Graphic technology — Process control for the production of half-tone colour separations, proof and production prints — Part 2: Offset lithographic processes

ISO 12647-2:2013 specifies a number of process parameters and their values to be applied when producing colour separations, printing formes and print production for four-colour sheet-fed and web-fed offset printing presses excluding coldset offset lithography on newsprint. The parameters and values are chosen in view of the typical process covering the process stages "colour separation", "proof production", "making of the printing forme", "OK print" and "production printing" on all kinds of commercially available production substrates. ISO 12647-2:2013: is directly applicable to press proof prints and printing processes that use colour separation printing formes as input; is applicable to press proof prints and printing processes with more than four process colours as long as direct analogies to four-colour printing are maintained, such as for data and screening, for print substrates and printing parameters; is applicable to printing on cardboard material for packaging; is applicable for all kinds of drying methods such as heat-set, infrared, and ultraviolet; provides references for quality assurance and quality management.

Technologie graphique — Maîtrise des procédés pour la fabrication des séparations de couleur en ton tramé, des épreuves et des tirages en production — Partie 2: Procédés lithographiques offset

l'ISO 12647-2:2013 spécifie un certain nombre de paramètres liés au procédé d'impression et les valeurs cibles applicables pour la séparation couleurs, la préparation de la forme d'impression et la réalisation de tirages de production en quadrichromie imprimés sur des presses offset en feuilles ou rotatives, à l'exception de l'impression offset sans sécheur sur papier journal. Les paramètres et valeurs choisis permettent de définir les étapes typiques du procédé d'impression: «séparation couleurs», «production d'une épreuve», «fabrication de la forme d'impression», «BAT», «tirage imprimé» sur tous types de supports de production disponibles sur le marché. La présente partie de l'ISO 12647: ? s'applique directement aux épreuves BAT réalisées sur presse et aux procédés d'impression utilisant des formes d'impression séparées colorimétriquement en entrée; ? s'applique aux épreuves BAT sur presse et aux procédés d'impression comptant plus de quatre couleurs primaires, du moment que certaines analogies directes avec l'impression en quadrichromie, telles que les données numériques et le tramage, les supports et paramètres d'impression, sont conservées; ? s'applique à l'impression sur carton pour le marché de l'emballage; ? s'applique à toutes sortes de méthodes de séchage telles que l'air chaud, l'infrarouge et l'ultraviolet; ? donne des références pour la mise en place d'une démarche de contrôle et de management de la qualité. Cette partie de l'ISO 12647 ne s'applique pas aux procédés d'impression autres que l'offset, tels que l'impression directe à partir de données numériques sans forme imprimante intermédiaire, ou lorsque la forme imprimante peut être mise à jour à chaque impression et que, par conséquent, chaque impression peut présenter un contenu différent.

Grafična tehnologija - Vodenje procesa izdelave rastriranih barvnih izvlečkov, preskusnih in proizvodnih odtisov - 2. del: Procesi v ofsetnem tisku

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
11-Dec-2013
Current Stage
9092 - International Standard to be revised
Start Date
01-Nov-2018
Completion Date
08-Jun-2021

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 12647-2
Redline version
compares third edition
to second edition
Graphic technology — Process
control for the production of half-
tone colour separations, proof and
production prints —
Part 2:
Offset lithographic processes
Technologie graphique — Maîtrise des procédés pour la fabrication
des séparations de couleur en ton tramé, des épreuves et des tirages
en production —
Partie 2: Procédés lithographiques offset
Reference number
ISO 12647-2:redline:2014(E)
ISO 2014
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 12647-2:redline:2014(E)
IMPORTANT — PLEASE NOTE
This is a mark-up copy and uses the following colour coding:
Text example 1 — indicates added text (in green)
Text example 2 — indicates removed text (in red)
— indicates added graphic figure
— indicates removed graphic figure
1.x ... — Heading numbers containg modifications are highlighted in yellow in
the Table of Contents
DISCLAIMER

This Redline version provides you with a quick and easy way to compare the main changes

between this edition of the standard and its previous edition. It doesn’t capture all single

changes such as punctuation but highlights the modifications providing customers with

the most valuable information. Therefore it is important to note that this Redline version is

not the official ISO standard and that the users must consult with the clean version of the

standard, which is the official standard, for implementation purposes.
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2014

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 12647-2:redline:2014(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Data files, colour-separation films  and printing formes ..................................................................................... 3

4.3 Proof or production print .............................................................................................................................................................. 6

5 Test methods — Tone value and tone-value increase of a print.......................................................................24

6 5 Reporting of printing conditions Measurement methods .......................................................................................24

5.1 Computation of densities, CIELAB colour coordinates and CIELAB colour differences .......24

5.2 Control strip ...........................................................................................................................................................................................24

Annex A (informative) Methods for establishing the colour of a standard ink on the paper types .26

Annex B (informative) Dependence of the tone value increase of press printson

screen frequency ...............................................................................................................................................................................................28

Annex C A (informative) Grey reproduction and grey balance ................................................................................................30

Annex B (informative) Handling differences in paper colour .................................................................................................34

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................36

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 12647-2:redline:2014(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards areThe procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its

further maintenance are described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval

criteria needed for the different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted

in accordance with the rules given ineditorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.

org/directives).

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International

Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting.

Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies

casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this part ofdocument ISO 12647may

be the subject of patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

ISO 12647-2 was prepared by Technical CommitteeThe committee responsible for this document is

ISO/TC 130, Graphic Technology.

This secondthird edition cancels and replaces the firstsecond edition (ISO 12647-2:1996), which has

been extensively revised. The revisions include the following:
a) introduction of digital data as inputdeletion of film-based requirements;

b) reduction of the tone value increase by roughly 3 %changes in proof requirements;

c) changes in printing conditions;
c d) changes in the colouration of the primary and secondary solids (Table 2);

d e) introduction of an additional measurement condition with a specified white backingnew tone value

increase curves;
e f) general clean- up.

In view of the misconceptions about the use of density and grey balance values, it was decided to move

this information to an informative annex.

ISO 12647 consists of the following parts, under the general title Graphic technology — Process control

for the production of half-tone colour separations, proof and production prints:
— Part 1: Parameters and measurement methods
— Part 2: Offset lithographic processes
iv © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 12647-2:redline:2014(E)
— Part 3: Coldset offset lithography and letterpress on newsprint
— Part 4: Publication gravure processprinting
— Part 5: Screen printing
— Part 6: Flexographic printing
— Part 7: Proofing processes working directly from digital data
— Part 8: Validation print processes working directly from digital data
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 12647-2:redline:2014(E)
Introduction

Part 1 of ISO 12647 serves to provide definitions, the general principles, the general order of the material

to be covered in the subsequent parts 2 to 6, the definition of the data, the measurement conditions and

the reporting style.

This part of ISO 12647 lists values or sets of values of the primary process parameters specified in

ISO 12647-1 and related technical properties of a half-tone offset lithographic print. Primary parameters

include the screening parametersconstitute a general printing condition and are defined here as the

substrate description, the colorant description, the screening description, the tone value increase, the

colours of the solids and the print substrate. Conformance to the specified values in proof and production

printing assure and the ink sequence. Since the printing ink to be used in this International Standard is

to conform to ISO 2846-1, in principle, a good visual match between specimens produced. Exceptions

from this general observation are discussed in the following paragraphit is in general not necessary to

name it as a primary process parameter.

Conformance to the specified values in proof and production printing ensures, in principle, a good visual

match between specimens produced. A visual and in part measurement-wise “proof-to-print match” is

essential for globally consistent printing and publishing workflows in general. A press proof print might

be necessary when using specific printing conditions that use different types of surface finishing.

The purpose of a proof print is to simulate the visual characteristics of the finished print product as

closely as possibleAs the printing and publishing world has accepted former editions of this International

Standard, it has struggled to implement the different paper types. The paper type specifications by

means of tristimulus values, originally defined as a guideline for press proof prints, have been wrongly

interpreted as an exclusive prerequisite for papers to be “in conformance with ISO 12647-2. In order

to visually match a particular print, off-press proofing processes often require values for solid-tone

coloration and tone-value increase that are different from those of the printing process they are meant

to simulate. This is caused by differences in phenomena such as gloss, light scatter (within the print

substrate or the colorant), metamerism and transparency. Such differences are likely for those off-press

proofing processes in which the print substrate, the colorants and the technology for applying them are

significantly different from offset press printing. In such cases the user or the supplier needs to ensure

that appropriate corrections are specified.”. In addition, it has become evident that the paper types

defined by this International Standard reflect market papers poorly. Therefore, some industry groups,

while using the general principles of this International Standard, have established additional printing

conditions with different paper specifications.

When revising this International Standard a new paper categorization was established. This was

necessary since there is no agreed upon method to predict the printing behaviour based on colorimetric

readings of the unprinted print substrate. When the visual printing characteristics of typical printed

papers were analysed, different sets of colorant descriptions were identified. A closer look revealed

that these sets corresponded to the surface (CIE whiteness, gloss, and coating) and mass per area

characteristics (opacity).
A print is therefore in conformance with this International Standard when:

— the colorimetric aims of the process colours, defined by the general printing conditions and using

typical means of inking, are achievable;

— by agreement between all parties, an additional printing condition is established and aim values for

this printing condition are clearly communicated, for example by exchanging a characterization.

Another problem area is the matching of a digital off-press proof on an opaque substrate to a double-

sided print on a less-than-opaque, lightweight printing paper as used in heat-set web printing. If the

proof is made with colour management profiles based on measurements with white backing, there

will be an unavoidable difference between proof and production prints, placed on a black backing

in accordance with the specifications of this part of This International Standard addresses typical

industrial printing under feasible economical constraints. The tolerance values have therefore been

chosen to provide a reasonable balance between customer expectations (meaning small variations),

vi © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 12647-2:redline:2014(E)

technical production limits and production costsISO 12647. The possible occurrence of such differences

needs to be well communicated, in advance, to the parties concernedAssuming agreements between

all parties concerned, tolerances might be tightened especially when primary or secondary process

parameters (e.g. paper) can be fixed in the planning stage.
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved vii
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 12647-2:redline:2014(E)
Graphic technology — Process control for the production of
half-tone colour separations, proof and production prints —
Part 2:
Offset lithographic processes
1 Scope

This part of ISO 12647 specifies a number of process parameters and their values to be applied when

preparing colour separationsproducing colour separations, printing formes and print production for

four-colour offset printing or when producing four-colour prints by one of the following methods: heat-

set web, sheet-fed or continuous forms process printing, or proofing for one of these processes; or offset

proofing for half-tone gravureand web-fed offset printing presses excluding coldset offset lithography

on newsprint.

The parameters and values are chosen in view of the completetypical process covering the process

stages “colour separation”, “film settingproof production”, “making of the printing forme”, “proof

production”,OK print” and “production printing” and “surface finishing”on all kinds of commercially

available production substrates.
This part of ISO 12647 is:

— is directly applicable to proofingpress proof prints and printing processes that use colour separation

filmsprinting formes as input;

— directly applicable to proofing and printing from printing formes produced by filmless methods as

long as direct analogies to film production systems are maintained;

— is applicable to proofingpress proof prints and printing processes with more than four process

colours as long as direct analogies to four-colour printing are maintained, such as for data and

screening, for print substrates and printing parameters;

— is applicable by analogy to line screens and non-periodic screens.to printing on cardboard material

for packaging;

— is applicable for all kinds of drying methods such as heat-set, infrared, and ultraviolet;

— provides references for quality assurance and quality management.

This part of ISO 12647 is not applicable to processes other than offset such as printing directly from

digital data where there is no intermediate image carrier, or where the image carrier can be refreshed

for each impression and thus each impression can be different in content.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document, in whole

or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application.

For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the

referencereferenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 5-3:1995 2846-1, Photography — Density measurements Graphic technology — Colour and transparency

of printing ink sets for four-colour printing — Part 3: Spectral conditions 1: Sheet-fed and heat-set web offset

lithographic printing
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 12647-2:redline:2014(E)

ISO 8254-1:1999 , Paper and board — Measurement of specular gloss — Part 1: 75°  degree gloss with a

converging beam, TAPPI method

ISO 8254-2, Paper and board — Measurement of specular gloss — Part 2: 75 degree gloss with a parallel

beam, DIN method [alternative to ASTM D7163]

ISO 12642:1996 /TS 10128, Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange — Input data for

characterization of 4-colour process printing Methods of adjustment of the colour reproduction of a printing

system to match a set of characterization data

ISO 11475, Paper and board — Determination of CIE whiteness, D65/10 degrees (outdoor daylight)

ISO 12647-1:2004 , Graphic technology — Process control for the production of half-tone colour separations,

proof and production prints — Part 1: Parameters and measurement methods

ISO 12647-7, Graphic technology — Process control for the production of half-tone colour separations, proof

and production prints — Part 7: Proofing processes working directly from digital data

ISO 13655, Graphic technology — Spectral measurement and colorimetric computation for graphic arts images

ASTM D7163, Standard Test Method for Specular Gloss of Printed Matter [alternative to ISO 8254-2]

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 12647-1 and the following apply.

3.1
positive-acting plate area coverage

〈offset printing〉 offset printing plate for use with positive-polarity film ratio of the area covered with

ink to the entire area in an ink zone
3.2
negative-acting plate calibration

〈offset printing〉 offset printing plate for use with negative-polarity film adjustment based on a

comparison between a standard and a unit under test
3.3
four-colour continuous forms printing

offset process performed on small width web-fed presses for use with personalized mailings

3.4
commercial/speciality printing
general-purpose sheet-fed and non-magazine heat-set web offset printing
3.5 3.3
heat-set web printing characterization data

lithographic offset printing on web-type print substrates with printing ink that requires heat for

drying set of tone values and associated colorimetric values that fully describe a given printing process

3.6 3.4
tone value

〈printing forme〉 percentage of surface area that appears to be receptive to is covered by printing ink

Note 1 to entry: With some plate types, the tone value thus defined is smaller than the percentage of surface area

that is visibly distinct from the background.

Note 2 to entry: Formerly known as the film printing dot area. “Dot area” is now a deprecated term.

2 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 12647-2:redline:2014(E)
4 Requirements
4.1 General

The following subclauses are arranged in accordance with the order set out inDigital data files delivered

for printing should be accompanied by a digital proof ISO 12647-1; they also depend on this part for the

general principles, the definition of the data, the measurement conditions and the reporting styleprint,

a press proof print, or an OK print from a previous print run.

NOTE Press proof prints are test prints of the data files on a printing press which may serve as a reference

for subsequent printing. While most proofs are digital proofs, for colour- or content-critical work there is a need

for press proof prints with the same setup as the production print.
4.2 Data files, colour-separation films  and printing formes
4.2.1 General Data delivery

Data delivered for printing shall be in the colour formats CMYK or three-component. In all cases, digital

data files or colour separation film sets delivered for printing should be accompanied by a proof and

[6][7]

should be exchanged using PDF/X print that simulates the intended printing condition and that

conforms to data formats4.3. This fact shall be verifiable by measuring a well-specified control strip or

a similar control device that is printed on the proof print along with the subject.

The intended printing condition shall be indicated. In case of PDF/X the mechanisms provided by the

specified data format shall be used. In case of other data formats a printing condition description, a

[3][4] [5]

characterization data set or an International Colour Consortium (ICC) output profile shall be

communicated.

In the case of digital data, the intended printing condition shall be indicated. Where the latter is included

in the registry of characterizations maintained by the ICC and the digital data is CMYK, the name used in

the ICC registry is usually used for identification in lieu of including an ICC output profile. If the intended

printing condition is not included in said registry, an ICC output profile shall be included. If theIf the data

are other than CMYK, the data shall be defined colorimetricallyby colorimetric descriptions using an ICC

input profile or another mechanism and an ICC CMYK output profile shall be included. The rendering

intent to be used with the output profilefor each data element shall be communicated.

If the characterization data or ICC output profile provided conflicts with the printing conditions defined

in this part of ISO 12647 one of the methods defined in ISO/TS 10128 shall be used for data adjustment

prior to print production. The aims for process control should be taken from characterization data, if

agreed between all parties. Where this is done, densitometric tone values are not usually available and

colorimetric tone values should be used. Further information on the relationship between colorimetric

and densitometric tone values can be found in ISO/TS 10128.

NOTE 1 A printing condition is defined here as a print substrate description, a colorant description, a screening

description, an ink set and a printing sequence.

NOTE 2 Quality control of the content of a print job prior to final production checks is recommended since PDF/X

conformance does not necessarily ensure a suitable image resolution or other production dependent criteria.

NOTE 3 Additional spot colours are allowed but this part of ISO 12647 does not make provisions for tolerances.

4.2.2 Film or printing Printing forme quality

In order to permit the reproduction of at least 100 tone-value steps, theThe resolution of the image setter or

plate setter should be set accordinglyselected to ensure that at least 150 tone value steps are reproduced.

EXAMPLE 1  If, for a screen employing single half-tone cell modulation, the intended nominal screen ruling is

−1 −1

7080 cm , the resolution of the image setter or the plate setter should not be smaller than 700 less than 1 000 cm

(1 800 dpi). For a screen with super-cell technology, it is possible to set the resolution to a smaller value.

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 12647-2:redline:2014(E)

Unless otherwise specified, the core density of colour-separation films shall be at least 2,5 above the

transmission density of the clear film (film base plus fog). The transmission density in the centre of a

clear half-tone dot shall not be more than 0,1 above the corresponding value of a large clear area. The

transmission density of the clear film shall not be higher than 0,15. Both measurements shall be made

with a (UV) transmission densitometer whose spectral products conform to ISO type 1 printing density

as defined in ISO 5-3.

NOTE 1 The clear-film density requirement is based on the understanding that the density range of the clear

areas of all films that are to be exposed onto the same plate are not expected to exceed 0,10. Note further that

0,05 represents the lowest commonly found value for ISO type 1 printing density. For half-tone films with clear

film densities outside this range, agreements between the supplier of colour separations and the recipient are

required. Contacting or duplicating can also be used to bring half-tone films with dissimilar clear film densities

into agreement.

NOTE 2 As a practical guide, a core density of 2,5 above the clear-film density will normally be achieved if the

density of large solid areas is more than 3,5 above the clear-film density.

NOTE 3 If a user wishes to use a blue filter for transmission density measurements on colour-separation films,

it is necessary to determine, for the particular film type and processing conditions, the correlation between

densities obtained with the blue filter and those obtained with an ISO type 1 printing density instrument; for the

measurement of core density, an ISO type 2 printing instrument is applicable.

The fringe width of a colour-separation film shall not be greater than one-fortieth of the screen width.

A half-tone dot that is produced by several exposures of a focal spot shall be fully rendered and not be

split up into distinct parts. This requirement also applies to direct platemaking.

Other than for the clear-film density requirement, the colour-separation film quality shall be evaluated

according to the informative Annex B of ISO 12647-1:2004.
4.2.3 Screen frequency (film or printing forme periodic screens)

For four-colour work, the screen rulingfrequency (screen frequency)ruling) for periodic screens should

-−1 -−1
be within the range 45from 48 cm to 80 cm . Preferred nominal screen rulings are
Preferred nominal screen frequencies are:
-−1 -−1
a) 4548 cm to 7080 cm for web-offset periodical printing;coated paper; and
-−1 -−1 –1

b) 5248 cm to 70 cm for continuous-forms process printing on coated paper, 52 cm for

uncoated paper;.
c) 60 cm and higher for commercial/speciality printing.
-−1 -−1

NOTE 1 Outside of the range 4548 cm to 80 cm , the general principles specified in ISO 12647-1 remain

valid but specific values might differ.

NOTE 2 With computer-generated screening, the “screen frequency”The screen frequency is often varied

slightly from one process colour to another in order to minimize moiré patterns. For example, there might be a

difference of 3 cmup to 6 -1% or 4 cmof the nominal screen frequency between the colours C, M, Y.

NOTE 3 For the black or yellow colour half-tone, a screen rulingfrequency is sometimes used which is

-−1 -−1

substantially finer than the nominal screen ruling of the remaining colours, for example, 84 cm versus 60 cm .

NOTE 4 Screen frequencies are often required or given in lpi (lines per inch). To convert between screens

per cm and lines per inch a conversion factor of 2,54 should be used.

EXAMPLE The requirement 4.2.3 given in lpi will read as follows (rounded to commonly used integral

numbers): for four-colour work, the screen frequency (screen ruling) for periodic screens should be within the

range from 120 lpi to 200 lpi. Preferred nominal screen frequencies are a) 120 lpi to 200 lpi for coated paper; and

b) 120 lpi to 175 lpi for uncoated paper.
4 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 12647-2:redline:2014(E)
4.2.4 Dot size (non-periodic screens)

For four-colour work, the screen dot size for non-periodic screens should be within the range 20 µm to 40 µm.

Preferred nominal screen dot sizes are:
a) 20 µm to 30 µm for coated paper; and
b) 30 µm to 40 µm for uncoated paper.

NOTE Outside of the range 20 µm to 40 µm, the general principles specified in ISO 12647-1 remain valid but

specific values might differ.
4.2.4 4.2.5 Screen angle (film or printing forme periodic screens)

For half-tone dots without a principal axis, the nominal difference between the screen angles for cyan,

magenta and black shallshould be 30°, with the screen angle of yellow separated at 15° from another

colour. The screen angle of the dominant colour should be 45°.

For half-tone dots with a principal axis, the nominal difference between screen angles for cyan, magenta

and black shallshould be 60°, with the screen angle of yellow separated by 15° from another colour. The

screen angle of the dominant colour should be 45° or 135°.
The preparation of colour-sep
...

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 12647-2
Third edition
2013-12-15
Graphic technology — Process
control for the production of half-
tone colour separations, proof and
production prints —
Part 2:
Offset lithographic processes
Technologie graphique — Maîtrise des procédés pour la fabrication
des séparations de couleur en ton tramé, des épreuves et des tirages
en production —
Partie 2: Procédés lithographiques offset
Reference number
ISO 12647-2:2013(E)
ISO 2013
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 12647-2:2013(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2013

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 12647-2:2013(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Data files and printing formes ................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.3 Proof or production print .............................................................................................................................................................. 4

5 Measurement methods ...............................................................................................................................................................................18

5.1 Computation of densities, CIELAB colour coordinates and CIELAB colour differences .......18

5.2 Control strip ...........................................................................................................................................................................................18

Annex A (informative) Grey reproduction and grey balance ...................................................................................................19

Annex B (informative) Handling differences in paper colour .................................................................................................23

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................25

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 12647-2:2013(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information
The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 130, Graphic Technology.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition which has been extensively revised. The

revisions include the following:
a) deletion of film-based requirements;
b) changes in proof requirements;
c) changes in printing conditions;
d) changes in the colouration of the primary and secondary solids;
e) introduction of new tone value increase curves;
f) general clean up.

ISO 12647 consists of the following parts, under the general title Graphic technology — Process control

for the production of half-tone colour separations, proof and production prints:
— Part 1: Parameters and measurement methods
— Part 2: Offset lithographic processes
— Part 3: Coldset offset lithography on newsprint
— Part 4: Publication gravure printing
— Part 5: Screen printing
— Part 6: Flexographic printing
— Part 7: Proofing processes working directly from digital data
— Part 8: Validation print processes working directly from digital data
iv © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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ISO 12647-2:2013(E)
Introduction

This part of ISO 12647 lists values or sets of values of the primary process parameters specified in

ISO 12647-1 and related technical properties of a half-tone offset lithographic print. Primary parameters

constitute a general printing condition and are defined here as the substrate description, the colorant

description, the screening description, the tone value increase and the ink sequence. Since the printing

ink to be used in this International Standard is to conform to ISO 2846-1, it is in general not necessary

to name it as a primary process parameter.

Conformance to the specified values in proof and production printing ensures, in principle, a good visual

match between specimens produced. A visual and in part measurement-wise “proof-to-print match” is

essential for globally consistent printing and publishing workflows in general. A press proof print might

be necessary when using specific printing conditions that use different types of surface finishing.

As the printing and publishing world has accepted former editions of this International Standard, it has

struggled to implement the different paper types. The paper type specifications by means of tristimulus

values, originally defined as a guideline for press proof prints, have been wrongly interpreted as an

exclusive prerequisite for papers to be “in conformance with ISO 12647-2”. In addition, it has become

evident that the paper types defined by this International Standard reflect market papers poorly.

Therefore, some industry groups, while using the general principles of this International Standard, have

established additional printing conditions with different paper specifications.

When revising this International Standard a new paper categorization was established. This was

necessary since there is no agreed upon method to predict the printing behaviour based on colorimetric

readings of the unprinted print substrate. When the visual printing characteristics of typical printed

papers were analysed, different sets of colorant descriptions were identified. A closer look revealed

that these sets corresponded to the surface (CIE whiteness, gloss, and coating) and mass per area

characteristics (opacity).
A print is therefore in conformance with this International Standard when:

— the colorimetric aims of the process colours, defined by the general printing conditions and using

typical means of inking, are achievable;

— by agreement between all parties, an additional printing condition is established and aim values for

this printing condition are clearly communicated, for example by exchanging a characterization.

This International Standard addresses typical industrial printing under feasible economical constraints.

The tolerance values have therefore been chosen to provide a reasonable balance between customer

expectations (meaning small variations), technical production limits and production costs. Assuming

agreements between all parties concerned, tolerances might be tightened especially when primary or

secondary process parameters (e.g. paper) can be fixed in the planning stage.
© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 12647-2:2013(E)
Graphic technology — Process control for the production of
half-tone colour separations, proof and production prints —
Part 2:
Offset lithographic processes
1 Scope

This part of ISO 12647 specifies a number of process parameters and their values to be applied when

producing colour separations, printing formes and print production for four-colour sheet-fed and web-

fed offset printing presses excluding coldset offset lithography on newsprint.

The parameters and values are chosen in view of the typical process covering the process stages “colour

separation”, “proof production”, “making of the printing forme”, “OK print” and “production printing” on

all kinds of commercially available production substrates.
This part of ISO 12647:

— is directly applicable to press proof prints and printing processes that use colour separation printing

formes as input;

— is applicable to press proof prints and printing processes with more than four process colours as

long as direct analogies to four-colour printing are maintained, such as for data and screening, for

print substrates and printing parameters;
— is applicable to printing on cardboard material for packaging;

— is applicable for all kinds of drying methods such as heat-set, infrared, and ultraviolet;

— provides references for quality assurance and quality management.

This part of ISO 12647 is not applicable to processes other than offset such as printing directly from

digital data where there is no intermediate image carrier, or where the image carrier can be refreshed

for each impression and thus each impression can be different in content.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document

and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 2846-1, Graphic technology — Colour and transparency of printing ink sets for four-colour printing —

Part 1: Sheet-fed and heat-set web offset lithographic printing

ISO 8254-1, Paper and board — Measurement of specular gloss — Part 1: 75 degree gloss with a converging

beam, TAPPI method

ISO 8254-2, Paper and board — Measurement of specular gloss — Part 2: 75 degree gloss with a parallel

beam, DIN method [alternative to ASTM D7163]

ISO/TS 10128, Graphic technology — Methods of adjustment of the colour reproduction of a printing system

to match a set of characterization data

ISO 11475, Paper and board — Determination of CIE whiteness, D65/10 degrees (outdoor daylight)

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 12647-2:2013(E)

ISO 12647-1, Graphic technology — Process control for the production of half-tone colour separations, proof

and production prints — Part 1: Parameters and measurement methods

ISO 12647-7, Graphic technology — Process control for the production of half-tone colour separations, proof

and production prints — Part 7: Proofing processes working directly from digital data

ISO 13655, Graphic technology — Spectral measurement and colorimetric computation for graphic arts images

ASTM D7163, Standard Test Method for Specular Gloss of Printed Matter [alternative to ISO 8254-2]

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 12647-1 and the following apply.

3.1
area coverage
ratio of the area covered with ink to the entire area in an ink zone
3.2
calibration
adjustment based on a comparison between a standard and a unit under test
3.3
characterization data

set of tone values and associated colorimetric values that fully describe a given printing process

3.4
tone value
〈printing forme〉 percentage of surface area that is covered by printing ink
4 Requirements
4.1 General

Digital data files delivered for printing should be accompanied by a digital proof print, a press proof

print, or an OK print from a previous print run.

NOTE Press proof prints are test prints of the data files on a printing press which may serve as a reference

for subsequent printing. While most proofs are digital proofs, for colour- or content-critical work there is a need

for press proof prints with the same setup as the production print.
4.2 Data files and printing formes
4.2.1 Data delivery

Data delivered for printing shall be in the colour formats CMYK or three-component and should be

[6][7]
exchanged using PDF/X data formats.

The intended printing condition shall be indicated. In case of PDF/X the mechanisms provided by the

specified data format shall be used. In case of other data formats a printing condition description, a

[3][4] [5]

characterization data set or an International Colour Consortium (ICC) output profile shall be

communicated.

If the data are other than CMYK, the data shall be defined by colorimetric descriptions using an ICC

profile or another mechanism and an ICC CMYK output profile shall be included. The rendering intent to

be used for each data element shall be communicated.

If the characterization data or ICC output profile provided conflicts with the printing conditions defined

in this part of ISO 12647 one of the methods defined in ISO/TS 10128 shall be used for data adjustment

2 © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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ISO 12647-2:2013(E)

prior to print production. The aims for process control should be taken from characterization data, if

agreed between all parties. Where this is done, densitometric tone values are not usually available and

colorimetric tone values should be used. Further information on the relationship between colorimetric

and densitometric tone values can be found in ISO/TS 10128.

NOTE 1 A printing condition is defined here as a print substrate description, a colorant description, a screening

description, an ink set and a printing sequence.

NOTE 2 Quality control of the content of a print job prior to final production checks is recommended since PDF/X

conformance does not necessarily ensure a suitable image resolution or other production dependent criteria.

NOTE 3 Additional spot colours are allowed but this part of ISO 12647 does not make provisions for tolerances.

4.2.2 Printing forme quality

The resolution of the plate setter should be selected to ensure that at least 150 tone value steps are reproduced.

EXAMPLE If, for a screen employing single half-tone cell modulation, the intended nominal screen ruling

−1 −1

is 80 cm , the resolution of the plate setter should not be less than 1 000 cm . For a screen with super-cell

technology, it is possible to set the resolution to a smaller value.
4.2.3 Screen frequency (periodic screens)

For four-colour work, the screen frequency (screen ruling) for periodic screens should be within the

−1 −1
range from 48 cm to 80 cm .
Preferred nominal screen frequencies are:
−1 −1
a) 48 cm to 80 cm for coated paper; and
−1 −1
b) 48 cm to 70 cm for uncoated paper.
−1 −1

NOTE 1 Outside of the range 48 cm to 80 cm , the general principles specified in ISO 12647-1 remain valid

but specific values might differ.

NOTE 2 The screen frequency is often varied slightly from one process colour to another in order to minimize

moiré patterns. For example, there might be a difference of up to 6 % of the nominal screen frequency between

the colours C, M, Y.

NOTE 3 For the black or yellow colour half-tone, a screen frequency is sometimes used which is substantially

−1 −1

finer than the nominal screen ruling of the remaining colours, for example, 84 cm versus 60 cm .

NOTE 4 Screen frequencies are often required or given in lpi (lines per inch). To convert between screens

per cm and lines per inch a conversion factor of 2,54 should be used.

EXAMPLE The requirement 4.2.3 given in lpi will read as follows (rounded to commonly used integral

numbers): for four-colour work, the screen frequency (screen ruling) for periodic screens should be within the

range from 120 lpi to 200 lpi. Preferred nominal screen frequencies are a) 120 lpi to 200 lpi for coated paper; and

b) 120 lpi to 175 lpi for uncoated paper.
4.2.4 Dot size (non-periodic screens)

For four-colour work, the screen dot size for non-periodic screens should be within the range 20 µm to 40 µm.

Preferred nominal screen dot sizes are:
a) 20 µm to 30 µm for coated paper; and
b) 30 µm to 40 µm for uncoated paper.

NOTE Outside of the range 20 µm to 40 µm, the general principles specified in ISO 12647-1 remain valid but

specific values might differ.
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ISO 12647-2:2013(E)
4.2.5 Screen angle (periodic screens)

For half-tone dots without a principal axis, the nominal difference between the screen angles for cyan,

magenta and black should be 30°, with the screen angle of yellow separated at 15° from another colour.

The screen angle of the dominant colour should be 45°.

For half-tone dots with a principal axis, the nominal difference between screen angles for cyan, magenta

and black should be 60°, with the screen angle of yellow separated by 15° from another colour. The

screen angle of the dominant colour should be 45° or 135°.
4.2.6 Dot shape and its relationship to tone value (periodic screens)

For periodic screens, circular, square or elliptical half-tone dot shapes should be used. For half-tone dots

with a principal axis, the first link-up should occur no lower than at 40 % tone value and the second link-

up no higher than at 60 % tone value.
4.2.7 Tone value sum

The tone value sum for coated print substrates should be less than 330 % but shall not exceed 350% for

sheet-fed and should be less than but shall not exceed 300% for heat-set web printing. The tone value

sum for other print substrates should be less than but shall not exceed 300 % for sheet-fed and 270 %

for heat-set web printing.

NOTE Press problems might be encountered at high levels of tone value sum. There might be poor ink

trapping, back transfer and set-off due to insufficient ink drying.
4.2.8 Grey reproduction and grey balance

The tone values of cyan, magenta and yellow that lead to a visually neutral grey should be calculated from

the standard printing condition or actual printing condition or the associated profiles by the following

formula describing the grey reproduction (L*, a*, b*) with respect to a given paper colour (L* , a* ,

paper paper
b* ) and solid CMY inks overprint (L* ) for each L* in the range from L* to L* :
paper cmy paper cmy
 
aa**=× 10−×,*85 LL− */ LL**−
() ()
paper paper papercmy
 
 
bb**=× 10−×,*85 LL− */ LL**−
() ()
paper paper papercmy
 

NOTE 1 A single grey balance condition is usually not sufficient to ensure an achromatic colour for all print

substrates and printing inks that can be used with a given printing process. Therefore the grey balance has to

be determined for each printing condition separately based on a well defined grey reproduction. See Annex A for

more details.

NOTE 2 The grey balance of a given printing process can be used for process calibration and process control as

long as the tolerances for tone value increase and mid-tone spread as defined in Table 11 are not exceeded.

NOTE 3 The multiplying factor of 0,85 represents a visual adaptation of 85 % to the paper white.

4.3 Proof or production print
4.3.1 General

A printing condition for sheet-fed and web-fed offset printing shall be communicated by a print substrate

description, a colorant description, a screening description, an ink set and a printing sequence.

Standard printing conditions are shown in Table 1. For all printing conditions described in this part of

ISO 12647 the ink set shall be according to ISO 2846-1 and the printing sequence shall be Black – Cyan

– Magenta – Yellow.
4 © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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ISO 12647-2:2013(E)
Table 1 — Standard printing conditions for typical print substrates
Screening description
Print substrate Colorant descrip-
Printing Periodic screens Non-periodic screens
description tion
condition
(Table 2 and 3) (Table 5 and 6) TVI Frequency TVI Spot size
curve (cm ) curve (µm)
PC1 PS1 CD1 A 60 to 80 E 20(25)
PC2 PS2 CD2 B 48 to 70 E 25
PC3 PS3 CD3 B 48 to 60 E 30
PC4 PS4 CD4 B 48 to 60 E 30
PC5 PS5 CD5 C 52 to 70 E 30(35)
PC6 PS6 CD6 B 48 to 60 E 35
PC7 PS7 CD7 C 48 to 60 E 35
PC8 PS8 CD8 C 48 to 60 E 35

Additional printing conditions based on commonly used print substrates, different printing sequences

and different ink sets should follow the scheme described in this and the following clauses; they should be

established by defining combinations of print substrates and colorant descriptions (comparable to Tables

2 and 3 and Tables 5 and 6), screening descriptions and TVI curves (comparable to Table 9 and Figure 3).

Standard printing conditions are usually characterized by collecting (smoothing and averaging where

appropriate) colour measurement data from one or more printing presses that have been carefully set

up to a given printing condition. Such a collection of measurement data along with associated metadata

describing the characterized printing condition is known as a characterization data set. When such

characterization data are used to describe one of the printing conditions defined by this part of ISO 12647

the print substrate, colorant, screening, ink set and printing sequence for the printing condition from

which the characterization data was collected shall be clearly indicated.

NOTE 1 Colorimetric characterization data, as specified in ISO 12642-1 and ISO 12642-2, contain all the data

to be specified in accordance with 4.3.2.1, 4.3.2.3, and 4.3.4.1 of this part of ISO 12647.

NOTE 2 A characterization data set, or an ICC profile derived from it, is required when making proofs

according to ISO 12647-7. In practice this means that characterization data sets provide a convenient means for

the communication of standard printing conditions. Characterization data for standard printing conditions are

[1]
available from research or trade associations.

NOTE 3 Work separated for periodic screens can be printed using non-periodic screens where there is a moiré

problem on press. In some cases moiré might introduce tone contouring artefacts and colour shift deficiencies in

primary and secondary half-tones.

NOTE 4 Spot sizes for non-periodic screens in parenthesis are recommended for heat-set web offset printing.

4.3.2 Visual characteristics of image components
4.3.2.1 Print substrate colour

The print substrate used for press proof prints should be identical to that of the production print. If this

is not possible, the properties of the print substrate for press proof prints should be a close match to

those of the production print in terms of colour, CIE Whiteness, gloss, type of surface (coated, uncoated,

super-calandered, etc.) and mass-per-area.

Evaluate the match of the press proof print substrate and the production print substrate using the

attributes listed in Table 2 and 3. For digital proofing, the requirements defined in ISO 12647-7 apply.

Typical paper characteristics are defined, for information only, in Tables 2 and 3. In order to determine the

closest matching printing condition for a given paper type, compare the paper to be used for printing with

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 12647-2:2013(E)

the parameters in these tables and select the closest matching reference print substrate. This procedure

ensures an easy match of the associated colorant description and therefore the visual appearance.

Production paper comprising a coloration differing from the aim values pertaining to Tables 2 and

3 may not be described by established data characterizations. In this case, a dedicated substrate

description using the attributes shown in Tables 2 and 3, and an associated set of characterization data

is recommended.

Table 2 — CIELAB coordinates, mass-per-area, and CIE Whiteness for print substrates

(informative)
Paper type and surface
Characteristic
PS1 PS2 PS3 PS4
Standard glossy Standard matte
Type of surface Premium coated Improved coated
coated coated
Mass-per-area
80 to 250 (115) 51 to 80 (70) 48 to 70 (51) 51 to 65 (54)
g/m
CIE Whiteness 105 to 135 90 to105 60 to 90 75 to 90
Gloss 10 to 80 25 to 65 60 to 80 7 to 35
Coordinates Coordinates Coordinates Coordinates
Colour
L* a* b* L* a* b* L* a* b* L* a* b*
White backing 95 1 −4 93 0 −1 90 0 1 91 0 1
Black backing 93 1 −5 90 0 −2 87 0 0 88 0 −1
Tolerance ±3 ±2 ±4 ±3 ±2 ±2 ±3 ±2 ±2 ±3 ±2 ±2
Fluorescence moderate low low low

Values in brackets pertain to the respective colour coordinates given in this table.

Whiteness measurement is in accordance with ISO 11475, outdoor illumination conditions. Note that this single point

measurement value is (among other variables) based on D65 viewing conditions. D50 is the standard viewing condition used

when printing. Whiteness values should be used for guidance only.
Measurement is in accordance with ISO 8254-1, TAPPI method.

Measurement is in accordance with ISO 13655-D50 illuminant, 2° observer, 0:45 or 45:0 geometry. Measurements

should be made using M1.

Typical delta D65 Brightness UV/UV evaluated as per ISO 2470-2, and information as recommended in ISO 15397.

[8]

This indicates the sensitivity of a print to blue shift when compared with a proof under Standard light condition D50

according to ISO 3664. Usual limits for Fluorescence: faint (0–4), low (4–8), moderate (8–14), high (14–25).

NOTE 1 In terms of gloss and colour, the paper types listed in Tables 2 and 3 are representative for the range of

print substrates used for the processes covered in this part of ISO 12647.

NOTE 2 If the final product is subjected to surface finishing this could severely affect the print substrate

colour and gloss.
6 © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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ISO 12647-2:2013(E)

Table 3 — CIELAB coordinates, mass-per-area, and CIE Whiteness for print substrates

(informative)
Paper type and surface
Characteristic
PS5 PS6 PS7 PS8
Wood-free Super calendered
Type of surface Improved uncoated Standard uncoated
uncoated uncoated
Mass-per-area
70 to 250 (120) 38 to 60 (56) 40 to 56 (49) 40 to 52 (45)
g/m
CIE Whiteness 140 to 175 45 to 85 40 to 80 35 to 60
Gloss 5 to 15 30 to 55 10 to 35 5 to 10
Coordinates Coordinates Coordinates Coordinates
Colour
L* a* b* L* a* b* L* a* b* L* a* b*
White backing 95 1 −4 90 0 3 89 0 3 85 1 5
Black backing 92 1 −5 87 0 2 86 −1 2 82 0 3
Tolerance ±3 ±2 ±2 ±3 ±2 ±2 ±3 ±2 ±2 ±3 ±2 ±2
Fluorescence high low faint faint

Values in brackets pertain to the respective colour coordinates given in this table.

Whiteness measurement is in accordance with ISO 11475, outdoor illumination conditions. Note that this single point

measurement value is (among other variables) based on D65 viewing conditions. D50 is the standard viewing condition used

when printing. Whiteness values should be used for guidance only.
Measurement is in accordance with ISO 8254-1, TAPPI method.
Measurement is in accordance with ISO 13655-D
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 12647-2:2014
01-marec-2014
1DGRPHãþD
SIST ISO 12647-2:2005
SIST ISO 12647-2:2005/Dodatek 1:2010
*UDILþQDWHKQRORJLMD9RGHQMHSURFHVDL]GHODYHUDVWULUDQLKEDUYQLKL]YOHþNRY
SUHVNXVQLKLQSURL]YRGQLKRGWLVRYGHO3URFHVLYRIVHWQHPWLVNX

Graphic technology - Process control for the production of half-tone colour separations,

proof and production prints - Part 2: Offset lithographic processes

Technologie graphique - Maîtrise des procédés pour la fabrication des séparations de

couleur en ton tramé, des épreuves et des tirages en production - Partie 2: Procédés

lithographiques offset
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 12647-2:2013
ICS:
37.100.01 *UDILþQDWHKQRORJLMDQD Graphic technology in
VSORãQR general
SIST ISO 12647-2:2014 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 12647-2:2014
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SIST ISO 12647-2:2014
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 12647-2
Third edition
2013-12-15
Graphic technology — Process
control for the production of half-
tone colour separations, proof and
production prints —
Part 2:
Offset lithographic processes
Technologie graphique — Maîtrise des procédés pour la fabrication
des séparations de couleur en ton tramé, des épreuves et des tirages
en production —
Partie 2: Procédés lithographiques offset
Reference number
ISO 12647-2:2013(E)
ISO 2013
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SIST ISO 12647-2:2014
ISO 12647-2:2013(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2013

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 12647-2:2014
ISO 12647-2:2013(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Data files and printing formes ................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.3 Proof or production print .............................................................................................................................................................. 4

5 Measurement methods ...............................................................................................................................................................................18

5.1 Computation of densities, CIELAB colour coordinates and CIELAB colour differences .......18

5.2 Control strip ...........................................................................................................................................................................................18

Annex A (informative) Grey reproduction and grey balance ...................................................................................................19

Annex B (informative) Handling differences in paper colour .................................................................................................23

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................25

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST ISO 12647-2:2014
ISO 12647-2:2013(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information
The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 130, Graphic Technology.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition which has been extensively revised. The

revisions include the following:
a) deletion of film-based requirements;
b) changes in proof requirements;
c) changes in printing conditions;
d) changes in the colouration of the primary and secondary solids;
e) introduction of new tone value increase curves;
f) general clean up.

ISO 12647 consists of the following parts, under the general title Graphic technology — Process control

for the production of half-tone colour separations, proof and production prints:
— Part 1: Parameters and measurement methods
— Part 2: Offset lithographic processes
— Part 3: Coldset offset lithography on newsprint
— Part 4: Publication gravure printing
— Part 5: Screen printing
— Part 6: Flexographic printing
— Part 7: Proofing processes working directly from digital data
— Part 8: Validation print processes working directly from digital data
iv © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 12647-2:2014
ISO 12647-2:2013(E)
Introduction

This part of ISO 12647 lists values or sets of values of the primary process parameters specified in

ISO 12647-1 and related technical properties of a half-tone offset lithographic print. Primary parameters

constitute a general printing condition and are defined here as the substrate description, the colorant

description, the screening description, the tone value increase and the ink sequence. Since the printing

ink to be used in this International Standard is to conform to ISO 2846-1, it is in general not necessary

to name it as a primary process parameter.

Conformance to the specified values in proof and production printing ensures, in principle, a good visual

match between specimens produced. A visual and in part measurement-wise “proof-to-print match” is

essential for globally consistent printing and publishing workflows in general. A press proof print might

be necessary when using specific printing conditions that use different types of surface finishing.

As the printing and publishing world has accepted former editions of this International Standard, it has

struggled to implement the different paper types. The paper type specifications by means of tristimulus

values, originally defined as a guideline for press proof prints, have been wrongly interpreted as an

exclusive prerequisite for papers to be “in conformance with ISO 12647-2”. In addition, it has become

evident that the paper types defined by this International Standard reflect market papers poorly.

Therefore, some industry groups, while using the general principles of this International Standard, have

established additional printing conditions with different paper specifications.

When revising this International Standard a new paper categorization was established. This was

necessary since there is no agreed upon method to predict the printing behaviour based on colorimetric

readings of the unprinted print substrate. When the visual printing characteristics of typical printed

papers were analysed, different sets of colorant descriptions were identified. A closer look revealed

that these sets corresponded to the surface (CIE whiteness, gloss, and coating) and mass per area

characteristics (opacity).
A print is therefore in conformance with this International Standard when:

— the colorimetric aims of the process colours, defined by the general printing conditions and using

typical means of inking, are achievable;

— by agreement between all parties, an additional printing condition is established and aim values for

this printing condition are clearly communicated, for example by exchanging a characterization.

This International Standard addresses typical industrial printing under feasible economical constraints.

The tolerance values have therefore been chosen to provide a reasonable balance between customer

expectations (meaning small variations), technical production limits and production costs. Assuming

agreements between all parties concerned, tolerances might be tightened especially when primary or

secondary process parameters (e.g. paper) can be fixed in the planning stage.
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SIST ISO 12647-2:2014
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 12647-2:2013(E)
Graphic technology — Process control for the production of
half-tone colour separations, proof and production prints —
Part 2:
Offset lithographic processes
1 Scope

This part of ISO 12647 specifies a number of process parameters and their values to be applied when

producing colour separations, printing formes and print production for four-colour sheet-fed and web-

fed offset printing presses excluding coldset offset lithography on newsprint.

The parameters and values are chosen in view of the typical process covering the process stages “colour

separation”, “proof production”, “making of the printing forme”, “OK print” and “production printing” on

all kinds of commercially available production substrates.
This part of ISO 12647:

— is directly applicable to press proof prints and printing processes that use colour separation printing

formes as input;

— is applicable to press proof prints and printing processes with more than four process colours as

long as direct analogies to four-colour printing are maintained, such as for data and screening, for

print substrates and printing parameters;
— is applicable to printing on cardboard material for packaging;

— is applicable for all kinds of drying methods such as heat-set, infrared, and ultraviolet;

— provides references for quality assurance and quality management.

This part of ISO 12647 is not applicable to processes other than offset such as printing directly from

digital data where there is no intermediate image carrier, or where the image carrier can be refreshed

for each impression and thus each impression can be different in content.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document

and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 2846-1, Graphic technology — Colour and transparency of printing ink sets for four-colour printing —

Part 1: Sheet-fed and heat-set web offset lithographic printing

ISO 8254-1, Paper and board — Measurement of specular gloss — Part 1: 75 degree gloss with a converging

beam, TAPPI method

ISO 8254-2, Paper and board — Measurement of specular gloss — Part 2: 75 degree gloss with a parallel

beam, DIN method [alternative to ASTM D7163]

ISO/TS 10128, Graphic technology — Methods of adjustment of the colour reproduction of a printing system

to match a set of characterization data

ISO 11475, Paper and board — Determination of CIE whiteness, D65/10 degrees (outdoor daylight)

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST ISO 12647-2:2014
ISO 12647-2:2013(E)

ISO 12647-1, Graphic technology — Process control for the production of half-tone colour separations, proof

and production prints — Part 1: Parameters and measurement methods

ISO 12647-7, Graphic technology — Process control for the production of half-tone colour separations, proof

and production prints — Part 7: Proofing processes working directly from digital data

ISO 13655, Graphic technology — Spectral measurement and colorimetric computation for graphic arts images

ASTM D7163, Standard Test Method for Specular Gloss of Printed Matter [alternative to ISO 8254-2]

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 12647-1 and the following apply.

3.1
area coverage
ratio of the area covered with ink to the entire area in an ink zone
3.2
calibration
adjustment based on a comparison between a standard and a unit under test
3.3
characterization data

set of tone values and associated colorimetric values that fully describe a given printing process

3.4
tone value
〈printing forme〉 percentage of surface area that is covered by printing ink
4 Requirements
4.1 General

Digital data files delivered for printing should be accompanied by a digital proof print, a press proof

print, or an OK print from a previous print run.

NOTE Press proof prints are test prints of the data files on a printing press which may serve as a reference

for subsequent printing. While most proofs are digital proofs, for colour- or content-critical work there is a need

for press proof prints with the same setup as the production print.
4.2 Data files and printing formes
4.2.1 Data delivery

Data delivered for printing shall be in the colour formats CMYK or three-component and should be

[6][7]
exchanged using PDF/X data formats.

The intended printing condition shall be indicated. In case of PDF/X the mechanisms provided by the

specified data format shall be used. In case of other data formats a printing condition description, a

[3][4] [5]

characterization data set or an International Colour Consortium (ICC) output profile shall be

communicated.

If the data are other than CMYK, the data shall be defined by colorimetric descriptions using an ICC

profile or another mechanism and an ICC CMYK output profile shall be included. The rendering intent to

be used for each data element shall be communicated.

If the characterization data or ICC output profile provided conflicts with the printing conditions defined

in this part of ISO 12647 one of the methods defined in ISO/TS 10128 shall be used for data adjustment

2 © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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ISO 12647-2:2013(E)

prior to print production. The aims for process control should be taken from characterization data, if

agreed between all parties. Where this is done, densitometric tone values are not usually available and

colorimetric tone values should be used. Further information on the relationship between colorimetric

and densitometric tone values can be found in ISO/TS 10128.

NOTE 1 A printing condition is defined here as a print substrate description, a colorant description, a screening

description, an ink set and a printing sequence.

NOTE 2 Quality control of the content of a print job prior to final production checks is recommended since PDF/X

conformance does not necessarily ensure a suitable image resolution or other production dependent criteria.

NOTE 3 Additional spot colours are allowed but this part of ISO 12647 does not make provisions for tolerances.

4.2.2 Printing forme quality

The resolution of the plate setter should be selected to ensure that at least 150 tone value steps are reproduced.

EXAMPLE If, for a screen employing single half-tone cell modulation, the intended nominal screen ruling

−1 −1

is 80 cm , the resolution of the plate setter should not be less than 1 000 cm . For a screen with super-cell

technology, it is possible to set the resolution to a smaller value.
4.2.3 Screen frequency (periodic screens)

For four-colour work, the screen frequency (screen ruling) for periodic screens should be within the

−1 −1
range from 48 cm to 80 cm .
Preferred nominal screen frequencies are:
−1 −1
a) 48 cm to 80 cm for coated paper; and
−1 −1
b) 48 cm to 70 cm for uncoated paper.
−1 −1

NOTE 1 Outside of the range 48 cm to 80 cm , the general principles specified in ISO 12647-1 remain valid

but specific values might differ.

NOTE 2 The screen frequency is often varied slightly from one process colour to another in order to minimize

moiré patterns. For example, there might be a difference of up to 6 % of the nominal screen frequency between

the colours C, M, Y.

NOTE 3 For the black or yellow colour half-tone, a screen frequency is sometimes used which is substantially

−1 −1

finer than the nominal screen ruling of the remaining colours, for example, 84 cm versus 60 cm .

NOTE 4 Screen frequencies are often required or given in lpi (lines per inch). To convert between screens

per cm and lines per inch a conversion factor of 2,54 should be used.

EXAMPLE The requirement 4.2.3 given in lpi will read as follows (rounded to commonly used integral

numbers): for four-colour work, the screen frequency (screen ruling) for periodic screens should be within the

range from 120 lpi to 200 lpi. Preferred nominal screen frequencies are a) 120 lpi to 200 lpi for coated paper; and

b) 120 lpi to 175 lpi for uncoated paper.
4.2.4 Dot size (non-periodic screens)

For four-colour work, the screen dot size for non-periodic screens should be within the range 20 µm to 40 µm.

Preferred nominal screen dot sizes are:
a) 20 µm to 30 µm for coated paper; and
b) 30 µm to 40 µm for uncoated paper.

NOTE Outside of the range 20 µm to 40 µm, the general principles specified in ISO 12647-1 remain valid but

specific values might differ.
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4.2.5 Screen angle (periodic screens)

For half-tone dots without a principal axis, the nominal difference between the screen angles for cyan,

magenta and black should be 30°, with the screen angle of yellow separated at 15° from another colour.

The screen angle of the dominant colour should be 45°.

For half-tone dots with a principal axis, the nominal difference between screen angles for cyan, magenta

and black should be 60°, with the screen angle of yellow separated by 15° from another colour. The

screen angle of the dominant colour should be 45° or 135°.
4.2.6 Dot shape and its relationship to tone value (periodic screens)

For periodic screens, circular, square or elliptical half-tone dot shapes should be used. For half-tone dots

with a principal axis, the first link-up should occur no lower than at 40 % tone value and the second link-

up no higher than at 60 % tone value.
4.2.7 Tone value sum

The tone value sum for coated print substrates should be less than 330 % but shall not exceed 350% for

sheet-fed and should be less than but shall not exceed 300% for heat-set web printing. The tone value

sum for other print substrates should be less than but shall not exceed 300 % for sheet-fed and 270 %

for heat-set web printing.

NOTE Press problems might be encountered at high levels of tone value sum. There might be poor ink

trapping, back transfer and set-off due to insufficient ink drying.
4.2.8 Grey reproduction and grey balance

The tone values of cyan, magenta and yellow that lead to a visually neutral grey should be calculated from

the standard printing condition or actual printing condition or the associated profiles by the following

formula describing the grey reproduction (L*, a*, b*) with respect to a given paper colour (L* , a* ,

paper paper
b* ) and solid CMY inks overprint (L* ) for each L* in the range from L* to L* :
paper cmy paper cmy
 
aa**=× 10−×,*85 LL− */ LL**−
() ()
paper paper papercmy
 
 
bb**=× 10−×,*85 LL− */ LL**−
() ()
paper paper papercmy
 

NOTE 1 A single grey balance condition is usually not sufficient to ensure an achromatic colour for all print

substrates and printing inks that can be used with a given printing process. Therefore the grey balance has to

be determined for each printing condition separately based on a well defined grey reproduction. See Annex A for

more details.

NOTE 2 The grey balance of a given printing process can be used for process calibration and process control as

long as the tolerances for tone value increase and mid-tone spread as defined in Table 11 are not exceeded.

NOTE 3 The multiplying factor of 0,85 represents a visual adaptation of 85 % to the paper white.

4.3 Proof or production print
4.3.1 General

A printing condition for sheet-fed and web-fed offset printing shall be communicated by a print substrate

description, a colorant description, a screening description, an ink set and a printing sequence.

Standard printing conditions are shown in Table 1. For all printing conditions described in this part of

ISO 12647 the ink set shall be according to ISO 2846-1 and the printing sequence shall be Black – Cyan

– Magenta – Yellow.
4 © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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ISO 12647-2:2013(E)
Table 1 — Standard printing conditions for typical print substrates
Screening description
Print substrate Colorant descrip-
Printing Periodic screens Non-periodic screens
description tion
condition
(Table 2 and 3) (Table 5 and 6) TVI Frequency TVI Spot size
curve (cm ) curve (µm)
PC1 PS1 CD1 A 60 to 80 E 20(25)
PC2 PS2 CD2 B 48 to 70 E 25
PC3 PS3 CD3 B 48 to 60 E 30
PC4 PS4 CD4 B 48 to 60 E 30
PC5 PS5 CD5 C 52 to 70 E 30(35)
PC6 PS6 CD6 B 48 to 60 E 35
PC7 PS7 CD7 C 48 to 60 E 35
PC8 PS8 CD8 C 48 to 60 E 35

Additional printing conditions based on commonly used print substrates, different printing sequences

and different ink sets should follow the scheme described in this and the following clauses; they should be

established by defining combinations of print substrates and colorant descriptions (comparable to Tables

2 and 3 and Tables 5 and 6), screening descriptions and TVI curves (comparable to Table 9 and Figure 3).

Standard printing conditions are usually characterized by collecting (smoothing and averaging where

appropriate) colour measurement data from one or more printing presses that have been carefully set

up to a given printing condition. Such a collection of measurement data along with associated metadata

describing the characterized printing condition is known as a characterization data set. When such

characterization data are used to describe one of the printing conditions defined by this part of ISO 12647

the print substrate, colorant, screening, ink set and printing sequence for the printing condition from

which the characterization data was collected shall be clearly indicated.

NOTE 1 Colorimetric characterization data, as specified in ISO 12642-1 and ISO 12642-2, contain all the data

to be specified in accordance with 4.3.2.1, 4.3.2.3, and 4.3.4.1 of this part of ISO 12647.

NOTE 2 A characterization data set, or an ICC profile derived from it, is required when making proofs

according to ISO 12647-7. In practice this means that characterization data sets provide a convenient means for

the communication of standard printing conditions. Characterization data for standard printing conditions are

[1]
available from research or trade associations.

NOTE 3 Work separated for periodic screens can be printed using non-periodic screens where there is a moiré

problem on press. In some cases moiré might introduce tone contouring artefacts and colour shift deficiencies in

primary and secondary half-tones.

NOTE 4 Spot sizes for non-periodic screens in parenthesis are recommended for heat-set web offset printing.

4.3.2 Visual characteristics of image components
4.3.2.1 Print substrate colour

The print substrate used for press proof prints should be identical to that of the production print. If this

is not possible, the properties of the print substrate for press proof prints should be a close match to

those of the production print in terms of colour, CIE Whiteness, gloss, type of surface (coated, uncoated,

super-calandered, etc.) and mass-per-area.

Evaluate the match of the press proof print substrate and the production print substrate using the

attributes listed in Table 2 and 3. For digital proofing, the requirements defined in ISO 12647-7 apply.

Typical paper characteristics are defined, for information only, in Tables 2 and 3. In order to determine the

closest matching printing condition for a given paper type, compare the paper to be used for printing with

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ISO 12647-2:2013(E)

the parameters in these tables and select the closest matching reference print substrate. This procedure

ensures an easy match of the associated colorant description and therefore the visual appearance.

Production paper comprising a coloration differing from the aim values pertaining to Tables 2 and

3 may not be described by established data characterizations. In this case, a dedicated substrate

description using the attributes shown in Tables 2 and 3, and an associated set of characterization data

is recommended.

Table 2 — CIELAB coordinates, mass-per-area, and CIE Whiteness for print substrates

(informative)
Paper type and surface
Characteristic
PS1 PS2 PS3 PS4
Standard glossy Standard matte
Type of surface Premium coated Improved coated
coated coated
Mass-per-area
80 to 250 (115) 51 to 80 (70) 48 to 70 (51) 51 to 65 (54)
g/m
CIE Whiteness 105 to 135 90 to105 60 to 90 75 to 90
Gloss 10 to 80 25 to 65 60 to 80 7 to 35
Coordinates Coordinates Coordinates Coordinates
Colour
L* a* b* L* a* b* L* a* b* L* a* b*
White backing 95 1 −4 93 0 −1 90 0 1 91 0 1
Black backing 93 1 −5 90 0 −2 87 0 0 88 0 −1
Tolerance ±3 ±2 ±4 ±3 ±2 ±2 ±3 ±2 ±2 ±3 ±2 ±2
Fluorescence moderate low low low

Values in brackets pertain to the respective colour coordinates given in this table.

Whiteness measurement is in accordance with ISO 11475, outdoor illumination conditions. Note that this single point

measurement value is (among other variables) based on D65 viewing conditions. D50 is the standard viewing condition used

when printing. Whiteness values should be used for guidance only.
Measurement is in accordance with ISO 8254-1, TAPPI method.

Measurement is in accordance with ISO 13655-D50 illuminant, 2° observer, 0:45 or 45:0 geometry. Measurements

should be made using M1.

Typical delta D65 Brightness UV/UV evaluated as per ISO 2470-2, and information as recommended in ISO 15397.

[8]

This indicates the sensitivity of a print to blue shift when compared with a proof under Standard light condition D50

according to ISO 3664. Usual limits for Fluorescence: faint (0–4), low (4–8), moderate (8–14), high (14–25).

NOTE 1 In terms of gloss and colour, the paper types listed in Tables 2 and 3 are representative for the range of

print substrates used for the processes covered in this part of ISO 12647.
NOTE 2 If the final product is subjected to surface finishing t
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 12647-2
Troisième édition
2013-12-15
Technologie graphique — Maîtrise
des procédés pour la fabrication
des séparations de couleur en ton
tramé, des épreuves et des tirages en
production —
Partie 2:
Procédés lithographiques offset
Graphic technology — Process control for the production of half-tone
colour separations, proof and production prints —
Part 2: Offset lithographic processes
Numéro de référence
ISO 12647-2:2013(F)
ISO 2013
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 12647-2:2013(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
© ISO 2013

Droits de reproduction réservés. Sauf indication contraire, aucune partie de cette publication ne peut être reproduite ni utilisée

sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique, y compris la photocopie, l’affichage sur

l’internet ou sur un Intranet, sans autorisation écrite préalable. Les demandes d’autorisation peuvent être adressées à l’ISO à

l’adresse ci-après ou au comité membre de l’ISO dans le pays du demandeur.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Version française parue en 2014
Publié en Suisse
ii © ISO 2013 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 12647-2:2013(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Domaine d’application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Termes et définitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Exigences ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 Généralités .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

4.2 Fichiers de données et formes d’impression ................................................................................................................ 3

4.3 Épreuve ou tirage de production ............................................................................................................................................. 5

5 Méthodes de mesure .....................................................................................................................................................................................19

5.1 Calcul des densités, des coordonnées de couleurs CIELAB et des différences de

couleurs CIELAB .................................................................................................................................................................................19

5.2 Barre de contrôle ...............................................................................................................................................................................19

Annexe A (informative) Reproduction du gris et balance de gris ........................................................................................20

Annexe B (informative) Traitement des différences de couleurs de papier ............................................................24

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................26

© ISO 2013 – Tous droits réservés iii
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ISO 12647-2:2013(F)
Avant-propos

L’ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d’organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l’ISO). L’élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l’ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l’ISO participent également aux travaux.

L’ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (CEI) en ce qui concerne

la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/CEI, Partie 1. Il convient en particulier de prendre note des différents

critères d’approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a été

rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/CEI, Partie 2, (voir www.

iso.org/directives).

L’attention est appelée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l’objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L’ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant les

références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de l’élaboration

du document sont indiqués dans l’Introduction et/ou sur la liste ISO des déclarations de brevets reçues

(voir www.iso.org/patents).

Les éventuelles appellations commerciales utilisées dans le présent document sont données pour

information à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne constituent pas une approbation ou une recommandation.

Pour une explication de la signification des termes et expressions spécifiques de l’ISO liés à l’évaluation

de la conformité, aussi bien que pour des informations au sujet de l’adhésion de l’ISO aux principes de

l’OMC concernant les obstacles techniques au commerce (OTC) voir le lien suivant: Avant-propos —

Informations supplémentaires.

Le comité responsable pour le présent document est l’ISO/TC 130, Technologie graphique.

Cette troisième édition annule et remplace la deuxième édition qui a fait l’objet d’une révision approfondie.

Les révisions incluent ce qui suit:
a) suppression des exigences liées aux films;
b) changements d’exigences applicables aux épreuves;
c) changements de conditions d’impression;
d) changements dans la coloration des aplats primaires et secondaires;
e) introduction de nouvelles courbes d’augmentation de valeur tonale;
f) toilettage général.

La norme ISO 12647 comprend les parties suivantes, regroupées sous le titre général Technologie

graphique — Contrôle des processus de confection de sélections couleurs tramées, d’épreuves et de tirages:

— Partie 1: Paramètres et méthodes de mesure
— Partie 2: Procédés lithographiques offset
— Partie 3: Impression offset sans sécheur sur papier journal
— Partie 4: Processus de gravure
— Partie 5: Sérigraphie
— Partie 6: Processus flexographique
iv © ISO 2013 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 12647-2:2013(F)

— Partie 7: Processus d’épreuve travaillant directement à partir de données numériques

— Partie 8: Processus d’impression de maquette couleur produite à partir de données numériques

© ISO 2013 – Tous droits réservés v
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ISO 12647-2:2013(F)
Introduction

La présente partie de l’ISO 12647 liste les valeurs ou l’ensemble des valeurs des paramètres primaires

liés au procédé spécifiés dans l’ISO 12647-1 ainsi que les propriétés techniques associées à la réalisation

d’une impression lithographique offset tramée. La définition de l’ensemble des paramètres primaires

constitue ce que l’on appelle une condition d’impression générale. Cette condition d’impression générale

est définie ici comme: la description du support d’impression, la description des colorants, la description

du tramage, l’augmentation de valeur tonale et la séquence d’impression. Dans la mesure où la série

d’encre d’impression à utiliser selon la présente Norme internationale est conforme à l’ISO 2846-1,

il n’est généralement pas nécessaire de la nommer en tant que paramètre primaire de définition du

procédé d’impression.

La conformité par rapport aux valeurs spécifiées dans la présente norme pour les épreuves et le

tirage imprimé assure, en principe, une bonne correspondance visuelle entre les deux. Une bonne

«correspondance entre épreuve et tirage», contrôlée visuellement et pour partie par la mesure, est

essentielle pour obtenir une cohérence générale tout au long du flux d’impression et tout au long de la

chaîne graphique de façon plus générale. Il peut être parfois nécessaire de réaliser une épreuve BAT

sur la presse en cas d’utilisation d’une condition d’impression spécifique faisant appel à des supports

présentant une finition de surface différente de celle des papiers décrits dans la présente norme.

Bien que le monde de l’imprimerie et de l’édition ait depuis longtemps déjà adopté les précédentes

éditions de la présente Norme internationale, il a rencontré beaucoup de difficultés pour intégrer

les différents types de papier qui y étaient décrits. Les spécifications de type de papier au moyen de

valeurs trichromatiques, définies à l’origine comme lignes directrices pour la création des épreuves BAT

sur la presse, ont été perçues à tort comme des paramètres normatifs exigeant l’utilisation exclusive

de papiers «en conformité avec l’ISO 12647-2». De plus, il est apparu évident que les types de papier

définis par la présente Norme internationale ne reflètent pas suffisamment bien les différents types de

papier présents sur le marché. Par conséquent, quelques groupements d’industriels, tout en utilisant

les principes généraux de la présente Norme internationale, ont défini des conditions d’impression

supplémentaires, reposant sur des spécifications de papiers différentes.

Lors de la révision de la présente Norme internationale, une nouvelle catégorisation des types de papier

a été établie. Cette démarche s’est révélée nécessaire car il n’existe pas à ce jour de méthode faisant

l’unanimité pour anticiper sur le comportement d’un support en impression en se basant uniquement sur

la mesure colorimétrique du support d’impression vierge. Après analyse des caractéristiques visuelles

d’impression des papiers imprimés typiques les plus couramment utilisés, différents ensembles de

valeurs ont pu être mis en relation avec les propriétés de surface (degré de blancheur CIE, brillant et

couchage) et de grammage (opacité du support).

Par conséquent, une impression est conforme à la présente Norme internationale si:

— les objectifs colorimétriques des couleurs primaires, définis par les conditions générales d’impression

et faisant appel à des moyens d’encrage typiques, sont atteignables;

— sous réserve d’un accord préalable entre toutes les parties, une condition d’impression

supplémentaire peut être établie et les valeurs cibles associées clairement communiquées, par

exemple en échangeant un fichier de données de caractérisation.

La présente Norme internationale s’adresse typiquement à l’imprimerie industrielle conventionnelle

sous réserve de contraintes économiques acceptables. Par conséquent, les valeurs des tolérances ont été

choisies de manière à offrir un équilibre raisonnable entre les attentes du client (c’est-à-dire de faibles

variations), les limites de la production technique et les coûts de production. En supposant l’existence

d’accords conclus entre toutes les parties impliquées, les tolérances peuvent être resserrées, notamment

lorsque les paramètres de procédés de production primaires ou secondaires (par exemple, le papier)

peuvent être anticipés dès l’étape de planification.
vi © ISO 2013 – Tous droits réservés
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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 12647-2:2013(F)
Technologie graphique — Maîtrise des procédés pour la
fabrication des séparations de couleur en ton tramé, des
épreuves et des tirages en production —
Partie 2:
Procédés lithographiques offset
1 Domaine d’application

Cette partie de l’ISO 12647 spécifie un certain nombre de paramètres liés au procédé d’impression et

les valeurs cibles applicables pour la séparation couleurs, la préparation de la forme d’impression et la

réalisation de tirages de production en quadrichromie imprimés sur des presses offset en feuilles ou

rotatives, à l’exception de l’impression offset sans sécheur sur papier journal.

Les paramètres et valeurs choisis permettent de définir les étapes typiques du procédé d’impression:

«séparation couleurs», «production d’une épreuve», «fabrication de la forme d’impression», «BAT»,

«tirage imprimé» sur tous types de supports de production disponibles sur le marché.

La présente partie de l’ISO 12647:

— s’applique directement aux épreuves BAT réalisées sur presse et aux procédés d’impression utilisant

des formes d’impression séparées colorimétriquement en entrée;

— s’applique aux épreuves BAT sur presse et aux procédés d’impression comptant plus de quatre

couleurs primaires, du moment que certaines analogies directes avec l’impression en quadrichromie,

telles que les données numériques et le tramage, les supports et paramètres d’impression, sont

conservées;
— s’applique à l’impression sur carton pour le marché de l’emballage;

— s’applique à toutes sortes de méthodes de séchage telles que l’air chaud, l’infrarouge et l’ultraviolet;

— donne des références pour la mise en place d’une démarche de contrôle et de management de la

qualité.

Cette partie de l’ISO 12647 ne s’applique pas aux procédés d’impression autres que l’offset, tels que

l’impression directe à partir de données numériques sans forme imprimante intermédiaire, ou lorsque la

forme imprimante peut être mise à jour à chaque impression et que, par conséquent, chaque impression

peut présenter un contenu différent.
2 Références normatives

Les documents référencés ci-après, dans leur intégralité ou non, sont des références normatives

indispensables à l’application du présent document. Pour les références datées, seule l’édition citée

s’applique. Pour les références non datées, la dernière édition du document de référence s’applique (y

compris les éventuels amendements).

ISO 2846-1, Technologie graphique — Couleur et transparence des gammes d’encre d’impression en

quadrichromie — Partie 1: Impression lithographique offset sur feuilles et à chaud.

ISO 8254-1, Papiers et cartons — Mesurage du brillant spéculaire — Partie 1: Brillant à 75 degrés avec un

faisceau convergent, méthode TAPPI.
© ISO 2013 – Tous droits réservés 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 12647-2:2013(F)

ISO 8254-2, Papiers et cartons — Mesurage du brillant spéculaire — Partie 2: Brillant à 75 degrés avec un

faisceau parallèle, méthode DIN

ISO/TS 10128, Technologie graphique — Méthodes d’ajustage de la reproduction de couleurs d’un système

d’impression pour correspondre à un ensemble de données de caractérisation.

ISO 11475, Papier et carton — Détermination du degré de blanc CIE, D65/10 degrés (lumière du jour

extérieure).

ISO 12647-1, Technologie graphique — Maîtrise de procédé pour la production des séparations de couleur

en ton tramé, des épreuves et des tirages en production — Partie 1: Paramètres et méthodes de mesure.

ISO 12647-7, Technologie graphique — Contrôle des processus de confection de sélections couleurs tramées,

d’épreuves et de tirages — Partie 7: Processus d’épreuve travaillant directement à partir de données

numériques.

ISO 13655, Technologie graphique — Mesurage spectral et calcul colorimétrique relatifs aux images dans

les arts graphiques.

ASTM D7163, Standard Test Method for Specular Gloss of Printed Matter [variante de la norme ISO 8254-2].

3 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions donnés dans l’ISO 12647-1 ainsi que les

suivants s’appliquent.
3.1
taux d’encrage
ratio de la surface encrée par rapport à la surface totale imprimable
3.2
étalonnage
réglage basé sur une comparaison entre une référence et une mesure de test
3.3
données de caractérisation

ensemble des valeurs tonales et des valeurs colorimétriques associées décrivant entièrement un procédé

d’impression donné
3.4
valeur tonale
pourcentage 〈sur la forme d’impression〉 de surface recouverte par de l’encre
4 Exigences
4.1 Généralités

Il est recommandé que les fichiers de données numériques d’impression soient accompagnés d’une

épreuve numérique, d’une épreuve BAT sur presse ou d’un exemplaire BAT conforme issu d’un tirage

d’impression précédent.

NOTE Les exemplaires BAT sur presse sont des impressions de référence et de test des fichiers numériques

réalisés sur une presse de production et pouvant servir de référence pour une impression ultérieure. Bien que la

plupart des épreuves soient numériques, pour les travaux sensibles au plan de la couleur ou du contenu imprimé,

il existe toujours un besoin pour des épreuves BAT sur presse qui présentent l’avantage d’être réalisées avec les

mêmes réglages que la production finale.
2 © ISO 2013 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 12647-2:2013(F)
4.2 Fichiers de données et formes d’impression
4.2.1 Fourniture des données

Les données destinées à l’impression doivent être fournies aux formats couleurs CMJN ou à trois

[6][7]

composantes et il est recommandé qu’elles soient échangées à l’aide de formats de données PDF/X .

Le rendu d’impression attendu doit être indiqué. Dans le cas des fichiers PDF/X, les mécanismes associés

à ce format de données doivent être utilisés. Dans le cas d’autres formats de fichier, une description

[3][4]

des conditions d’impression, des données de caractérisation ou un profil couleurs de sortie issu du

[5]
Comité international de la couleur (ICC) doivent être communiqués.

Si les données numériques sont autres que CMJN, elles doivent être définies colorimétriquement à l’aide

d’un profil ICC ou de tout autre mécanisme et, de plus, le profil ICC de sortie CMJN doit être inclus au

fichier. L’intention de rendu à utiliser pour chaque élément composant le fichier numérique doit être

communiquée.

Si les données de caractérisation ou le profil de sortie ICC fourni sont en contradiction avec les conditions

définies dans cette partie de l’ISO 12647, l’une des méthodes définies par l’ISO/TS 10128 doit être utilisée

pour ajuster les données avant l’impression. Il est recommandé d’extraire les cibles de contrôle du

procédé d’impression à partir des données de caractérisation, sous réserve qu’il s’agisse d’un commun

accord entre les différentes parties impliquées. Dans ce cas, les valeurs tonales densitométriques ne

sont généralement pas disponibles et il convient d’utiliser les valeurs tonales colorimétriques. De plus

amples informations sur la relation entre les valeurs tonales colorimétriques et densitométriques sont

disponibles dans l’ISO/TS 10128.

NOTE 1 Une condition d’impression est définie ici comme l’ensemble de données incluant la description du

support d’impression, la description des colorants, la description du tramage, la gamme d’encre et la séquence

d’impression.

NOTE 2 Il est recommandé d’effectuer un contrôle qualité des données numériques avant la production finale

car la conformité du fichier selon le standard PDF/X n’assure pas nécessairement, par exemple, une résolution

d’image convenable ou d’autres critères dépendants directement de la production.

NOTE 3 L’utilisation de teintes directes supplémentaires est permise mais cette partie de l’ISO 12647 ne

prévoit pas de tolérances pour ces teintes.
4.2.2 Qualité de la forme d’impression

Il convient que la résolution de l’imageuse film soit sélectionnée pour assurer qu’au moins 150 pas de

valeur tonale soient reproduits.

EXEMPLE Si, pour une trame employant une modulation simple d’amplitude du point de trame, le tramage

−1 −1

nominal attendu est de 80 cm , il convient que la résolution de l’imageuse film ne soit pas inférieure à 1 000 cm .

Pour une trame faisant appel à une technologie plus évoluée, il est possible de choisir une résolution plus faible.

4.2.3 Fréquence de trame (trames périodiques)

Pour un travail en quadrichromie, il convient que la fréquence de trame (tramage) pour les trames

−1 −1
périodiques soit comprise dans la plage de valeur allant de 48 cm à 80 cm .
Les fréquences de trame nominales à privilégier sont les suivantes:
−1 −1
a) 48 cm à 80 cm pour papier couché;
−1 −1
b) 48 cm à 70 cm pour papier non couché.
−1 −1

NOTE 1 En dehors de la plage de valeur allant de 48 cm à 80 cm , les principes généraux spécifiés dans

l’ISO 12647-1 restent valides mais certaines valeurs spécifiques peuvent être différentes.

© ISO 2013 – Tous droits réservés 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 12647-2:2013(F)

NOTE 2 La fréquence de trame varie souvent légèrement d’une couleur primaire à l’autre afin de réduire les

moirages. Par exemple, il peut y avoir une différence de 6 % de fréquence de trame nominale entre les couleurs C,

M et J.

NOTE 3 Pour les demi-tons des canaux noir ou jaune, il est parfois fait appel à une fréquence de trame

significativement plus fine que le tramage nominal des autres couleurs, par exemple 84 cm par rapport à

60 cm .

NOTE 4 Les fréquences de trame sont souvent demandées ou exprimées en lpi (lignes par pouce). Pour effectuer

la conversion entre une linéature de trame exprimée en «lignes par pouce» et son équivalent exprimé en «trames

par cm», il convient d’utiliser un facteur multiplicatif égal à 2,54.

EXEMPLE L’exigence 4.2.3 exprimée en lpi est exprimée comme suit (généralement arrondie à l’entier): pour

un travail en quadrichromie, il convient que la fréquence de trame (tramage) pour les trames périodiques soit

comprise dans la plage de valeur allant de 120 lpi à 200 lpi. Les fréquences de trame nominales à privilégier sont

a) 120 lpi à 200 lpi pour le papier couché; et b) 120 lpi à 175 lpi pour le papier non couché.

4.2.4 Taille de point (trames non périodiques)

Pour un travail en quadrichromie, il convient que la taille de point de trame pour les trames non

périodiques soit comprise dans la plage de valeur allant de 20 µm à 40 µm.
Les tailles de point de trame nominales à privilégier sont les suivantes:
a) 20 µm à 30 µm pour le papier couché; et
b) 30 µm à 40 µm pour le papier non couché.

NOTE En dehors de la plage de valeur allant de 20 µm à 40 µm, les principes généraux spécifiés dans

l’ISO 12647-1 restent valides mais certaines valeurs spécifiques peuvent être différentes.

4.2.5 Angle de trame (trames périodiques)

Pour les points de trame sans axe principal, il convient que la différence nominale entre les angles de

trame pour cyan, magenta et noir soit de 30°, l’angle de trame du jaune étant séparé de 15° de toutes les

autres couleurs. Il est recommandé que l’angle de trame de la couleur dominante soit de 45°.

Pour les points de trame avec axe principal, il convient que la différence nominale entre les angles de

trame pour cyan, magenta et noir soit de 60°, l’angle de trame du jaune étant séparé de 15° de toutes les

autres couleurs. Il est recommandé que l’angle de trame de la couleur dominante soit de 45° ou de 135°.

4.2.6 Forme de point et relation avec la valeur tonale (trames périodiques)

Pour les trames périodiques, il convient d’utiliser des formes de points de trame circulaires, carrées ou

elliptiques. Pour les points de trame avec axe principal, il convient que le premier lien de contact des

points ne se produise pas à une valeur inférieure à 40 % de valeur tonale et que le deuxième lien de

contact ne se produise pas à une valeur supérieure à 60 % de valeur tonale.
4.2.7 Taux d’encrage total

Pour les presses à feuilles, il convient que le taux d’encrage total sur les supports d’impression couchés

soit inférieur à 330 % et il ne doit pas dépasser 350 %. Pour les presses rotatives avec sécheur, il convient

qu’il soit inférieur, et il doit être inférieur à 300 %. Pour tous les autres supports d’impression, il convient

que le taux d’encrage total soit inférieur à 300 %; dans le cas des presses à feuilles, ce taux d’encrage

maximal ne doit pas dépasser 300 % et dans le cas des presses rotatives avec sécheur, il ne doit pas

dépasser 270 %.

NOTE Des problèmes peuvent être rencontrés sur les presses lorsque le taux d’encrage total est trop

important. En effet, le transfert de l’encre sur le support peut être détérioré et des problèmes de report d’encre et

de maculage peuvent apparaître en raison d’un séchage insuffisant de l’encre.
4 © ISO 2013 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 12647-2:2013(F)
4.2.8 Reproduction du gris et balance de gris

Il convient que les valeurs tonales de cyan, magenta et jaune conduisant à un gris visuellement neutre

soient calculées à partir des conditions d’impression de référence, des conditions d’impression réelles

ou des profils associés au moyen de la formule suivante décrivant la reproduction du gris (L*, a*, b*)

pour une couleur de papier donnée (L* , a* , b* ) et de la surimpression unie en encres CMJ

papier papier papier
(L* ) pour chaque valeur de L* dans la plage de valeur allant de L* à L* :
cmj papier cmj
 
aa**=× 10−×,*85 LL− */ LL**−
() ()
paper paper papercmy
 
 
bb**=× 10−×,*85 LL− */ LL**−
() ()
paper paper papercmy
 

NOTE 1 Une exigence unique sur la balance de gris ne suffit généralement pas à assurer une couleur

achromatique pour tous les supports d’impression et toutes les encres d’impression susceptibles d’être utilisées

sur un procédé d’impression donné. Par conséquent, la balance de gris doit être déterminée séparément pour

chaque condition d’impression, sur la base d’une reproduction du gris bien définie. Voir l’Annexe A pour plus de

détails.

NOTE 2 La balance de gris d’un procédé d’impression donné peut servir à l’étalonnage et au contrôle du procédé

en production dans la mesure où les tolérances sur l’augmentation de valeur tonale et l’amplitude de dispersion

des élargissements telles que définies au Tableau 11 ne sont pas dépassées.

NOTE 3 Le facteur multiplicatif de 0,85 représente une adaptation visuelle de 85 % par rapport à la couleur du

blanc papier.
4.3 Épreuve ou tirage de production
4.3.1 Généralités

Les conditions d’impression pour les presses offset à feuilles et rotatives doivent être communiquées de

façon à décrire le support d’impression, les colorants, le tramage, une gamme d’encres et une séquence

d’impression.

Les conditions d’impression standards sont définies dans le Tableau 1. Pour toutes les conditions

d’impression décrites dans cette partie de l’ISO 12647, la gamme d’encres utilisée doit être conforme à

l’ISO 2846-1 et la séquence d’impression doit être Noir – Cyan – Magenta – Jaune.

Tableau 1 — Conditions d’impression standards pour supports d’impression normaux
Description du tramage
Trames non pério-
Description du Description Trames périodiques
Condition diques
support d’impression des colorants
d’impression
(Tableaux 2 et 3) (Tableaux 5 et 6) Taille de
Courbe Fréquence Courbe
point
TVI (cm ) TVI
(µm)
PC1 PS1 CD1 A 60 à 80 E 20(25)
PC2 PS2 CD2 B 48 à 70 E 25
PC3 PS3 CD3 B 48 à 60 E 30
PC4 PS4 CD4 B 48 à 60 E 30
PC5 PS5 CD5 C 52 à 70 E 30(35)
PC6 PS6 CD6 B 48 à 60 E 35
PC7 PS7 CD7 C 48 à 60 E 35
PC8 PS8 CD8 C 48 à 60 E 35
© ISO 2013 – Tous droits réservés 5
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 12647-2:2013(F)

Pour les autres conditions d’impression, basées sur des supports d’impression communément utilisés,

différentes séquences d’impression et différentes gammes d’encres, il convient de suivre le schéma

décrit ci-après. Il convient que ces conditions d’impression soient définies au moyen de combinaisons de

supports d’impression et de descriptions de colorants (comparables aux Tableaux 2 et 3 et aux Tableaux

5 et 6), de descriptions de tramage et de courbes d’augmentation de la valeur tonale (comparables au

Tableau 9 et à la Figure 3).

Des conditions d’impression standards sont généralement caractérisées par la collecte (avec lissage et

calcul de la moyenne, le cas échéant) de données de mesure de couleur issues d’une ou de plusieurs

presses d’impression ayant été réglées soigneusement pour répondre à une condition d’impression

donnée. L’ensemble de ces données de mesure accompagnées de métadonnées décrivant la condition

d’impression caractérisée est désigné sous l’appellation de données de caractérisation. Lorsque de telles

données de caractérisation sont utilisées pour décrire l’une des conditions d’impression définies par

cette partie de l’ISO 12647, le support d’impression, le colorant, le tramage, la gamme d’encres et la

séquence d’impression pour la condition d’impression, à partir de laquelle les données de caractérisation

ont été collectées, doivent être indiqués clairement.

NOTE 1 Les données de caractérisation colorimétrique spécifiées dans l’ISO 12642-1 et l’ISO 12642-2

contiennent toutes les données né
...

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