. The method has been often applied for compounds with a much lower solubility (Kow > 3) and less for compounds with a higher solubility. The applicability is therefore defined for compounds with an aqueous solubility of [1] Tenax® is an example of a suitable product available commercially. This information is given for the convenience of users of this document and does not constitute an endorsement by ISO of this product.

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This document provides guidance on the use of chemical methods establishing the bioavailability of trace elements in soil and soil-like materials and to stimulate the use of bioavailability in assessments. The methods themselves are not subject of this document.

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This document specifies a test to obtain information on the short- and long-term leaching behaviour and characteristic properties of materials. The document has been developed to measure the pH-dependent release of inorganic and organic substances from soil and soil-like material as well as to produce eluates for subsequent ecotoxicological testing. For ecotoxicological testing, see ISO 15799 and ISO 17616. The equilibrium condition, as defined in this document, is established by the addition of predetermined amounts of acid or base to reach desired final pH values. NOTE 1 Volatile organic substances include the low molecular weight substances in mixtures such as mineral oil. NOTE 2 It is not always possible to optimize test conditions simultaneously for inorganic and organic substances and optimum test conditions can also vary between different groups of organic substances. Test requirements for organic substances are generally more stringent than those for inorganic substances. The test conditions suitable for measuring the release of organic substances will generally also be applicable to inorganic substances. NOTE 3 Within the category of organic substances, a significant difference in behaviour exists between the more polar, relatively water-soluble compounds and apolar, hydrophobic organic substances (HOCs). In the latter case, mechanisms of release (e.g. particle-bound or dissolved organic carbon-bound) can be more crucial as well as sorption losses of soluble HOCs on different materials with which they come in contact (e.g. bottles, filters). The test and the results should be used for leaching of organic substances only with thorough consideration of the specific properties of the substances in question and the associated potential problems. NOTE 4 For ecotoxicological testing, eluates representing the release of both inorganic and organic substances are needed. In this document, ecotoxicological testing is meant to include genotoxicological testing. The test method produces eluates, which can subsequently be characterized by physical, chemical and ecotoxicological methods in accordance with existing standard methods. The test is not suitable for substances that are volatile under ambient conditions. For the purposes of ecotoxicological tests, the relevant pH range (see 8.2) will usually be pH 5 to pH 9. This test is mainly aimed at being used for routine and control purposes, and it cannot be used alone to describe all leaching properties of a soil. Additional leaching tests are needed for that extended goal. This document does not address issues related to health and safety. It only determines the leaching properties outlined in Clause 5.

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This document provides guidance on developing and using conceptual site models (CSMs) through the various phases of investigation, remediation (if required), and any subsequent construction or engineering works. It describes what CSMs are, what they are used for and what their constituents are. It stresses the need for an iterative and dynamic approach to CSM development. This document is intended to be used by all those involved in developing CSMs and by those who rely on using them such as regulators, landowners, developers, and the public (and other relevant parties). Ideally, this includes representatives from all phases of the investigative and remedial processes, for example, preliminary assessment, detailed investigation, baseline human health and environmental risk assessments, and feasibility study, and, any subsequent construction or engineering work. NOTE 1 This document is applicable whenever the presence of "potentially harmful" or "hazardous" substances are present irrespective of whether they are naturally occurring or present due to human activity (i.e. are "contaminants"). NOTE 2 Although most of the principles described for developing CSMs in this document can apply to other domains, such as groundwater resources management, the present document is specifically written for the management of potentially contaminated sites or known contaminated sites.

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This document specifies a test providing information on leaching of soil and soil materials under the experimental conditions specified hereafter, and particularly at a liquid to solid ratio of 10 l/kg dry matter. The document has been developed to measure the release of inorganic and organic substances from soil and soil-like material as well as to produce eluates for subsequent ecotoxicological testing. For ecotoxicological testing, see ISO 15799[6] and ISO 17616[7]. NOTE 1 Volatile organic substances include the low-molecular-weight substances in mixtures such as mineral oil. NOTE 2 It is not always possible to optimize test conditions simultaneously for inorganic and organic substances and optimum test conditions can also vary between different groups of organic substances. Test requirements for organic substances are generally more stringent than those for inorganic substances. The test conditions suitable for measuring the release of organic substances will generally also be applicable to inorganic substances. NOTE 3 Within the category of organic substances, a significant difference in behaviour exists between the more polar, relatively water-soluble compounds and apolar, hydrophobic organic substances (HOCs). In the latter case, mechanisms of release (e.g. particle-bound or dissolved organic carbon-bound) can be more crucial as well as sorption losses of soluble HOCs on different materials with which they come in contact (e.g. bottles, filters). The test and the results should be used for leaching of organic substances only with thorough consideration of the specific properties of the substances in question and the associated potential problems. NOTE 4 For ecotoxicological testing, eluates representing the release of both inorganic and organic substances are needed. In this document, ecotoxicological testing is also meant to include genotoxicological testing. This test method produces eluates, which can subsequently be characterized by physical, chemical and ecotoxicological methods in accordance with existing standard methods. The test is not suitable for substances that are volatile under ambient conditions. This procedure is not applicable to materials with a dry-matter-content ratio lower than 33 %. This test is mainly aimed at being used for routine and control purposes, and it cannot be used alone to describe all leaching properties of a soil. Additional leaching tests are needed for that extended goal. This document does not address issues related to health and safety. It only determines the leaching properties as outlined in Clause 4.

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This document specifies a test providing information on leaching of soil and soil-like materials under the experimental conditions specified hereafter, and particularly at a liquid to solid ratio of 2 l/kg dry matter. The document has been developed to measure the release of inorganic and organic substances from soil and soil-like material as well as to produce eluates for subsequent ecotoxicological testing. For ecotoxicological testing, see ISO 15799[6] and ISO 17616[7]. NOTE 1 Volatile organic substances include the low-molecular-weight substances in mixtures such as mineral oil. NOTE 2 It is not always possible to optimise test conditions simultaneously for inorganic and organic substances and optimum test conditions can also vary between different groups of organic substances. Test requirements for organic substances are generally more stringent than those for inorganic substances. The test conditions suitable for measuring the release of organic substances will generally also be applicable to inorganic substances. NOTE 3 Within the category of organic substances, a significant difference in behaviour exists between the more polar, relatively water-soluble compounds and apolar, hydrophobic organic substances (HOCs). In the latter case, mechanisms of release (e.g. particle-bound or dissolved organic carbon-bound) can be more crucial as well as sorption losses of soluble HOCs on different materials with which they come in contact (e.g. bottles, filters). The test and the results should be used for leaching of organic substances only with thorough consideration of the specific properties of the substances in question and the associated potential problems. NOTE 4 For ecotoxicological testing, eluates representing the release of both inorganic and organic substances are needed. In this document, ecotoxicological testing is also meant to include genotoxicological testing. This test method produces eluates, which can subsequently be characterized by physical, chemical and ecotoxicological methods in accordance with existing standard methods. The test is not suitable for substances that are volatile under ambient conditions. This procedure is not applicable to materials with a dry-matter-content ratio lower than 33 %. This test is mainly aimed at being used for routine and control purposes, and it cannot be used alone to describe all leaching properties of a soil. Additional leaching tests are needed for that extended goal. This document does not address issues related to health and safety. It only determines the leaching properties as outlined in Clause 4.

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This document specifies a test, which is aimed at determining the leaching behaviour of inorganic and organic substances from a soil and soil-like materials. The method is a once-through up-flow percolation test under standardized conditions of flow rate. The material is leached under dynamic hydraulic conditions. The document has been developed to measure the release of inorganic and organic substances from soil and soil-like material as well as to produce eluates for subsequent ecotoxicological testing. For ecotoxicological testing, see ISO 15799[6] and ISO 17616[7]. The test results enable the distinction between different release patterns, for instance wash-out and release under the influence of interaction with the matrix, when approaching local equilibrium between material and leachant. This test method produces eluates, which can subsequently be characterized by physical, chemical and ecotoxicological methods in accordance with existing standard methods. The results of eluate analysis are presented as a function of the liquid/solid (L/S) ratio. The test is not suitable for substances that are volatile under ambient conditions. NOTE 1 Volatile organic substances include the low-molecular-weight substances in mixtures such as mineral oil. NOTE 2 It is not always possible to optimize test conditions simultaneously for inorganic and organic substances and optimum test conditions can also vary between different groups of organic substances. Test requirements for organic substances are generally more stringent than those for inorganic substances. The test conditions suitable for measuring the release of organic substances will generally also be applicable to inorganic substances. NOTE 3 Within the category of organic substances, a significant difference in behaviour exists between the more polar, relatively water-soluble compounds and apolar, hydrophobic organic substances (HOCs). In the latter case, mechanisms of release (e.g. particle-bound or dissolved organic carbon-bound) can be more crucial as well as sorption losses of soluble HOCs on different materials with which they come in contact (e.g. bottles, filters). The test and the results should be used for leaching of organic substances only with thorough consideration of the specific properties of the substances in question and the associated potential problems. NOTE 4 For ecotoxicological testing, eluates representing the release of both inorganic and organic substances are needed. In this document, ecotoxicological testing is also meant to include genotoxicological testing. NOTE 5 The test is generally not suitable for soils with hydraulic conductivities below 10−8 m/s (see also Annex B). It can be difficult to maintain the designated flow rate already in the range of saturated hydraulic conductivity between 10−7 m/s and 10−8 m/s. The application of this test method alone is not sufficient for the determination of the leaching behaviour of a material under specified conditions different to those from the test procedure, since this generally requires the application of several test methods, behavioural modelling and model validation. This document does not address issues related to health and safety. It only determines the leaching properties as outlined in Clause 4.

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This document provides guidance on the type and extent of soil characterization necessary for the evaluation of human exposure to substances present in possibly leading to adverse effects. It does not provide guidance on: — the design or selection of numerical models that can be used to estimate exposure; — potential exposure to radioactivity, pathogens or asbestos in soil. Background information is provided on human health related to exposure to soil and the influence on exposure via different pathways. NOTE 1 For convenience "soil" in this document also includes "soil material" unless stated otherwise. NOTE 2 Overall exposure can be due to potentially harmful substances (PHSs) in soil, groundwater and air. Exposure to those in soil can be direct (e.g. through inhalation, ingestion, cutaneous contact), or indirect (through the consumption of plants or animals that have taken up substances of concern). NOTE 3 The evaluation of the possible impact on human health of potentially harmful substances is most commonly required when these are present as a result of human activity (e.g. on old industrial sites) but can sometimes be required when they are present naturally. NOTE 4 Soil characterization precedes the assessment of the compatibility between soil and its use (i.e. soil quality assessment). Tools such as a conceptual site model (CSM) and health risk assessment can be used to aid this assessment. NOTE 5 Soil characterization can be used to develop an overview of population exposure to soil. Other International Standards are available that can aid the characterization of other media (e.g. surface and groundwater), in terms of their possible adverse effects on humans.

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This document provides guidance on the range of tests that could be necessary to characterize soil and other soil materials intended to be re-used, with or without preliminary treatment (e.g. screening to remove over large material). It is intended to be of use in determining the suitability of soil materials for re-use (see 3.4.1), and the assessment of the environmental impacts that might arise from re-use. It takes into account the different requirements of topsoil, sub-soil and other soil materials such as sediments or treated soils. International Standard methods are listed that might be of use for characterization. Soil materials include natural soils and other materials (e.g. fill, made ground) excavated, stripped, or otherwise removed from their original in-ground or above-ground location (e.g. stockpile), dredged materials, manufactured soils, and soil treated to remove or destroy contaminants. For manufactured soils, which are often made using excavated materials together with other materials such as "green waste", the characteristics of the components and of the manufactured product might need to be determined. NOTE The terms "excavated soil" and "excavated soil materials" are used for brevity throughout the document to embrace the range of materials covered. An overriding principle governing the guidance provided in this document is that when there is to be no change in intended land use at the target site, imported soil materials cannot lead to a permanent reduction in performance of relevant soil functions. The guidance provided is intended to cover a range of possible end uses, including: — play areas for small children, including nursery schools, kindergartens, etc.; — schools; — gardens and other residential areas; — allotments; — horticulture; — agriculture; — forestry; — recreational areas, e.g. parks, sport fields; — restoration of damaged ecosystems; — mining and industrial sites; — construction sites; — road and rail constructions. It is not applicable to the placement of soil materials in an aqueous environment or to restore underground workings. It does not address geotechnical requirements when soil materials are to be used as construction material. NOTE The sensitive end uses listed above such as play areas for small children, schools, gardens, agriculture and recreational areas require particular care, particularly when excavated soils are derived from contaminated sites.

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This document gives general guidance on the selection of procedures for the establishment and maintenance of programmes for long-term monitoring of soil quality. It takes into account the large number of objectives for soil-monitoring programmes. This document is intended to help provide a basis for dialogue between parties which might be involved in a monitoring scheme.

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This document provides guidance on the principles behind, and main methods for, the evaluation of sites, soils and soil materials in relation to their role as a source of contamination of groundwater and their function in retaining, releasing and transforming contaminants. It is focused on contaminated land management identifying and listing relevant monitoring strategies, methods for sampling, soil processes and analytical methods.

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This document gives general guidance on the development of site investigation strategies and detailed guidance on the development of sampling strategies, when collecting information on — the average properties of soil, — the variability of soil properties, and — the spatial distribution of soil properties. It is applicable to soil samples intended for chemical testing and determination of a variety of other properties (e.g. physical). Although the main focus of this document is the collection of material (field samples) for transfer to a laboratory for testing, it is also applicable when measurements are made directly in the field. NOTE 1 This document also provides information on the statistical principles underlying the development of appropriate sampling strategies and statistical methodologies. NOTE 2 Guidance on other forms of related sampling activities are given in other International Standards [for soil gas (ISO 18400-204) and for biological testing purposes (ISO 18400-206)]. Guidance on sampling groundwater is provided in ISO 5667-11 and ISO 5667-22 and on sampling methods and groundwater measurements in geotechnical investigations in ISO 22475-1.

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This document provides guidance on the sampling of soils of — natural and near-natural sites, — natural arboreal areas including forests and woods, — areas used for agriculture (arable and pasture sites), — areas used for horticulture (including domestic gardens, allotments), and — areas used for special crop-cultivation, orchards, vineyards, commercial plantations and forests, etc. It is applicable to — soil investigations and evaluations in the field, and — collection of samples for chemical, geochemical, physical, and biological characterization of soil and soil materials in the laboratory. This document sets out appropriate strategies for the design of sampling programmes, field procedures and subsequent treatment of samples for transport and storage prior to sample pretreatment (e.g. drying, milling). It is intended to be used in conjunction with the other parts of the ISO 18400 series. Attention is, in particular, drawn to the requirements concerning collection, handling and storage of soil for assessment of biological functions in ISO 18400-206. NOTE 1 Groundwater and surface water can be adversely impacted by agricultural and related activities, such as nitrates and pesticides, and by translocation of soil particles. In turn, knowledge about water quality can provide information about possible sources of groundwater contamination or contaminating run-off. Investigation of groundwater and surface water quality is outside of the scope of this document; relevant guidance is given in the ISO 5667 series of standards. ISO 15175 provides guidance on the relationship between soil properties and groundwater quality. NOTE 2 It could also be appropriate to investigate ambient air, vegetation, potable water supplies and a variety of other media depending on the findings of the preliminary investigation.

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This document gives guidance on the: — investigation of sites, where either it is known that soil contamination is present, or the presence of soil contamination is suspected; — investigation of sites where no soil contamination is expected, but the soil quality is to be determined (e.g. to make sure that there is no contamination present); — investigation in anticipation of a need to manage re-use or disposal of excavated soil which might be contaminated; — collection of information that is necessary for risk assessment and/or the development of remedial action plans (e.g. whether remediation is required and suggestions as to how this might be best achieved). Although the information on soil quality for the risk assessment and/or the development of remedial action plans is gathered by applying this document, it does not give guidance on the decisions and actions that follow from a site investigation, for example, risk assessment and decisions about the requirements for remediation (if any).

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This document provides guidance on the design and execution of preliminary investigations comprising desk studies and site reconnaissance, and where appropriate, preliminary risk assessment. It is applicable whenever sampling exercises or investigations are to be carried out to determine soil quality.

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This document deals with the assessment of human exposure from ingestion of soil and soil materials. It specifies a physiologically based test procedure for the estimation of the human bioaccessibility of metals from contaminated soil in connection with the evaluation of the exposure related to human oral uptake. The method is a sequential extraction using synthetic gastrointestinal fluids and can be used to estimate oral bioaccessibility. Soils or other geological materials, in sieved form, are extracted in an environment that simulates the basic physicochemical conditions of the human gastrointestinal tract. This document describes a method to simulate the release of metals from soil and soil materials after passage through three compartments of the human gastrointestinal tract (mouth, stomach and small intestine). It produces extracts that are representative of the concentration of potentially harmful elements in the human gastrointestinal tract for subsequent chemical characterization. NOTE 1 Bioaccessibility can be used to approximate oral bioavailability. NOTE 2 The test has been validated for arsenic, cadmium and lead in an interlaboratory trial. The method has been in vivo validated to assess the oral bioavailability of arsenic, cadmium and lead.

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This document gives guidelines for the principles and main methods for the determination of background values for inorganic and organic substances in soils at a local/regional scale. The site scale is excluded. It gives guidelines for sampling and data processing strategies. It identifies methods for sampling and analysis. This document does not apply to the determination of background values for groundwater and sediments.

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ISO 11504:2017 gives guidelines with regard to the choice of fractions and individual compounds when carrying out analysis for petroleum hydrocarbons in soils, soil materials and related materials, including sediments, for the purpose of assessing risks to human health, the environment and other possible receptors. Since many products based on petroleum hydrocarbons often contain substances that are not hydrocarbons, the recommendations also encompass such compounds where relevant. ISO 11504:2017 also includes relevant background information on which the recommendations are based together with guidance on the use of the fractions recommended in the assessment of risk. ISO 11504:2017 does not set criteria or guidelines for use as assessment criteria, since this is typically a national or regional regulatory issue. This document also does not include recommendations as to the specific model for the exposure assessment or the specific parameter values to be used; with respect to guidance on this matter, reference is made to ISO 15800.

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ISO 18504:2017 provides procedures on sustainable remediation. In particular, it provides: - standard methodology, terminology and information about the key components and aspects of sustainable remediation assessment; - informative advice on the assessment of the relative sustainability of alternative remediation strategies. ISO 18504:2017 is intended to inform practitioners about contemporary understanding of sustainable remediation. It is not intended to prescribe which methods of assessment, indicators or weights to use. Rather, it is intended to inform consideration of the concept of sustainable remediation in a local legal, policy, socio-economic and environmental context. The scope of ISO 18504:2017 is restricted to sustainable remediation ? that is demonstrably breaking the source-pathway-receptor linkages ? in a manner that has been shown on a site-specific basis under a specific legal context to be sustainable. The concepts of "green remediation" and "green and sustainable remediation" (so called GSR) that in some parts of the world are conflated with sustainable remediation are neither endorsed nor discussed in ISO 18504:2017.

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ISO 18400-100:2017 describes the structure of sampling standards for any kind of soil investigation. It also describes the coherence of the different parts in the ISO 18400 series. It provides guidance on the selection of sampling standards appropriate for the objectives of users.

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ISO 18400-103:2017 gives guidelines for: - identification of hazards that could be encountered during a site investigation and when collecting samples of soil and other ground material, including hazards that are intrinsic in the sampling operation (e.g. physical hazards) in addition to the hazards that might arise, e.g. from contamination with chemicals or biological agents; - measures to be adopted to control risks once an appropriate risk assessment has been carried out.

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ISO 18400-101:2017 specifies the procedural elements to be taken in the preparation and application of a sampling plan. The sampling plan describes among other things what laboratory samples are to be taken, how they are to be taken and from where they are to be taken, in order that the objectives of the investigation programme can be achieved. The principles or basic rules outlined in this document provide a framework that can be used to - produce standardized sampling plans for use in more regular or routine circumstances, - incorporate the specific requirements of national legislation, and - design and develop a sampling plan for use on a case-by-case basis. ISO 18400-101:2017 is applicable to sampling of soil and soil material, more specifically, e.g. - soil in the landscape, - soil stockpiles, - potentially contaminated sites, - agricultural soils, - landfills, and - forest soils. Ultimately, the sampling plan provides the sampler with detailed instructions on how sampling should be carried out. NOTE 1 There might be a need for more than one sampling plan to meet all the requirements of the investigation programme. NOTE 2 It might sometimes be appropriate to divide a site or above-ground deposit (e.g. stockpile) into two or more zones and to develop separate sampling plans for each zone. For example, a (potentially) contaminated site might be zoned on the basis of past use, future use, topography or geology and an agricultural site on the basis of known or suspected soil types or use (pasture, type of crops, etc.).

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ISO 18400-107:2017 specifies the minimum information required for a sampling report independent of the purpose of the investigation. The preparation of the overall investigation report is not covered by this document (see ISO/IEC 17025:2005, 5.10.3).

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ISO 18400-204:2017 contains guidance on soil gas sampling using - active sampling (adsorbents, filters, air containers), and - passive sampling applied at permanent or temporary monitoring wells or other installations in soils or underneath buildings (sub-slab). It provides guidance on: - development of a sampling plan; - construction of monitoring installations; - transport, packaging and storage soil gas samples; - quality assurance. ISO 18400-204:2017 also gives basic information about - soil gas dynamics, and - identification of soil gas sources relevant to permanent or temporary boreholes in soils or underneath buildings (sub‑slab). The compounds covered by this document are: . volatile organic compounds (VOCs); . inorganic volatile compounds (e.g. mercury, HCN); . permanent gases (i.e. CO2, N2, O2, CH4). ISO 18400-204:2017 does not give guidance on: - risk evaluation and characterization; - selection and design of protective measures; - the verification of protective measures, although the site investigation methodologies described can be used when appropriate; - the sampling of atmospheric or indoor gases; - the measurement of gases from the soil entering into the atmosphere; - monitoring and sampling for radon.

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ISO 18400-105:2017 establishes general principles for packing, preservation, transport and delivery of samples of soil and related materials with an emphasis on requirements for when chemical analysis of the samples is required, but with the intention that the general procedures are to be adapted as appropriate when other forms of testing are required (e.g. biological testing, physical tests on disturbed or undisturbed samples). Special procedures for specific sampling purposes are given in other parts of ISO 18400 (see also 7.2). ISO 18400-105:2017 is intended to be read in conjunction with ISO 18512.

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ISO 18400-106:2017 provides guidelines for quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) for soil sampling. It identifies the steps which are subject to QA and QC in situations where QA and QC are required. It addresses aspects of QA and QC of the International Standards under the ISO 18400‑100 umbrella (level 1, level 2) and gives guidance to methods on level 3.

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ISO 18400-201:2017 specifies methods for the pretreatment of samples that can be applied "in the field" directly after sampling. Pretreatment methods in this document are limited to: - sample division methods aimed at reducing the size/volume of the sample; - the production of composite samples; - the selection of a specific fraction of the sampled material. ISO 18400-201:2017 - does not apply to samples required for biological or microbiological examination, - does not apply to soil materials sampled for the content of volatile components, and NOTE 1 These soil materials are intended to be sampled according to ISO 22155. -? does not give instructions for particle size reduction. NOTE 2 Guidance for particle size reduction is given in ISO 11464, ISO 14507 and ISO 23909.

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ISO 18400-102:2017 gives guidelines for techniques for taking samples so that these can subsequently be examined for the purpose of providing information on soil quality. It gives information on equipment that is typically applicable in particular sampling situations to enable correct sampling procedures to be carried out and representative samples to be collected. Guidance is given on the selection of the equipment and the techniques to use to enable both disturbed and undisturbed samples to be correctly taken at different depths. ISO 18400-102:2017 does not cover: - investigations for geotechnical purposes, though where redevelopment of a site is envisaged, the soil quality investigation and the geotechnical investigation may sometimes be beneficially combined; - sampling of hard strata such as bedrock; - methods for the collection of information on soil quality without taking samples such as geophysical methods; - collection of water samples (these are to be collected in accordance with appropriate International Standards on ground or surface water sampling; for further information, see the ISO 5667 series); - investigations of soil gas about which guidance is provided in ISO 18400‑204; - investigation of radioactively contaminated sites. NOTE 1 "Sampling technique" is defined in ISO 11074. NOTE 2 Guidance on the investigation and assessment of radioactivity in soils is provided in the ISO 18589 series.

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ISO 16198:2015 specifies the plant-based test, called biotest, which enables estimation of the environmental bioavailability of trace elements to plants either basically as the concentration in shoots and roots or in a more integrative way as the net uptake flux in plants.

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ISO 12782-1:2012 specifies the determination of the content of "reactive" iron in the form of amorphous iron oxides and hydroxides in soil and other materials by extraction with ascorbic acid. Other materials also include waste. The content of "reactive" iron can be used as input in geochemical models to represent the content of amorphous iron (hydr)oxides.

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ISO 12782-2:2012 specifies the determination of the content of "reactive" iron in the form of crystralline iron oxides and hydroxides in soil and other materials by extraction with dithionite. Other materials also include waste. The content of "reactive" iron can be used as input in geochemical models to represent the content of crystalline iron (hydr)oxides.

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ISO 12782-5:2012 specifies a procedure to determine the concentration of humic substances in aqueous samples. These samples may be obtained as such or as eluates from leaching procedures applied to soil or other materials. Other materials also include waste.The content of humic substances can be used as input in geochemical models.

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ISO 12782-4:2012 specifies a procedure to determine the concentration of humic substances in soil or other materials. Other materials also include waste. The content of humic substances can be used as input in geochemical models.

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ISO 12782-3:2012 specifies the determination of the content of "reactive" aluminium in the form of amorphous aluminium oxides and hydroxides in soil and other materials by extraction with ammonium oxalate/oxalic acid. Other materials also include waste. The content of "reactive" aluminium can be used as input in geochemical models.

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ISO 28901:2011 provides guidance on environment-friendly burial methods of animal carcasses to prevent epidemics, to curtail the spread of the disease, to destroy the causative agents, and to dispose of the carcasses. ISO 28901:2011 does not apply to the burial of animal carcasses resulting from natural death or by accident. Other methods of disposal are outside the scope of ISO 28901:2011.

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ISO 17402:2008 provides guidance for the selection and application of methods to assess bioavailability for the characterisation of contaminated soil and soil materials. ISO 17402:2008 does not give a selection of the best applicable methods, but specifies boundary conditions and principles of methods to be used and gives the minimal requirements for the development of methods. The results obtained from such methods can be used as an estimate of bioavailability in a risk-assessment approach. The contaminants considered in ISO 17402:2008 are metals, including metalloids, and organic contaminants, including organometal compounds. This International Standard is also applicable to metals originating from natural geological and pedological processes (natural pedo-geochemical content). ISO 17402:2008 can also be applied to sediments.

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ISO 18772:2008 provides guidance on the appropriate use of leaching tests on soil and soil materials, in order to determine the leaching behaviour in the framework of impact assessment, or for compliance and comparison purposes, including information on the following: the choice of leaching tests, depending on the nature of the problem to be solved and the specific features of the different tests; the interpretation of the test results; the limitations of the tests. In this respect, it is important to keep in mind that leaching tests do not aim to simulate real field conditions, but are designed to address the contact between a solid and a liquid phase for different purposes that are described in ISO 18772:2008. ISO 18772:2008 only concerns natural, contaminated and agricultural soils and soil materials. Questions relating to the leaching of wastes are not covered by ISO 18772:2008. It also does not cover the subject of bioavailability of contaminants to living organisms, which is covered by ISO 17402.

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ISO 18512:2007 gives guidance on how to store and preserve soil samples for laboratory determinations and how to prepare them for analysis after storage. Special emphasis is given to maximum storage times as a function of different storage conditions.

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ISO/TS 16751:2018 specifies an extraction method to determine the bioavailable (potential and environmental available) fraction and the non-bioavailable fraction of a contaminant in soil using a "receiver phase" for an organic contaminant with strong sorbing or complexing properties, for example, Tenax®[1] or cyclodextrin, respectively.

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ISO 11504:2012 gives recommendations with regard to the choice of fractions and individual compounds when carrying out analysis for petroleum hydrocarbons in soils, soil materials and related materials, including sediments, for the purpose of assessing risks to human health, the environment and other possible receptors. Since many products based on petroleum hydrocarbons often contain substances that are not hydrocarbons, the recommendations also encompass such compounds where relevant. ISO 11504:2012 also includes relevant background information on which the recommendations are based together with guidance on the use of the fractions recommended in the assessment of risk. ISO 11504:2012 does not set criteria or guidelines for use as assessment criteria, since this is typically a national or regional regulatory issue. This International Standard also does not include recommendations as to the specific model for the exposure assessment or the specific parameter values to be used; with respect to guidance on this matter, reference is made to ISO 15800.

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ISO 17616:2008 is one of a series providing guidance on the characterization of soils and soil materials in relation to their retention and habitat function and uses. It should be read in conjunction with the other standards in this series. It provides guidance on the choice and evaluation of tests applied for ecotoxicological characterization of soils and soil materials. Recommendations for test strategies with respect to the protection of ground and surface waters and the maintenance of the habitat function of soil are included. The tests recommended represent a minimum test battery that may be accomplished by additional tests, or even be replaced by others, according to the intended uses or protection goals envisaged.

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ISO/TS 17924:2007 deals with the assessment of human exposure from ingestion of soil and soil material. ISO/TS 17924:2007 gives guidelines to be used when choosing a physiologically based test procedure for the estimation of the human bioaccessibility/bioavailability of metals from contaminated soil in connection with the evaluation of the exposure related to human oral uptake. Suggestions are made for the use of as many generic-method elements as possible, but it is important that the choice of method be based on the needs of the specific investigation. Methods that are validated for specific metals and/or contexts are highlighted.

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ISO/TS 21268-4:2007 specifies a test method to obtain information on the short- and long-term leaching behaviour and characteristic properties of materials. It applies to the determination of the influence of pH on the leachability of inorganic and organic constituents from soil and soil material, and the ecotoxicological effects of eluates with respect to microorganisms, fauna and flora. The test is not suitable for constituents that are volatile under ambient conditions. The test procedure specified in ISO/TS 21268-4:2007 produces eluates that are subsequently characterized by physical, chemical and ecotoxicological standard methods.

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ISO/TS 21268-1:2007 specifies a test providing information on leaching of soil and soil materials under the experimental conditions specified hereafter, and particularly at a liquid to solid ratio of 2 l/kg dry matter. It applies to soil and soil material with a particle size less than or equal to 4 mm. ISO/TS 21268-1:2007 has been developed to measure the release of inorganic and organic constituents from soil and soil material and the ecotoxicological effects of eluates with respect to micro-organisms, fauna and flora. The test is not suitable for constituents that are volatile under ambient conditions. For ecotoxicological testing, see ISO 15799. The test procedure specified in ISO/TS 21268-1:2007 produces eluates, which are subsequently characterised by existing physical, chemical and ecotoxicological standard methods. This procedure is not applicable to materials with a dry-matter-content ratio lower than 33 %. This test is mainly aimed at being used for routine and control purposes, and it cannot be used alone to describe all leaching properties of a soil. Additional leaching tests are needed for that extended goal. ISO/TS 21268-1:2007 does not address issues related to health and safety. It only determines the leaching properties.

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ISO/TS 21268-2:2007 specifies a test providing information on leaching of soil and soil materials under the experimental conditions specified hereafter, and particularly at a liquid to solid ratio of 10 l/kg dry matter. It applies to soil and soil material with a particle size less than or equal to 4 mm. ISO/TS 21268-2:2007 has been developed to measure the release of inorganic and organic constituents from soil and soil material and the ecotoxicological effects of eluates with respect to micro-organisms, fauna and flora. The test is not suitable for constituents that are volatile under ambient conditions. For ecotoxicological testing, see ISO 15799. The test procedure specified in ISO/TS 21268-2:2007 produces eluates, which are subsequently characterised by existing physical, chemical and ecotoxicological standard methods. This test is mainly aimed at being used for routine and control purposes, and it cannot be used alone to describe all leaching properties of a soil. Additional leaching tests are needed for that extended goal. ISO/TS 21268-2:2007 does not address issues related to health and safety. It only determines the leaching properties.

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ISO/TS 21268-3:2007 specifies a test, which is aimed at determining the leaching behaviour of inorganic and organic constituents from a soil and soil material. The method is a once-through percolation test with water (0,001 mol/l CaCl2) under standardized conditions of flow rate. The material is leached under dynamic hydraulic conditions. The eluates obtained can be used to determine the ecological properties of the soil with respect to micro-organisms, flora and fauna. The test results enable the distinction between different release patterns, for instance wash-out and release under the influence of interaction with the matrix, when approaching local equilibrium between material and leachant. This test method produces eluates, which can subsequently be characterised by physical, chemical and ecotoxicological methods in accordance with existing standard methods. The results of eluate analysis are presented as a function of the liquid/solid ratio. The test is not suitable for species that are volatile under ambient conditions. The application of this test method alone is not sufficient for the determination of the leaching behaviour of a material under specified conditions different to those from the test procedure, since this generally requires the application of several test methods, behavioural modelling and model validation. ISO/TS 21268-3:2007 does not address issues related to health and safety. It only determines the leaching properties as outlined in Clause 4.

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ISO 10381-8:2006 defines the methods that should be applied when sampling soil from stockpiles. ISO 10381-8:2006 only includes the sampling of the soil material itself, i.e. the solid phase. The underlying reason for sampling the soil can differ widely, as can the subsequent analysis on the obtained samples. ISO 10381-8:2006 gives guidance on the various aspects that, together, describe the sampling activity: the definition of a sampling plan; the choice of an adequate sampling strategy; the sampling technique to be applied; the sample pretreatment directly after sampling (when necessary); and the packing, preservation, storing, transport and delivery of the sample. Given the wide differences in circumstances for all of the above-mentioned sampling steps, ISO 10381-8:2006 provides information on how to obtain clear and simple instructions for the sampling personnel.

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ISO 19258:2005 provides guidance on the principles and main methods for the determination of pedo-geochemical background values and background values for inorganic and organic substances in soils. ISO 19258:2005 gives guidance on strategies for sampling and data processing and identifies methods for sampling and analysis. ISO 19258:2005 does not give guidance on the determination of background values for groundwater and sediments.

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ISO 10381-5:2005 gives guidance on the procedure for the investigation of urban and industrial sites, where either it is known that soil contamination is present, or the presence of soil contamination is suspected. ISO 10381-5:2005 is applicable where there is a need to establish the contamination status of the site, or there is a need to establish the environmental quality of the site for other purposes. ISO 10381-5:2005 includes guidance on the collection of information that is necessary for risk assessment and/or the development of remedial action plans (e.g. whether remediation is required, and suggestions as to how this might be best achieved). It provides guidance on the information required in general; specific remediation methods may need additional information. ISO 10381-5:2005 is also applicable to sites where no soil contamination is expected, but the soil quality is to be determined (e.g. to make sure that there is no contamination present).

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ISO 10381-7:2005 contains guidance on the sampling of soil gas. ISO 10381-7:2005 is not applicable to the measurement of gases from the soil entering into the atmosphere, the sampling of atmospheric gases, or passive sampling procedures.

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