Information technology — Future Network — Problem statement and requirements — Part 7: Service composition

ISO/IEC TR 29181-7:2013 describes the problem statement, requirements and a functional building block for the Future Network (FN) from the perspective of service composition. The goal of ISO/IEC TR 29181-7:2013 is to: analyse and classify problems of the current solutions on the service composition, identify requirements on the service composition for the FN, describe some technical aspects of the service composition for the FN, and propose a functional building block of the service composition including functional components and their reference points among them. ISO/IEC TR 29181-7:2013 also introduces various on-going standardization and research activities related to service composition.

Technologies de l'information — Réseaux du futur — Énoncé du problème et exigences — Partie 7: Composition des services

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Publication Date
08-Apr-2013
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
09-Apr-2013
Completion Date
09-Apr-2013
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TECHNICAL ISO/IEC
REPORT TR
29181-7
First edition
2013-04-15
Information technology — Future
Network — Problem statement and
requirements —
Part 7:
Service composition
Technologies de l'information — Réseaux du futur — Énoncé du
problème et exigences —
Partie 7: Composition des services
Reference number
ISO/IEC TR 29181-7:2013(E)
ISO/IEC 2013
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ISO/IEC TR 29181-7:2013(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2013

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any

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ii © ISO/IEC 2013 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC TR 29181-7:2013(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................... v

1  Scope ...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2  Normative references ............................................................................................................................ 1

3  Terms and definitions ........................................................................................................................... 1

4  Abbreviations and acronyms ............................................................................................................... 2

5  Overview ................................................................................................................................................. 3

6  Problem Statement ................................................................................................................................ 7

6.1  General problems .................................................................................................................................. 7

6.2  Scalability ............................................................................................................................................. 10

6.3  Dynamics .............................................................................................................................................. 11

6.4  Security ................................................................................................................................................ 11

7  Requirements of service composition for the FN ............................................................................ 11

7.1  General requirements ......................................................................................................................... 12

7.2  Specific requirements ......................................................................................................................... 13

Annex A (informative) Related standardization and research activities ..................................................... 18

A.1  IEEE P1903 (NGSON) .......................................................................................................................... 18

A.2  TMF Service Delivery Framework ...................................................................................................... 19

A.3  ITU-T NGN SIDE ................................................................................................................................... 19

A.4  ATIS SON Forum ................................................................................................................................. 20

A.5  Related research activities ................................................................................................................. 20

A.5.1  Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) paradigm ............................................................................... 23

A.5.2  Service Oriented Network Architecture (SONATE) .......................................................................... 24

A.5.3  4WARD ................................................................................................................................................. 25

A.5.4  Web Service Composition .................................................................................................................. 27

A.5.5  Service Composition Approaches ..................................................................................................... 28

Annex B (informative) Technical aspects of service composition in FN .................................................... 34

B.1  A common protocol for supporting service composition ............................................................... 34

B.2  Service Composition approaches ..................................................................................................... 34

B.3  Composing network functionality ..................................................................................................... 35

B.4  Composition scope and service granularity .................................................................................... 36

B.5  Place for composition ......................................................................................................................... 36

B.6  Composition execution epochs ......................................................................................................... 37

B.7  An architecture based on services .................................................................................................... 37

B.7.1  Composition of transport and application services ........................................................................ 39

B.7.2  Service identification .......................................................................................................................... 40

B.7.3  Service description ............................................................................................................................. 41

B.7.4  Service allocation ................................................................................................................................ 42

Annex C (informative) Functional Building Block of Service Composition in FN ...................................... 43

C.1  Functional Components ..................................................................................................................... 43

C.1.1  Service Manager (SR).......................................................................................................................... 43

C.1.2  Service Registration Manager (SRM) ................................................................................................ 44

C.1.3  Context Manager (CM) ........................................................................................................................ 44

C.1.4  Reference Points ................................................................................................................................. 45

Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................................... 46

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ISO/IEC TR 29181-7:2013(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are members of

ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical committees

established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical activity. ISO and IEC

technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international organizations, governmental

and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the work. In the field of information

technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee, ISO/IEC JTC 1.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of the joint technical committee is to prepare International Standards. Draft International

Standards adopted by the joint technical committee are circulated to national bodies for voting. Publication as

an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the national bodies casting a vote.

In exceptional circumstances, when the joint technical committee has collected data of a different kind from

that which is normally published as an International Standard (“state of the art”, for example), it may decide to

publish a Technical Report. A Technical Report is entirely informative in nature and shall be subject to review

every five years in the same manner as an International Standard.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO/IEC TR 29181-7 was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 6, Telecommunications and information exchange between systems.

ISO/IEC TR 29181 consists of the following parts, under the general title Information technology — Future

Network — Problem statement and requirements:
 Part 1: Overall aspects
 Part 3: Switching and routing
 Part 4: Mobility
 Part 6: Media transport
 Part 7: Service composition
The following parts are under preparation:
 Part 2: Naming and addressing
 Part 5: Security
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ISO/IEC TR 29181-7:2013(E)
Introduction

The development of the networks during the last years has shown that it becomes harder to integrate new

functionality in order to fulfill the demands of new applications and the capabilities of new transport

technologies. Especially the core mechanisms are hard to change as it lies in a rigid and ossified architecture.

The current picture of the networks shows a large, heterogeneous, dynamic and complex distributed system.

Lots of patches aimed to amend different issues that have arisen during last years. Current networks have to

deal with new services, applications and computing paradigms such as new modes of interaction,

identification, context-awareness, energy efficiency, seamless service discovery and composition, mobility,

ubiquity, etc. At this point, current networks must look for clean solutions to known issues.

The development of a new network architecture has been discussed for some time now. Several proposals

are considered in this sense, evolutionary (incremental) approaches and revolutionary (clean-slate). Currently,

the general idea in SC6 WG7 is to standardize an architecture to solve current networks faults.

The Future Network (FN) will define a scalable, flexible and robust architecture which will aim at providing

services taking into account the changing conditions of the context and thus, offering customized

communication and seamless delivery of data. To achieve this, it is necessary to provide service composition

capabilities by means of a specific framework that will contribute to create a scalable, modular, and service-

aware FN.

The FN introduces a new architecture where the necessary functionality for establishing communications in

any node connected to the network (user devices and network elements), is not fixed but dynamically

composed, as appropriate to user service requirements, network transfer capabilities and surrounding context

in the user and the network environments. In essence, a service-oriented paradigm is followed.

Communications are accomplished by assembling appropriate atomic services, each performing a specific

communication function. As such, service functionalities can be combined to create higher level

communication services, which in turn can be combined with other services as well to enrich existing services

or to create new composed ones, until the whole spectrum of required functionality for end-user

communications is in place

Service composition is the technology that supports the composition of those activities required to reuse and

combine existing services to enrich current services and to create new services. This technology provides a

natural way of combining existing services including both atomic and composite services. Such kind of

recursive composition of composite services is one of the most attractive and challengeable features of the

service composition, allowing to rapidly and easily create new services. Thus, the service composition

provides benefits on improved usability of existing services, faster time for service creation and reduced time

to market for new services.
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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/IEC TR 29181-7:2013(E)
Information technology — Future Network — Problem
statement and requirements —
Part 7:
Service composition
1 Scope

This part of ISO/IEC TR 29181 describes the problem statement, requirements and a functional building block

for the FN from the perspective of service composition. The goal of this part of ISO/IEC TR 29181 is to:

a) analyze and classify problems of the current solutions on the service composition,

b) identify requirements on the service composition for the FN,
c) describe some technical aspects of the service composition for the FN, and

d) propose a functional building block of the service composition including functional components and their

reference points among them.

This part of ISO/IEC TR 29181 also introduces various on-going standardization and research activities

related to service composition.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references,

the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC TR 29181-1, Information technology — Future Network — Problem statement and requirements —

Part 1: Overall aspects
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC TR 29181-1 and the following

apply.
3.1
Atomic Service (AS)

well-defined and self-contained function or role commonly used in networking protocols (acknowledgments,

sequence numbers, flow control, etc.) to establish communications for consuming composite services

3.2
Atomic Mechanism (AM)

specific implementation which provides the desired atomic mechanism functionality

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ISO/IEC TR 29181-7:2013(E)
3.3
Composite Service (CS)
service that is composed of more than one atomic service

NOTE The composite service logic needs to be specified in a workflow to describe the composition and execution

process.
3.4
Service Composition Algorithm (SCA)

mechanism in charge of selecting and associating the specific atomic mechanisms which will create a

composite service, specified in the form of a workflow
3.5
Workflow (WF)
formal representation of a CS

NOTE The result of the service composition process is the definition of a set of CSs which will be executed at the

nodes involved in a communication. The atomic services are selected according to their specifications and functionalities.

Concretely, the algorithm (SCA) will generate the final CS and represented by a WF.

3.6
Patterns or templates
commonly used and well-known WF

NOTE Patterns or templates can improve and speed up the selection process carried out by the execution of SCAs in

specific cases.
4 Abbreviations and acronyms
ACCS Auto-Configuration for Communication Security
AM Atomic Mechanism
AS Atomic Service
BPEL Business Process Execution Language
CBA Component Based Architecture
CBC Component Based Computing
CS Composite Service
DAML DARPA Agent Markup Language
EBS Effective Bit Strength
HSP Heuristic Search Planner
FN Future Network
IP Internet Protocol
IPSec Internet Protocol Security
JSON JavaScript Object Notation
MOVE Materialized Ontology View Extractor
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ISO/IEC TR 29181-7:2013(E)
MPLS MultiProtocol Label Switching
NAT Network Address Translator
NGSON Next Generation Service Overlay Network
OWL Ontology Web Language
OWL-S Ontology Web Language for Services
PDDL Planning Domain Definition Language
QoS Quality of Service
RNA Recursive Network Architecture
SDF Service Delivery Framework
SIDE Service Integration Development Environment
SLA Service Level Agreement
SOA Service Oriented Architecture
SOAP Simple Object Access Protocol
SON Service Oriented Network
SONATE Service Oriented Network Architecture
TCP Transmission Control Protocol
TCS Taxonomical Classification System
TLS Transport Layer Security
UCPOP Universal Conditional Partial Order Planner
UDDI Universal Description Discovery and Integration
WSMO Web Service Modeling Ontology
WF Workflow
WS Web Service
WSDL Web Service Description Language
XML eXtensible Markage Language
XSRL XML Web-services Request Language
5 Overview

A service is a set of functions or tasks that provided by software or a system, usually accessible through an

application programming interface (API). Considering different types of services, a service can be classified as

an atomic service or composite service. Each atomic service provides one concrete and well-defined function.

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ISO/IEC TR 29181-7:2013(E)

Different implementations of an atomic service may exist in different nodes or co-exist in the same node. The

description information of the atomic service should be published and registered to a service registry before

providing the service functionality. On the other hand, a composite service is composed of more than one

atomic service. Each composite service implies consuming different atomic services and/or sometimes other

composite services, with possible dependences appearing between them.

Service composition is the technology that supports the composition of those activities required to reuse and

combine existing services to create new services. This technology provides a natural way of combining

existing services including both atomic and composite services. Such kind of recursive composition of

composite services is one of the most attractive and challengeable features of the service composition,

allowing to rapidly and easily create new services. Thus, the service composition provides benefits on

improved usability of existing services, faster time for service creation and reduced time to market for new

services.

Different design approaches for service composition are used in service oriented computing areas. These

approaches can be classified on user defined, semi-automatic or automatic approaches. Under this

classification, there are several design mechanisms such as template-based, instance-based, declaration-

based, workflow-based, ontology-based, AI planning-based, so on as described in Appendix A.5.5. These

design approaches allow building composite services to specify service composition suited for specific service

or business needs.

The FN introduces a new architecture where the necessary functionality for establishing communications in

any node connected to the network (user devices and network elements), is not fixed but dynamically

composed, as appropriate to user service requirements, network transfer capabilities and surrounding context

in the user and the network environments. In essence, a service-oriented paradigm is followed.

Communications are accomplished by assembling appropriate atomic services, each performing a specific

communication function. As such, service functionalities can be combined to create higher level

communication services, which in turn can be combined with other services as well to enrich existing services

or to create new composed ones, until the whole spectrum of required functionality for end-user

communications is in place.

The process of combining available services to create a desired communication service is called service

composition.

As opposed to the stringent protocol-oriented approach of current TCP-/IP based communications, the

proposed service-oriented and functionality-composed approach adopts a loosely-coupled design. As such, it

is beneficial in many aspects:
 It is flexible in building multi-feature and customized communication services

 It allows users to participate in the provision of the services they desire (e.g. user-control routing for

performance or cost reasons)

 It provides for adaptation to heterogeneous networks from the very same terminal device

 It facilitates the deployment of new network, service and/or information access technologies from

network and user access perspectives

 It avoids redundancy of functionality both in terms of duplication and unnecessary placement

The FN service composition prompts for baring user devices and smart networks. Smart networks would

equip on-the-fly with the necessary communication functionalities as appropriate to changing user needs and

requirements while, at the same time, they would choreographise themselves to deliver the requested

services at the desired quality levels.

Figure 1 illustrates a conceptual architecture of service composition in the FN that is composed by the

following functional building blocks.
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ISO/IEC TR 29181-7:2013(E)
Figure 1 — Conceptual architecture of service composition
 Services

- From the service composition perspective, services can be classified by atomic services or

composite services

- Atomic service corresponds to a base service that cannot be further decomposed and it does not

contain other services

- Composite service corresponds to a service that is composed of more than one service which

can be an atomic service or also composite service itself. It contains an execution sequence of

the composite services

- Figure 2 illustrates a possible taxonomy where services can be classified in different

arrangements such as granularity, scope, execution, usage, order, and purpose [1].

 Granularity: services can be classified as atomic or composite.
Each atomic service provides one concrete and well-defined networking function

(along with the reverse function, if any). Different algorithms and implementations of

an atomic service may exist (e.g. different congestion control algorithms), and co-

exist in the same node, using attributes to both describe the different possibilities and

to tune/configure the atomic service in order to use it to fulfill specific workflows needs.

Atomic Services will abstract specific implementations of different functionalities. The

specific implementation will be called Atomic Mechanism.
Each composed service or application implies consuming different atomic and
sometimes other composed services, with possible dependences appearing between

them. In addition, they can involve one or more nodes, depending on the complexity

of the service.
 Execution/Distribution:
Isolated: local execution of the service.

Distributed: execution distributed between two nodes, regardless their location. It

includes support for end-to-end, section and hop-by-hop distribution/allocation of

services.
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ISO/IEC TR 29181-7:2013(E)

 Scope: services can be applied with different scopes or considerations depending on

the desired result.

Network: services are executed to optimize communication according network context.

Application: services are executed to optimize application behavior and interconnection

to meet application requirements according to context characteristics.
 Usage: rules governing the service usage.
Mandatory: usage of this service is mandatory as it is basic for establishing a
communication (e.g. forwarding).

Optional: usage of this service is optional, its usage will depend on application

requirements and context characteristics.
 Purpose: which is the purpose of the service. Some examples are shown next.

Delivery: to deliver data between two different entities involved in the delivery chain

(they can be adjacent or non-adjacent nodes or they can be two end applications,
depending on the scope of the service).
Mobility: services related to application, user and node mobility.
Storage: services dealing with the storage of data.
Security: services dealing with security issues.

Data Adaptation: services dealing with adapting and transforming data for different

objectives, interoperability, customization and optimization of data.
Addressing: services dealing with the identification and labeling of resources.

Management: services dealing with the management of the different entities in the

network (nodes, applications, services, etc.).
Signaling: services dealing with interchange of signaling and control data.

Presentation: services dealing with the presentation of contents and user/application

interfaces.

 Order: order/existence of the AS in workflow composition may be dependent of another

service.
Dependent: needs the use of another AS.
Independent: no need of other AS execution.
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ISO/IEC TR 29181-7:2013(E)
Figure 2 — Service taxonomy
 Service Composition Building Block

‐ The FN architecture consists on different architectural components as building blocks that

provide a set of supporting technologies such as naming and addressing, switching and routing,

media distribution, security, and mobility

‐ Service composition is one of the architectural building block identified to support composite

services and it is composed by a set of managers such as service manager, context manager,

and service registration manager. These managers provide a set of supporting functions such as

service selection, service chaining, interpretation of composition description, service execution

monitoring, service validation, service adaptation.
‐ In the FN, both static and dynamic service composition are supported
 Network Architecture

‐ The FN supports the virtualization of different kind of resources that are spread across different

locations such as storage, computing power, processing power and network

‐ Thus, proper amount of resources can be flexibly dedicated to each atomic service and

composite service. For this purpose, the service composition building block should support some

mechanisms to coordinate virtualized resources required by composite services.
6 Problem Statement
6.1 General problems

Several challenges might be faced for designing an integral solution for the service composition in the FN that

allows to overcome the current technologies and deficiencies.

A new concept and definition of services for the FN will be closely connected to the innovation of

heterogeneous environments formed by different kind of networks and users with different requirements. The

FN design will allow adopting futuristic capabilities. Complex and personalized users’ requirements introduce

the need of networks able to be self-configurable and self-evolvable. Considering this, the service composition

technology should be also extended to cover possible changes derived from the service and network evolution.

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ISO/IEC TR 29181-7:2013(E)

New distributed software systems have become more dynamic, allowing transparent distribution, self-

reconfiguration, portability, etc. Based on that, new paradigms deviated from the end-to-end principle have

emerged, such as Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing or the Internet of the Things.

In addition, the continuous evolution of applications and services are increasing current networks complexity,

adding more and diverse requirements (e.g. mobility, security or multihoming) that are not efficiently covered

by current TCP/IP protocol stack, as detailed in ISO/IEC TR 29181-2/3/4/5. New features such as data and

service identification, context-awareness, seamless service discovery and composition, etc. are required in

order to meet the new demanded services and modes of interaction. The lack of these features is withering as

well the evolution of networks and slowing down or stopping solutions for known open issues like mobility,

flexibility, security, etc. A service-aware archi
...

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