Information technology for learning, education, and training -- Learner mobility achievement information (LMAI)

This document defines a model for the recording and exchange of learner achievement information among student information systems (SIS) (also known as student management information systems), as well as the aggregation of information by third party suppliers. In addition, this document defines refinements to the learner mobility achievement award (LMAI) model for representing the digital diploma supplement (DDS). NOTE The proposed model proposed is not intended to define the representation of the entire spectrum of learner mobility information but to define the formally structured representation of official, institutionally attested achievement information for learners engaged in formal learning processes, in order to facilitate its recording and subsequent exchange within any international area within which learner mobility is possible. Achievement information structured and presented in compliance with this document could, of course, be used for other purposes, for instance, to provide descriptions of achievement to enrich a learner-owned report in an e-portfolio. However, guidance on the document and the organisation of information for purposes other than the representation of formal achievement reports is outside the scope of this document.

Technologies de l'information -- Éducation, formation et apprentissage -- Informations pour la réalisation de la mobilité des apprenants

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Published
Publication Date
28-Feb-2019
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
30-Jan-2019
Completion Date
01-Mar-2019
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ISO/IEC 19479:2019 - Information technology for learning, education, and training -- Learner mobility achievement information (LMAI)
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 19479
First edition
2019-02
Information technology for learning,
education, and training — Learner
mobility achievement information
(LMAI)
Technologies de l'information — Éducation, formation et
apprentissage — Informations pour la réalisation de la mobilité des
apprenants
Reference number
ISO/IEC 19479:2019(E)
ISO/IEC 2019
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ISO/IEC 19479:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 19479:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5 Conventions ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6 Conformance ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

6.1 Conforming instances ....................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2 Conforming bindings ......................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.3 Conforming applications ................................................................................................................................................................ 5

7 Learner mobility achievement information model .......................................................................................................... 5

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.2 Domain model ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.3 LMAI Resources ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.3.1 Classes ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.3.2 Association Properties ................................................................................................................................................ 7

7.3.3 Attribute Properties ...................................................................................................................................................... 8

8 The LMAI description set profile ......................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.2 LMAI report ............................................................................................................................................................................................10

8.3 Learner........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

8.4 Issuer ............................................................................................................................................................................................................10

8.5 Learning Opportunity Specification ..................................................................................................................................11

8.6 Learning Opportunity Instance .............................................................................................................................................11

8.7 Qualification ...........................................................................................................................................................................................12

8.8 Credit ............................................................................................................................................................................................................12

Annex A (informative) Illustrative uses of the EuroLMAI Model and the Europass DS

Application Profile ...........................................................................................................................................................................................13

Annex B (informative) The LMAI conceptual model .........................................................................................................................18

Annex C (informative) Digital diploma supplement models ....................................................................................................21

Annex D (informative) Application profiling ............................................................................................................................................24

Annex E (informative) The relationship of LMAI to other organizations’ works ................................................26

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................27

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ISO/IEC 19479:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that

are members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through

technical committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of

technical activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other

international organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also

take part in the work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see http: //patents .iec .ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 36, Information technology for learning, education and training.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 19479:2019(E)
Introduction

Global education has reached a level of maturity where the demand for the recording and exchange of

learner mobility information needs to be efficiently supported by technical interoperability standards.

Several relevant standardization efforts relating to this work were identified and significant national

expertise has been developed to date. However, harmonization was deemed necessary towards

an international solution, in order to provide viable support for emerging international student

management information systems and dissuade service providers from developing proprietary services

and platforms.

The results of the current and future work about learner mobility aspire to support the development of a

new generation of technology-enhanced services for learners (learning and employment opportunities

exploration), higher education institutions (certification or augmentation of learner information),

employers (workplace descriptions, recruiting and development of learners' competences) and

other stakeholders of learning, education, and training internationally, the national bodies and their

governments and ministries, etc. For the purposes of this document, learner mobility means the

movement of learners from one region or country to another.

The learner mobility achievement information (LMAI) model directly addresses the international

requirement for rapid implementation and dissemination of the institution-owned transparency

information tools internationally. It has been developed as a generic model for representing the

institution attested achievements of a learner within a formal learning setting, resulting from the

learner's participation in one or more learning opportunity instances and including any available

associated results.

This document specifies a framework of the generic LMAI model that supports the expression of

institution-owned learner achievement information and the formation of official achievement reports

(e.g. the learner's transcript of records) and transparency documents (e.g. digital diploma supplement).

The framework model supports additional learner mobility achievement structures and tools. It

standardizes additional information entities (e.g., intended learning outcomes, assessment processes,

etc.). Related standardization activities are underway to provide other important extensions to LMAI.

The LMAI model has been developed to be:

— lightweight: taking into consideration existing and emerging educational practice processes and

the relevant educational policies

— easy-to-implement: in order to ensure a rapid uptake by stakeholders of learning, education

and training throughout the world (higher education institutions, learners, employers, service

providers, etc.)

The accompanying proposed digital diploma supplement application profile meets the general

purposes of:

— the use of academic achievements abroad: in continuing education or in seeking job opportunities;

— the admission of students or graduates in domestic institutions and educational organizations and

those abroad: acknowledgment of credits or transfer of credits accumulated in domestic institutions

moving from one institution/educational organization to another;

— the expression of the level, content and nature of qualifications to potential employers both

nationally and at an international level;

— the enhancement of internal and international student mobility, from one educational organization

to another, or from one branch of studies to another;
— the proper integration of foreign workers into a country's employment setting;

— the standardization of higher education qualifications, either in academic or non-academic paths;

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ISO/IEC 19479:2019(E)

— the establishment of good practices in the recognition procedures of qualifications among higher

education institutions.

NOTE 2 The DDS application profile of LMAI focuses on the expression of information regarding the

qualification awarded to a learner upon completion of a formal educational programme.

vi © ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 19479:2019(E)
Information technology for learning, education, and
training — Learner mobility achievement information
(LMAI)
1 Scope

This document defines a model for the recording and exchange of learner achievement information

among student information systems (SIS) (also known as student management information systems),

as well as the aggregation of information by third party suppliers.

In addition, this document defines refinements to the learner mobility achievement award (LMAI)

model for representing the digital diploma supplement (DDS).

NOTE The proposed model proposed is not intended to define the representation of the entire spectrum

of learner mobility information but to define the formally structured representation of official, institutionally

attested achievement information for learners engaged in formal learning processes, in order to facilitate its

recording and subsequent exchange within any international area within which learner mobility is possible.

Achievement information structured and presented in compliance with this document could, of course, be used

for other purposes, for instance, to provide descriptions of achievement to enrich a learner-owned report in an

e-portfolio. However, guidance on the document and the organisation of information for purposes other than the

representation of formal achievement reports is outside the scope of this document.

2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp.
3.1
assessment result

recorded outcome of a process used to evaluate, measure and document the progress of a learner

3.2
awarding body
organization that gives credit (3.3) or qualifications (3.19)

Note 1 to entry: The same organization may also be a learning opportunity provider (3.14) or an issuer (3.10).

3.3
credit

unit of learning or study that counts towards a qualification (3.19), such as a degree or diploma (3.6)

3.4
credit scheme

framework (3.6) that defines units of learning or study that can be accumulated by learners and

transferred from an educational organization or programme of study to another
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ISO/IEC 19479:2019(E)
3.5
credit value
particular amount of credit
3.6
diploma
official documentary record of the awarding of a qualification
3.7
diploma supplement
LMAI report (3.8) that contains digital diploma supplement information
3.8
LMAI report
learning mobility achievement information report

document that contains achievement information for a single learner within a formal educational setting

3.9
framework

system of concepts, definitions and provisions through which educational practices are ordered, related

and articulated
Note 1 to entry: A credit scheme (3.4) is a specific example of a framework.
3.10
issuer
body that creates and distributes the LMAI report (3.8)

Note 1 to entry: The same body may also be a learning opportunity provider or an awarding body.

3.11
learner
student
entity that learns

Note 1 to entry: A learner for the purposes of this document can be more specifically defined as an individual

currently or formerly enrolled in a formal learning opportunity, where the learning opportunity (3.12) may be a

part or whole programme of study, a seminar, work experience, a single course, etc.

3.12
learning opportunity
formally specified education or training process
3.13
learning opportunity instance
single presentation of a learning opportunity (3.12)
3.14
learning opportunity provider

organization that validates or advertises learning opportunity specifications, or that runs learning

opportunity instances (3.13)

Note 1 to entry: A learning opportunity provider is a kind of LET institution or a type of learning service provider.

LET institution is defined in ISO/IEC/TR 24763:2011, E.7.

Note 2 to entry: The same organization may also be an issuer (3.10) or an awarding body.

3.15
learning opportunity specification

description of a learning opportunity (3.12), consisting of information that will be consistent across

multiple instances of the learning opportunity
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ISO/IEC 19479:2019(E)
3.16
level
educational level

one of a set of terms, properly defined within a framework (3.9) or a credit scheme (3.4), applied to an

entity in order to group it together with other entities relevant to the same stage of education

3.17
module

course unit in a system in which each course unit carries the same number of credits (3.3) or a

multiple thereof
3.18
programme

set of learning opportunities (3.12) for successful completion of which the learner (3.11) can be awarded

a specified qualification (3.19)
3.19
qualification
status awarded to or conferred on a learner by an awarding body
3.20
transcript

collection of information, represented in a learner mobility achievement report, about learning

opportunity instances taken by a learner, including any available associated results for that learner

4 Abbreviated terms
AP application profile
DCAM Dublin Core Abstract Model
DCMI Dublin Core Metadata Initiative
DDS digital diploma supplement
DS diploma supplement
DSP description set profile
LM learner mobility
LMAI learner mobility achievement information
MLO-AD metadata for learning opportunities - advertising
PURL persistent uniform resource locator
QF qualifications framework
RDF resource description framework
SF Singapore Framework
SIS student information system
SMIS student management information system
UML unified modelling language
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ISO/IEC 19479:2019(E)
URI uniform resource identifier
URL uniform resource locator
W3C world wide web consortium
5 Conventions

Base URIs for classes and properties defined in this document are introduced with the “lm:”. Base URIs

for classes and properties that are used to describe learning opportunities are introduced with the

“mlo:” prefix.

NOTE 1 The URN Identifier will neither take into account the edition number of the document nor the

language, and thus will designate the current edition in English. The general format, conformant to RFC 5141 will

be the following:

PURL: shttps: //purl .iso .org/iso -iec/19479/Element which has its resolution as PURL Resolver Target: http:

//standards .iso .org/iso -iec/19479/Element .html

NOTE 2 The namespaces for classes and properties defined in this document are currently https: //purl .iso

.org/iso -iec/19479/lm (prefix “lm:”).

NOTE 3 The namespaces for classes and properties defined in this document are currently https: //purl .iso

.org/iso -iec/19479/mlo (prefix “mlo:”).
6 Conformance
6.1 Conforming instances

A strictly conforming instance is a set of structured information constituted only of objects and

statements defined by the classes and properties of this document and fully qualified refinements of

the properties defined in this document.

A fully qualified refinement is defined for the purpose of conformance as a property that explicitly

extends a property defined by this document. A fully qualified refinement shall be capable of being

processed according to the semantics of the property it extends.
A conforming instance may contain additional objects and properties.
6.2 Conforming bindings

A strictly conforming binding is constituted only of bindings to an exchange format of the classes and

properties defined by this document and fully qualified refinements of the properties defined in this

document.

A conforming binding may contain additional properties that do not necessarily extend or map to the

properties defined in this document.

Both strictly conforming bindings and conforming bindings shall be capable of generating and validating

instances that can be automatically converted to a strictly conforming instance of this document.

Both strictly conforming bindings and conforming bindings may impose additional constraints upon

the values of properties defined in this document.

Both strictly conforming bindings and conforming bindings may impose cardinality constraints on

properties defined in this document.
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ISO/IEC 19479:2019(E)
6.3 Conforming applications
A conforming application shall have at least one of the following capabilities:
— generating instances that conform to a conforming binding;
— processing instances that conform to a conforming binding.
7 Learner mobility achievement information model
7.1 General

This document has been developed following the principles of the Singapore Framework (SF)

[13][14]

methodology for application profiles defined by the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) The

LMAI model is defined in terms of:

— a conceptual model (see Annex B), aiming at the description of the semantics of the achievement

information field through the representation of the participating entities and a series of assertions

about its inherent processes, and

— a domain model (see 7.2), providing a detailed description of the LMAI instance (report) resources

and their associations.
7.2 Domain model

The LMAI model is concerned with specific sets of learner achievement information arising from the

different administrative processes carried out at the institutions throughout the implementation of

educational practice, as well as with the associations amongst them. It builds upon:

— information about the learner currently or formerly enrolled in a formal learning opportunity;

— information about the issuer of the report (institution attesting the learner's achievements and/or

awarding the learner with a qualification);

— information about the learning opportunity the learner has taken, any associated results obtained,

and the qualification possibly achieved;

— information about the components studied as well as the result and credits in those components; and

— other achievement information.

This subclause defines the domain model of the framework LMAI model. More specifically, it defines a

LMAI instance (report) as an assemblage pattern of such information, namely:

— a Learner instance, representing the individual enrolled in a formal learning opportunity (part or

full programme of study, course, work experience, etc.);

— an Issuer instance, representing the authority that awards credits and/or qualifications and/

or attests learner participation in the described learning opportunities including any associated

results gained;

— at least one Learning Opportunity Specification instance, which, depending on its function and level,

may comprise any or all of the following information:

— description of a learning opportunity or period of learning the learner currently or formerly

enrolled in (with reference to provider and – if specified – to related credit information), and in

case of successful completion, of the qualification achieved, including the actual result for the

specific learner;

— description of possible component units (each of which may contain provider, credit, and result

information for the specific learner);
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ISO/IEC 19479:2019(E)
— and optionally, a set of additional information properties.
Figure 1 — Domain model of the LMAI framework
[18]

Figure 1 illustrates the domain model in UML . Attention is drawn to the UML class diagram

specification for an explanation of the underlying semantics of this diagram. Each box in the diagram

relates to a Class. Each named association (line with label) in the diagram represents an Association

Property. The Resources of this model are either defined in this specification or in other standards

referred to in the following subclauses. Attribute Properties from other relevant standards have

also been reused. Arrows on named associations indicate the direction in which traversal between

instances can occur. No cardinality is specified for any association. Lines with an unfilled diamond

shape represent an association with an aggregation relationship, indicating that one class is a part of

another class.

The LMAI model follows an application profile approach. Application profiles can be defined as schemas

which consist of elements drawn from one or more namespaces, combined together and optimised for

particular applications.
7.3 LMAI Resources
7.3.1 Classes

The following classes are defined for LMAI. They require permanent URLs (see NOTE 1 in Clause 5).

URI: lm: Learner
PURL: https: //purl .iso .org/iso -iec/19479/lm: Learner
Label: Learner
Type: Class

Definition: Individual currently or formerly enrolled in a formal learning opportunity

Comments: For example, part of or full programme of study, seminar, work experience, single course,

etc.
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ISO/IEC 19479:2019(E)
URI: lm: Issuer
PURL: https: //purl .iso .org/iso -iec/19479/lm: Issuer
Label: Issuer
Type: Class
Definition: The body that issues the LMAI report
U R I: m lo: L ea r n i n g O pp or t u n it y P r ov ider
PURL: https: //purl .iso .org/iso -iec/19479/mlo: LearningOpportunityProvider
Label: Learning Opportunity Provider
Type: Class

Definition: An agent (person or organization) that provides learning opportunities.

URI: mlo: LearningOpportunitySpecification

PURL: https: //purl .iso .org/iso -iec/19479/mlo: LearningOpportunitySpecification

Label: Learning Opportunity Specification
Type: Class

Definition: An abstract description of a learning opportunity, consisting of information that will be

consistent across multiple instances of the learning opportunity.
U R I: m lo: L ea r n i n g O pp or t u n it y I n s t a nc e
PURL: https: //purl .iso .org/iso -iec/19479/mlo: LearningOpportunityInstance
Label: Learning Opportunity Instance
Type: Class

Definition: A single occurrence of a learning opportunity. Unlike a Learning Opportunity Specification, a

Learning Opportunity Instance is not abstract, may be bound to particular dates or locations, and may

be applied for or participated in by learners.
7.3.2 Association Properties

The following association properties are applicable within the LMAI domain. They require permanent

URLs (see NOTE 1 in Clause 5).
URI: mlo: offeredAt
PURL: https: //purl .iso .org/iso -iec/19479/mlo: offeredAt
Label: Offered At
URI: mlo: hasPart
PURL: https: //purl .iso .org/iso -iec/19479/mlo: hasPart
Label: Has Part
URI: mlo: specifies
PURL: https: //purl .iso .org/iso -iec/19479/mlo: specifies
Label: Specifies
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ISO/IEC 1
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